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ENERGY AND ITS TRANSFORMATION ENERGY Energy can be defined is the ability of corps to do work.

Energy cannot be destroyed or created, it can only be transformed from one type to another. TYPES ENERGY. UNIT (SI) There are different forms of energy : Electrical, , Kinetic, Light, Heat, Sound, hemical etc. Energy is measured in !oules " S# unity$. %nother unit is the calorie. & cal ' (.&)( ! &+ ' ,,-( al * pay attention dot ' comma

The most common type energy is Electrical. E ' ..t. #ts unit is a K/h. 0emember & + ' /.s UNITS OF ENERGY UNIT EQUIVALENCY /att.hour " /.h$ & /h ' 1,2,, + +oule " + $ & + ' ,.-13 cal alorie "cal $ & al $ ' (.&) + Kilowatt.hora "K/.h$ & K/h ' 1,2,, K+ Kilo!oule " K+$ & K+ ' ,,-13 Kcal Kilocalorie " Kcal$ & Kcal ' (. &) K+

SOURCES OF ENERGY. CLASSIFICATION %$ AVAILABILITY IN NATURE : Renewable /e can dispose of them without danger that are e4hausted "5eothermal, /ind, Solar, 6iomass etc.$ Non enewable 0esources are limited and diminish as they are using. annot be renewed in a short period of time. 7on renewable like coal, natural gas and. They are fossil fuels because they are formed from once li8ing organisms. 0emember that solar energy was the original energy source. B ) ORIGIN P !"a # Ene $!e%

They are obtained directly from nature " 7atural 5as, 9il, oal, /ind, Solar etc.$ Se&on'a # Ene $!e% They are obtained from transformation of primary sources, "Electritricity, gasoline, diesel etc $ C ) BY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT Clean Energies Its obtaining not produces environmental impact and usually do not generate toxic pollutant products (renewable energies) Polluting Energies Its obtaining cause negative effects on the environment. either when it's obtained or when it's consumed (Nuclear power plants, Fossil Fuel hermal power plants etc. GENERATING ELECTRICAL ENERGY Electricity is generated from primary energy sources and is the most used form of energy, because it can be easily transformed into other forms of enegy, such as Kinetic, light, heat etc. and it can be transported long distances

. NON RENE(ABLE ENERGIES !ost of the energy we use comes from non renewable energy sources. "owever, the use this #ind of energies causes serious ecological and environmental problems due to the waste and pollution generated fossil fuels Crude oil, coal and gas are fossil fuels. They were formed over millions of years, from the remains of dead organisms. coal was formed from dead plant material crude oil and gas were formed from dead marine organisms. Fossil fuels are non-renewable. They took a very long time to form and we are using them up faster than they can be renewed. Fossil fuels are also finite resources. Once they have all been used up, they cannot be replaced.

COAL

I% a )o%%!l )*el o) bla&+ &olo , !- wa% )o "e' ) o" 'ea' .lan- "a-e !al. oal is composed primarily of carbon along with 8ariable :uantities of other elements like hydrogen, , o4ygen, and nitrogen.. #n function of the amount of carbon, coal can be classified into: anthracite " 3;<$, lignite " ),<$, hard coal "hulla$ ");<$. oal is e4tracted from the ground by mining, either underground by shaft mining through the seams or in open pits.. oal is primarily used as a solid fuel to produce electricity in the thermal power plants
CRUDE OIL

Pe- ole*" or & *'e o!l is any substance 8iscose that is li:uid at ambient temperatures, flammable and dark color. onsisting of a comple4 mi4ture of hydrocarbons and other li:uid organic compounds. /ow & *'e o!l wa% )o "e' rude oil takes millions of years to form, huge numbers of microscopic animals and plants = plankton = died and fell to the bottom of the sea. Their remains were co8ered by mud., it started to change into rock as the temperature and pressure increased, and slowly changed into crude oil. .etroleum is reco8ered mostly through oil drilling. and we are using it up more :uickly than it is created. .resent estimates suggest world supplies of crude oil will run out in about 1, years T0e ) a&-!ona-!n$ &ol*"n The crude oil is e8aporated and its 8apours condense at different temperatures in the fractionating column. 9il it>s separated into a number of different parts, called fractions.. The column is hot at the bottom and cool at the top. Substances with high boiling points condense at the bottom and substances with lower boiling points condense on the way to the top.

. NATURAL GAS 7atural gas is a combustible mi4ture of hydrocarbon gases. #s formed primarily of methane "?,=3,<$, it can also include ethane, propane, butane and pentane. #t is one of the cleanest, safest, and most useful of all energy sources. 7atural gas is widely used and is an important energy source in many applications including heating buildings, generating electricity, pro8iding heat and power to industry and 8ehicle 7atural gas is found in deep underground natural rock formations " dry gas$ or associated with other hydrocarbon reser8oirs like crude oil "wet gas$. origin and e4traction methods are the same as the crude oil, but it is easier to remo8e because it tends to rise to the surface. #t is transported by pipelines or tank ship.

THE0@%L .9/E0 .L%7TS .