You are on page 1of 3

Dunes -Saltation: rocks bounce along up the beach with the wind, and they break down more

and more with each impact, becoming fine particles of sand [-Weathering: the physical breakdown of rock] [-Erosion: when the material is actually carried away] -Dunes are moving towards the water; as the water retreats, the wind brings the dunes closer, and the wind blows the particles of sand formed from the rocks onto the dunes, making them bigger -After the lake is gone, it will be forest -Climax community: (at dunes) = the complex forest -in certain deserts, the dunes may move with the wind, so it’s a continuous motion of sand (like waves) -dunes move at different speeds—some move as far as 50 ft. /year -the cycling of sand (with the rock cycle and all that) is cyclical, and may take millions of yearsthe earth will take care of it on it’s own -the Lake Michigan dunes move about as fast as your fingernails grow (so they say) -edge effect: has the greatest species diversity—if you eliminate these areas, you’re eliminating important niches that harbor the habitats for many, many species

CHAPTER 7 Life Expectancy: the average lifespan a newborn can expect -therefore, is low value when child deaths are common -Natality and mortality may be due in part to the age profile of the population *Age-structure graphs illustrate the make-up of a population (such as: )

The one on the left could represent the population pyramid for an undeveloped country. There are lots of kids, obvious from the wide base. There are not many adults b/c the population dies off bit by bit as the population ages.

The middle one= a developed nation. The growth is more static. The population is more stable.

Total Fertility Rate (TFR): the number of children an average woman would have assuming that she lives her full reproductive lifetime -If the average woman has exactly two children in her lifetime, that is just enough to replace herself and one mane, and thus maintain the population.

10/15/2013 Growth Potential: How fast an organism could grow if nothing was in its way R= population growth rate *Recognize exponential vs. logistic equation/graphs* -The logistic graph has an exponential portion in it, then carrying capacity limits growth Biotic Potential: maximum reproductive capacity of a population under optimum environmental conditions *Prob w/ exponential growth: population cannot increase forever; as long as r>0 it will increase (it decreases when r<0)

Demographic Transition Model: What all countries go through when transitioning from a developing country to a developed country

-Shows how population changes over time -Stage 1: Preindustrial: birth and death rates are high (developing) -population is poor, not advanced, poor health care, women have lots of kids -Stage 2: Transitional Stage: birth rates still high, where death rates diminish a little (developing) -Death rates decrease due to increased medical care, family planning, etc. BUT people still have lots of kids b/c that’s what their used toLARGE Population Increase -Stage 3: Industrial Stage: birth rate decreases rapidly, but death rate goes down slowly -birth rates decline due to access to birth control, health care, etc. which also continues decreasing the death rate -more “advanced” population -Stage 4: Post-Industrial Stage: Birth rates and death rates are low -rates even out again at a low value—when parents realize benefit of small families **Pop stable at Stage 1(Preindustrial) and Stage 4 (Postindustrial)—when birth and death rates are close** **Population increases in Stage 2 (Transition Stage), then increase rate slows down in Stage 3 (Industrial Stage)** IPAT ModelImpact=Population x Affluence x Technology -most prominent environmental thing -Human Population Size and Growth= most urgent part of IPAT factor -Technologies= dominant reason for environmental degradation -FROM THE ABOVE 2: THE IPAT MODEL was developed as a way to determine environmental degradation Impact: Environmental—resource depletion/waste accumulation Population: the size of the human population Affluence: level of consumption by that population Technology: Processes used to obtain resources and transform them into useful goods and wastes ** If referred to as IPATS, then the S stands for the sensitivity factor of the environment—so then: I = P x A x T x S **