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Glossary of Medical Terms (updated October 20, 2008) Our medical glossary includes definitions for terms related to hepatitis

and its treatment, and general medicine, health, and sexuality. Click on a link below for definitions of medical terms beginning with that letter. A C!"#G$%&'(M) O*+,-T./0123 A A !OM") 4ad5ecti6e A !OM%)A(78 the area of the body between the chest and pel6is. A -O,*T%O)8 the passage of nutrients, drugs, or water from the intestines into the bloodstream. A -T,ACT8 a written summary of the important points of a medical article. ACC"(",AT"8 speed up. ACC"(",AT"! A**,O/A(8 #!A regulations go6erning early marketing appro6al of promising drugs for life9threatening illnesses. AC"TAM%)O*$") 4also known as paracetomal78 an analgesic drug used to relie6e pain and reduce fe6er. Tylenol is the most well known brand name. AC+.%,"! %MM.)" !"#%C%")C2 -2)!,OM" 4A%!-78 a syndrome characteri:ed by suppression of the immune system, rendering the body susceptible to 6arious illnesses; the late, symptomatic stage of $%/ disease. ACT%GA((8 see ursodiol. ACT%/" %)#"CT%O)8 an infection in which a disease9causing microorganism is acti6ely replicating and infecting new cells. AC.*,"--.,"8 a traditional Chinese healing techni<ue in which finger pressure is applied to specific points on the body to treat disease and ameliorate symptoms. AC.*.)CT.,"8 a traditional Chinese healing techni<ue that in6ol6es inserting thin needles into different acupuncture points on the body. Acupuncture is belie6ed to impro6e the flow of <i, the body=s 6ital energy; it is used for many conditions, including pain and addiction. AC.T"8 rapid9onset, short9term initial stage of a disease. Contrast with chronic.

AC.T" $"*AT%T%-8 the initial stage of 6iral hepatitis following infection. %n $C/, acute hepatitis refers to the first six months of infection. A!A8 see Americans with !isabilities Act. A!!%T%/" "##"CT8 the combined effect of se6eral drugs that is the sum of the effects that would be produced by each of the drugs in the absence of the others. A!$",")C"8 following a prescribed treatment regimen, including correct dosage, timing, and number of doses per day. A!&.)CT T$",A*28 therapy gi6en in addition to a primary treatment. A!,")A( G(A)!8 one of a pair of glands located abo6e the kidneys. The adrenal medulla produces hormones such as adrenaline 4epinephrine7, while the adrenal cortex produces corticosteroids and androgens. A!/",-" ,"ACT%O) 4-%!" "##"CT78 an undesired action or effect of a drug or other treatment. A",O %C "1",C%-"8 a type of exercise 4e.g., running, swimming7 that makes the heart and lungs work harder to supply the muscles with oxygen. A#*8 see alpha9fetoprotein. A%!-8 see ac<uired immune deficiency syndrome. A(A)%)" AM%)OT,A)-#",A-" 4A(T; formerly -G*T78 an en:yme 4also called alanine transaminase7 produced in the li6er when the membranes of li6er cells break down. A(T le6els are measured to help assess the degree of li6er damage and determine how well $C/ treatment is working. A normal le6el is below >? %.@(. A( .#",O) 4albumin9interferon alpha Ab78 a form of time9released interferon under study to treat chronic $C/. !e6eloped by $uman Gnome -ciences. A( .M%)8 a blood protein produced by the li6er that plays a role in maintaining normal blood 6olume. A low albumin le6el is associated with li6er cirrhosis. A normal le6el is B.A9C.Dg. A(CO$O(%-M8 a disorder characteri:ed by excessi6e consumption of and dependence on alcohol. A(#",O)8 brand name of human leukocyte9deri6ed interferon9alpha9nB, produced by %-% *harmaceuticals.

A('A(%)" *$O-*$ATA-" 4A*78 an en:yme found in 6arious body tissues and fluids. Abnormal alkaline phosphatase le6els are associated with li6er disease and bone and muscle damage. A normal le6el is BC9EAC %.@(. A('A(O%!8 an organic compound found in plants. A((",G28 an abnormal immune response to an antigen 4allergen7 that does not normally cause an ad6erse reaction 4e.g., animal dander, pollen7. Allergic reactions are caused by the release of histamine by mast cells, a type of white blood cell. Allergic symptoms may include runny nose 4rhinitis7, skin rash, asthma, and anaphylactic shock. A((OG,A#T8 a transplant of genetically matched cells, tissues, or organs between two members of the same species. A((O*AT$2 4ad5ecti6e A((O*AT$%C78 0estern medicine; the con6entional medical practices used most often in the ..-. A(O*"C%A8 hair loss. A(*$A %)T",#",O)8 see interferon9alpha. A(*$A9#"TO*,OT"%) 4A#*78 a protein, measurable in the blood, that is often ele6ated in people with li6er cancer. A(*$A (%*O%C AC%! 4T$%OCT%C AC%!78 a compound that enhances the antioxidant effect of 6itamin C and 6itamin ", and may help reduce li6er inflammation and protect li6er cells from damage. A(T8 see alanine aminotransferase. A(T",)AT%/" T$",A*28 any type of treatment that is not considered standard or con6entional practice in a gi6en culture. %n 0estern countries, traditional Chinese medicine, homeopathy, naturopathy, and chiropractic are considered alternati6e therapies. AMA)TA!%)" 4brand name -2MM"T,"(78 a drug that is used to treat influen:a and is also under study as a treatment for chronic hepatitis C. AM")O,,$"A8 absence of menstrual periods. AM",%CA)- 0%T$ !%-A %(%T2 ACT 4A!A78 a federal law that re<uires employers to offer certain protections and benefits 4including Freasonable accommodationF7 to persons with disabilities that substantially limit ma5or life acti6ities. AM%)O AC%!8 an organic compound that is a basic structural unit of peptides and proteins. There are o6er EDD amino acids, eight of which are essential for human

A).2-M8 an abnormally stretched."1%A8 loss of appetite for food. A)T% %OT%C8 an agent that kills or inhibits the growth of bacteria.%-8 chest pain that occurs when the heart muscle recei6es inade<uate oxygen. The presence of antibodies indicates current infection with or past exposure to a pathogen. or antigens. Abnormally high aminotransferase le6els in the blood suggest li6er damage. A)G%)A *"CTO. AM%)OT. -ymptoms may include fatigue. and difficulty breathing.9based 6iral load test for $C/ and $%/. A(T.4..".(%)78 a protein produced by plasma cells 4a type of immune system white blood cell7 when they encounter foreign in6aders.metabolism.A)-AM%)A-"78 an en:yme 4e. A)T% O!2 4%MM. dilated section of a blood 6essel that is prone to bursting. all with different causes.8 brand name of a *C. AM*(%CO. A)"C!OTA(8 e6idence based on reports of specific indi6idual cases rather than controlled clinical studies. AM)"-%A8 memory loss.A)-#". A)O. general anesthesia produces unconsciousness. pale skin. (ocali:ed anesthesia blocks pain in a gi6en area. A-T7 produced by the li6er that cataly:es the transfer of amino acids. A)A(%)G. AMMO)%A8 a toxic metabolic byproduct that is normally excreted in the urine..)OG(O . A)"M%A 4ad5ecti6e A)"M%C78 reduced number of red blood cells or reduced ability of blood to carry oxygen. .A-" 4T. A)A8 see antinuclear antibody A)A(G"-%C8 a drug or therapy that reduces pain.g. A)T% O!2 *O-%T%/" 4-".O*O-%T%/"78 the presence in the blood of antibodies against a specific pathogen such as $C/. -pecific antibodies bind to specific in6aders. weakness.@CO A(T AM*(%CO. and target them for destruction. A)"-T$"-%A 4ad5ecti6e A)"-T$"T%C78 an agent that controls pain.%MM%)G78 oral@anal sex. There are se6eral types of anemia.

protease inhibitors7 interfere with 6arious stages of the 6irus life cycle. !ifferent types of antiretro6iral drugs 4e.C("OT%!"8 an agent that blocks the synthesis of disease9 causing proteins by binding with and pre6enting translation of .A(8 a drug that suppresses the acti6ity or replication of retro6iruses. A)T% O!28 An antibody that attacks cell nuclei.%s7. A)T%-")-" O(%GO). .A)T% O!2 T"-T8 an assay that detects the presence of antibodies in a blood sample. "(%-A and . A)T%#% . a chemical messenger in the body. including selecti6e serotonin reuptake inhibitors 4--.. A)T%-")-" COM*O. There are se6eral types. A)T%/%. A)T%!"*. $C/ antisense oligodeoxynucleotides are directed against a specific $C/ genetic se<uence and inhibit 6iral gene expression. 6itamin ".OT%C8 a drug or other agent than pre6ents or reduces the de6elopment of li6er fibrosis or cirrhosis. Antigens are often foreign in6aders such as bacteria or 6iruses. selenium7.)A 4genetic material7. A)T%CO)/.C("A.O/%. and they are also a6ailable in foods and dietary supplements 4e. A)1%O(2T%C8 a drug that helps relie6e mental anxiety. and tricyclics."T. The body produces natural antioxidants.g. A)T%O1%!A)T8 a substance that reduces oxidation by binding with and neutrali:ing free radicals.(A)T8 a drug that reduces or delays blood coagulation or clotting.A(8 a drug that suppresses the acti6ity or replication of 6iruses. A)T%$%-TAM%)"8 a drug that blocks the action of histamine."--A)T8 a drug that ele6ates the mood and alle6iates mental depression. Antihistamines are used to pre6ent or alle6iate allergic reactions and to reduce stomach acid production. MAO inhibitors.(-A)T8 a drug that pre6ents or reduces con6ulsions or sei:ures. A)T%)..g. A)T%COAG. A)T%.)!-8 Compounds that target gene se<uences associated with diseases to interfere with the disease process. A)T%"M"T%C8 a drug that relie6es nausea and 6omiting. re6erse transcriptase inhibitors.% A tests are used to detect $C/ antibodies. A)T%G")8 any agent or substance that stimulates an immune response.

0hen li6er cells are damaged. A-C%T"-8 accumulation of fluid in the abdominal 4peritoneal7 ca6ity. -5Ggren=s syndrome7 appear to ha6e an autoimmune aspect.TO%MM. A normal le6el is below >A %.%OG. A. A.A*(A-T%C A)"M%A8 anemia due to a reduced le6el of red blood cells caused by the inability of stem cells in the bone marrow to produce new cells.g. lichen planus. A.. excluding those who drop out early. "le6ated le6els may indicate li6er disease. A--A28 a test. Contrast with intent9to9treat analysis. A.-8 an herb used to stimulate the immune system.T".O-C(".@(. A."-*O)-" 4A. A. Ascites may be a symptom of ad6anced li6er disease with decompensated cirrhosis.T$.TOA)T% O!28 an antibody that targets the body=s own tissues.)%T278 a condition in which a person=s immune system produces antibodies that attack the body=s own tissues.A-" 4A-T.A)-#". -e6eral conditions associated with ad6anced hepatitis C 4e.AGA(.TAT" AM%)OT.A*$278 examination of arteries 4after in5ection of a dye7 to look for damage and blockages. A-9T. especially one used to detect the presence or amount of an agent in the blood or body tissues. A-T is released. formerly -GOT78 an en:yme 4also called aspartate transaminase7 produced in the li6er. . but are also seen in people with muscle damage.TO%MM."AT"! A)A(2-%-8 a method of analy:ing the results of a clinical trial that includes only participants who successfully complete a course of the treatment. A-T.M8 a group of participants in a clinical trial who recei6e the same treatment 4or placebo7. A-*A.%T%-8 5oint inflammation.A(G%A8 5oint pain. Certain drugs suppress the bone marrow and can lead to aplastic anemia as a side effect.T$.)" . A-T8 see aspartate aminotransferase.O-%-8 a condition in which blood 6essels harden and loose their elasticity due to the build9up of fatty material 4pla<ues7. %t is an ingredient in many Chinese herbal formulas. A-2M*TOMAT%C8 not feeling or showing outward symptoms or signs of a disease. AT$".A*$2 4A)G%OG.

9C"(( 4 9(2M*$OC2T"78 a type of immune system white blood cell.A. and dark urine.. anaerobic7... $C/ 6iral load7 against which later measurements can be compared. autoimmune condition in which the immune system attacks the thyroid gland. non9lethal illness. A normal bilirubin le6el is below E.!%-"A-"8 a disease that presents as ulcerations in the eyes.g.%A78 a simple single9celled microorganism.TO%MM. b!)A8 see branched9chain !)A assay. staining properties 4Gram positi6e or Gram negati6e7 and habitat 4aerobic. A-"(%)"8 an initial or known 6alue 4e. ./"!A8 a system of traditional medicine practiced in %ndia. %!8 taken twice daily. self9report <uestionnaire used to gauge clinical depression.Bmg. %(" !.%. a false association that results from to the failure to account for some skewing or influencing factor. %A-8 in a clinical trial. especially a non9cancerous tumor. ack to top ACT". An excess le6el of bilirubin in the blood 4hyperbilirubinemia7 may indicate li6er damage.O%!%T%-8 an inflammatory. )ormally bilirubin is processed and excreted by the li6er.g. %(%. rod."--%O) %)!"18 a written.M 4plural ACT". ")%G)8 a mild. 9cells mature into plasma cells that produce antibodies. Contrast with malignant. "C' !"*. A(T le6el. %)8 a yellowish pigment released when red blood cells are broken down.. spirochete7. "$C"T=.CT8 the passage that carries bile from the li6er to the small intestine.)" T$2. %("8 a yellowish9green fluid produced by the li6er that aids in the digestion of fats and the excretion of toxins. pale9colored stools. A2. mouth and genitals but can affect any organ of the body. and can lead to 5aundice 4yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes7. acteria are classified by their shape 4e.

. %OC$"M%CA( . li6er en:yme le6els7. hormones. O)" MA.-%O)8 the infusion of blood or blood components into an indi6idual for the treatment of a medical condition..%)!"1 4 M%78 a measurement of body fat determined by di6iding a person=s weight 4in kilograms7 by height 4in meters s<uared7.O08 the soft. the 6olunteers do not know what treatment 4if any7 they are recei6ing.. M%8 see body mass index. %n a double9blind study. %OA/A%(A %(%T28 the degree to which a drug or other substance is absorbed and circulated in the body. %n the case of medical necessity. or a placebo. spongy material inside certain long bones where blood cells are produced. (OO!9 O."-*O)-"78 a fa6orable response to treatment as indicated by normali:ation of blood 6alues 4e. Transfusions may be homologous 4from a donor7 or autologous 4pre6iously stored blood from the recipient7. O!2 MA-. %n a blinded study. O!20O. reflexology7 that in6ol6e manipulating or applying pressure to the body.g.'8 healing techni<ues 4e.A)-#. %O#""! AC'8 a techni<ue in which people learn to use signals from their own bodies to influence physiological functions.g. massage therapy. (%)!%)G8 a method of conducting clinical trials in which participants do not know who is taking an experimental treatment. neither the 6olunteers nor the researchers administering the treatment know who is recei6ing what. through sharing dirty needles or through a blood transfusion. and fats. (i6er biopsies are used to monitor li6er disease progression in people with $C/."-*O)-"8 see biochemical response. a standard 4control7 treatment. %O*-2 4 178 a procedure in which a sample of cells or tissue is taken for laboratory examination.%)!%)G *. (OO! T. %O(OG%CA( . %O#(A/%)O%! 4/%TAM%) *78 natural pigments found in fruits and 6egetables that increase absorption of 6itamin C.OT"%)8 a protein synthesi:ed by the li6er that binds to and transports substances such as 6itamins."-*O)-" 4 %O(OG%CA( . a study may be unblinded to re6eal who is recei6ing what treatment. linding is done to reduce bias in drug trials.)"8 a pathogen that is transmitted through direct blood9to9blood contact. for example. minerals..

C%)OMA8 a malignant tumor of the epithelial cells that line body surfaces and ca6ities. CA.O... CA*%((A.!!%)G8 the emergence of newly produced 6irus particles through a host cell membrane. and glioma 4which affects brain tissue7.M8 an herb traditionally used in Chinese medicine to treat li6er conditions.%"-8 tiny blood 6essels that deli6er oxygen and nutrients to and remo6e waste products from cells. May be a symptom of toxic chemical build9up due to impaired li6er function.C%)OG")8 an agent that promotes the de6elopment of cancer. CA. hydrogen. . Types include carcinoma 4which affects epithelial cells7. -ee hepatic encephalopathy.A)C$"!9C$A%) !)A A--A2 4b!)A78 an test that measures the amount of 6irus 46iral load7 in plasma or tissues using a chemical signal emitted by 6iral genetic material. CA)C".8 the body of a dead person. . and are present in foods such as bread and pasta. ."A'T$. Carbohydrates constitutes a ma5or class of nutrients. O$2!. memory loss. sarcoma 4which affects soft tissues7.) 4 lood urea nitrogen78 a test that measures the amount of a certain waste product 4nitrogen7 excreted by the kidneys.8 a recently deceased person who has donated an organ or tissue. CA)%T%"-8 a condition that causes premature graying of the hair. CA.AT"8 an organic molecule composed mainly of carbon. and oxygen atoms. . CA!A/". and@or lack of concentration and alertness.*(". Carcinoma in situ refers to an early stage of cancer that has not in6aded .A%) #OG8 mild mental confusion.%C !O)O. lymphoma and leukemia 4which affect lymphoid tissue7.G$8 the return of detectable 6iral load or high A(T le6els in a person who had pre6iously achie6ed a good 6irological or biochemical treatment response. .. ack to top C CA!A/".8 a malignant neoplasm or tumor characteri:ed by abnormal cell proliferation. 18 see iopsy.

C"((78 a type of white blood cell that helps the body fight infection. C!> C"(( 4C!> (2M*$OC2T". Category A drugs ha6e not shown a risk to fetuses in controlled studies.O( A)! *.8 ha6ing to do with to the circulatory system 4the heart and blood 6essels7. federal go6ernment agency within the !epartment of $ealth and $uman -er6ices that monitors the occurrence of diseases and de6elops policies for pre6enting disease and maintaining the health of the population.-. the de6elopment of disease and response to treatment in a single indi6idual. C")T".surrounding tissues. C!? C"(( 4C!? (2M*$OC2T"78 a type of white blood cell that helps regulate and@or carry out the body=s immune response.#O. CA.. . !.2 A. C!> C"(( CO. CA-. CA. C C8 see complete blood count. CA. C"((8 the basic unit of li6ing organisms. CAT"GO. hugging.%". CA-" -T. that is. 18 an #!A classification for drug safety during pregnancy.. A C!> count below ADD cells@mmB is a diagnostic criteria for A%!-..)T8 the number of C!> lymphocytes in one cubic millimeter 4mmB7 of blood. C. eating. The C!> count is one indicator of the progression of $%/ disease.A( CO)TACT8 non9intimate contact between indi6iduals 4e."/")T%O) 4C!C78 the .. C!? cells include T9suppressor cells and cytotoxic T9lymphocytes. T9$"(*". Category 1 includes drugs which animal and human studies or common experience ha6e shown to cause fetal abnormalities or miscarriages.(A. working together7 that does not in6ol6e transfer of body fluids and therefore does not pose a risk for transmission of blood9borne diseases. !%-"A-" CO)T. . called cytoplasm.g.!%AC8 ha6ing to do with the heart.!%O/A-C.8 a person who does not show symptoms or ha6e acti6e disease.!28 a description of a specific clinical case. but who carries an infectious organism and can transmit it to others. C!C8 see Centers for !isease Control and *re6ention. A cell contains a nucleus and a cell wall 4in plants7 or a cell membrane 4in animals7 which surrounds the cellular material.

low9density lipoprotein 4(!(7. which is considered protecti6e. Contrast with acute.(%T%. and@or impairment of the ability to function normally for six months or longer. C$. certain hormones.O*." .a disorder characteri:ed by inflammation and cell death in arteries.OM".O)%C ACT%/" $"*AT%T%-8 a condition in which $C/ or $ / continues to replicate and infect new cells after six months. that acts as a messenger between cells and stimulates the acti6ity of cells./O. C$.(A. There are two primary types of cholesterol in the blood.A( /A-C.O)%C8 a long9term or persistent disease. secreted by certain immune system cells. and high9density lipoprotein 4$!(7.(A. Cholesterol is manufactured by the li6er.OM" 4C$. C$O(AGOG. C#%!-78 an illness characteri:ed by prolonged fatigue."A) -"CT%O) 4C9-"CT%O)78 a deli6ery procedure that in6ol6es making an incision through the abdominal wall to remo6e an infant from the uterus 4womb7. -ee chronic fatigue syndrome. C$. C".O(8 a fatty substance in animal tissue that is an essential component of cell membranes.C")T. C$O("-TA-%-8 obstruction of the flow of bile between the li6er. often characteri:ed by 5aundice.O/A-C. and is also present in certain foods. 5oint and muscle pain.O)%C #AT%G.A( )". C$%.A*28 the use of drugs to treat disease.)CT%O) -2)!. and ner6e fiber insulation.-2-T"M 4C)-78 the brain and spinal cord. C$O("-T". .O/A-C. C$"MOT$".ACT%C8 a system of treatment based on manipulation of the spine.. C$"MO'%)"8 a chemical. C"-A. and the small intestine. C#%!-8 chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome.8 ha6ing to do with the flow of blood to the brain. the gall bladder. C". neurological problems. C"." %MM. C$O(A)G%T%-8 inflammation of the bile duct." . C"*(")"8 see histamine dihydrochloride. which is considered a risk factor for heart disease.O)%C #AT%G. ACC%!")T8 see stroke." ."8 an agent 4especially an herb7 that impro6es bile flow." -2)!.)" !2-#.

as distinguished from laboratory findings.A)C"8 remo6al or elimination.. prothrombin. of a 6irus or drug from the body. $C/ and $%/7. Types include granulocyte colony9stimulating factor 4G9 C-#7 and granulocyte macrophage colony9stimulating factor 4GM9C-#7. CO A(AM%)8 see 6itamin EA. 4COAG. CO#ACTO. %n compensated cirrhosis. .(AT%)G #ACTO. potentially leading to bleeding 6arices. the li6er is damaged but can still function. C(OTT%)G #ACTO.C$. C(%)%CA(8 relating to the treatment of patients. and memory. fibrinogen.g. COG)%T%/" !2-#. *eople with clotting factor deficiencies may experience prolonged bleeding and easy bruising. %n many clinical trials. new treatments are compared against older standard treatments or an inacti6e substance 4placebo7. e.. C("A. Fbrain fog.g.O)%C $"*AT%T%-8 li6er inflammation lasting longer than six months. -e6eral clotting factors are synthesi:ed by the li6er and production may be impaired when the li6er is damaged.8 a factor that influences the progression of a disease or the action of a disease9causing agent. clinical. C(OT8 a sticky mass of coagulated blood cells and platelets.T8 a group of indi6iduals in a study who share a demographic. or other characteristic. CO$O. #actor /%%%7 that is necessary for normal blood clotting. A clinical obser6ation is based on a person=s obser6ed condition and symptoms. CO%)#"CT%O)8 concurrent infection with more than one disease9causing organism 4e.78 a protein 4e.)CT%O)8 reduction in mental functioning and ability to carry out tasks that re<uire thinking. ascites..(AT%O) #ACTO.!278 an organi:ed procedure for determining the effecti6eness of a new drug or therapy by administering the agent to 6olunteers under controlled conditions. C%. C(%)%CA( T. CO"M32M" +ED8 an antioxidant agent that is necessary for the proper acti6ity of certain en:ymes. planning. li6er function is se6erely impaired and scar tissue interferes with normal blood flow through the li6er.$O-%-8 a type of li6er damage in which normal li6er cells are replaced with fibrous scar tissue..F and other symptoms.%A( 4C(%)%CA( -T. CO(O)29-T%M. %n decompensated cirrhosis. 4C-#78 a cytokine responsible for regulating the production of white blood cells.g.

The Ffemale condomF 4. COM %)AT%O) T$".eality7 is an internal pouch worn inside the 6agina or anus. immunoglobulins. CO)!OM8 a sheath made of latex. CO)&.$O-%-8 see cirrhosis. COM*. .CO(O-T. COM*("M")TA.T #A%(. CO)-")-.. or animal membrane that is worn o6er the penis to hold e5aculated semen. COMA8 a state of deep unconsciousness. and immune cells. $C/ and certain other sexually transmitted diseases.-"8 an #!A classification that allows indi6iduals to use experimental drugs prior to their appro6al for a serious illness for which there is no other suitable treatment..A*$2 -CA) 4CT -CA)78 a method of 6iewing the soft tissues of the body using 19rays. the term most often refers to the use of interferon plus riba6irin..A*28 use of two or more drugs together to impro6e the effecti6eness of treatment.O)8 a preparation that contains a 6ariety of different types of interferon. polyurethane.A*28 an alternati6e therapy that is used in con5unction with a standard 0estern treatment. Contrast with monotherapy.M8 breast fluid produced during the first few days after a baby=s birth 4prior to milk production7 that contains proteins. %n $C/ treatment. and platelet count. Condoms are used to pre6ent pregnancy. CO)#%!")C" %)T".#"."8 heart dysfunction that leads to a build9up of fluids in the body. COM*A--%O)AT" . hematocrit and hemoglobin. a membrane that co6er the eye and lines the eyelid.%)T".2 T$"./A(8 a statistical measure of the likelihood that an experimental result is FtrueF and not the result of chance alone. white blood cell count. including red blood cell count. a 6egetati6e state. CO)G"-T%/" $"A.)T 4C C78 an in6entory of the cellular components of the blood. COM*")-AT"! C%.T"! TOMOG.. COM*("T" (OO! CO.)CT%/%T%-8 inflammation of the con5uncti6a. latex and polyurethane condoms also protect against $%/. CO)G")%TA(8 present from birth.

T%CO-T"..(%)"M%A8 a condition in which cryoglobulins form in the blood.(%)8 an abnormal immune protein. contact between the mouth and the 6ul6a or . implantation. 0hen the blood is cooled. A control group is typically gi6en an older standard treatment or a placebo rather than the new experimental treatment under study. and are used to treat a 6ariety of conditions.2OG(O ."8 the inner part of a 6irus that contains its genetic material.))%(%)G.O%!8 a steroid hormone 4e."AT%)%)"8 a metabolic byproduct produced by muscles.-8 .M8 a comparison group in a clinical trial that is used to 6erify an experimental result.% A/%. "ssential mixed cryoglobulinemia occurs in many people with $C/.2O-.A%)!%CAT%O)8 any circumstance or condition that makes a drug or other method of treatment inad6isable in a particular case. and telangiectasia7. CO*"G. the cryoglobulins clump together.ocheHs brand of riba6irin.O(("! T. C.. causing the blood to thicken and restricting blood flow.2 !%-"A-"8 damage to or blockage of the arteries that pro6ide blood to the heart muscle.O)A. C.OM"8 a type of scleroderma characteri:ed by a 6ariety of different symptoms 4primarily calcinosis. sclerodactyly.28 remo6al of damaged or cancerous tissue by free:ing. esophageal dysfunction.2OG(O . Corticosteroids ha6e anti9 inflammatory and immunosuppressi6e properties.. CO)T. or successful gestation.(T. high le6els in the blood may indicate kidney dysfunction.CO)T. prednisone. a de6ice or method that pre6ents conception 4fertili:ation7.g. .%). although most do not experience symptoms. CO)T. CO. cortisone7 produced by the cortex of the adrenal gland or manufactured synthetically.O( A. C.T"."-T -2)!.-8 oral sex on a woman. CT -CA)8 see computed tomography scan."8 a method of growing a microorganism in a laboratory. CO)T.aynaud=s phenomenon.%A(8 a clinical trial in which a group recei6ing an experimental treatment is compared to a control group that is gi6en a standard treatment or a placebo. CO. see . CO.AC"*T%O)8 birth control. C.G".2 A. C. C. C.

%)G OA. and motor function.. C2TO*. !"(TA $"*AT%T%-8 see hepatitis !. typically acute and rapid in onset. drug use. !"COM*")-AT%O)8 a failure of the li6er to compensate for damage or in5ury.TA)"O. parasites.-8 relating to the skin. ack to top ! !ATA 4singular !AT. C. bacteria. that may be caused by factors including disease. C2TO*(A-M8 the material that makes up the interior of a cell. !"COM*")-AT"! C%.. and other microorganisms.g. !ATA A)! -A#"T2 MO)%TO. decrease or breakdown of li6er function. including stimulating antibody production and acti6ating killer T9cells. and may disrupt many bodily processes.$O-%-8 see cirrhosis. C2TO'%)"8 a chemical messenger 4e. C2-T"%)"8 an amino acid. especially results of an experiment or clinical trial. tumor necrosis factor7 produced by white blood cells. interferon. !ehydration may result from prolonged 6omiting or diarrhea. interleukin. or high fe6er. !-M s typically examine interim data as a trial progresses and determine whether it should be stopped or allowed to continue. !"M")T%A8 chronic loss of mental capacity.%. one of the building blocks of glutathione.OT"CT%/"8 an agent that protects cells from damage. !"$2!.! 4!-M 78 a group of experts that e6aluates clinical trials for safety and ethics.M8 a state of mental confusion. C2TO*")%A8 low le6els of blood cells. memory. !"(%. Cytokines coordinate se6eral aspects of the immune response. T9C"((78 a type of C!? white blood cell that targets and kills cells infected with 6iruses.M78 factual information.6agina. '%((". !ementia may in6ol6e progressi6e deterioration of thinking. and may also be associated with . C2TOTO1%C T9(2M*$OC2T" 4CT(.AT%O)8 loss or lack of water in the body.

the study of nutrition and the use of special diets to pre6ent and treat disease. !"TO1%#%CAT%O)8 remo6al of toxic 4poisonous7 substances. !")TA( !AM8 a flat s<uare of latex or plastic. guanine.4!M78 a disease caused by insufficient insulin production or lack of responsi6eness to insulin.$"A8 fre<uent. !"*. including microorganisms and as a side effect of certain drugs. !%G"-T%/" -2-T"M8 the organs 4mouth. sex. clinical symptoms.!A)T8 not ha6ing the same serostatus.. age7. !%"T%T%A)8 a medical professional speciali:ing in dietetics.. cytosine."T%C8 an agent that increases loss of water from the body through urination. and anus7 associated with ingestion and digestion of food. for example a couple in which one partner is $C/ positi6e and the other is $C/ negati6e. and laboratory test results. that can be used to protect against the spread of sexually transmitted diseases during oral sex. !%A(2-%-8 a method for filtering waste from the blood that replaces the function of the kidneys that are not working properly. stomach. !iarrhea may be caused by a 6ariety of factors. !"O12. loose bowel mo6ements. and thymine. !%A."--%O) 4!2-T$2M%A78 a mood disorder characteri:ed by prolonged sadness or grief. pharyrnx. !"MOG. esophagus.A*$%C-8 the characteristics of a population 4e. !%A "T".g. !)A is made up of four chemical building blocks 4nucleotides78 adenine. !%.. small intestine.personality changes and psychological symptoms such as depression. large intestine.C("%C AC%! 4!)A78 a double9stranded nucleic acid that encodes genetic information. !etoxification of the blood is an important function of the li6er. Type A 4non9insulin9dependent or adult9onset7 diabetes occurs later is life and is associated with decreased insulin production or insulin resistance. . traditionally used for dental surgery. Type E 4insulin9dependent or 5u6enile9onset7 diabetes results from an inability of the body to produce insulin.. *ersistent diarrhea can lead to dehydration and inade<uate nutrient absorption. !iagnosis generally in6ol6es an e6aluation of a person=s medical history.M"((%T. !%AG)O-%-8 the determination of the existence of a disease or condition.% O). !%-CO. race.

.!M8 see diabetes mellitus."-*O)-" 4"/. ack to top " "A.%A(8 a clinical trial in which different doses of a drug are compared to determine which dosage has the best balance of effecti6eness and acceptable side effects. !18 abbre6iation for diagnosis. and kapha. !2-T$2M%A8 see depression.O(OG%CA( .ACT%O)8 a phenomenon that occurs when multiple drugs are taken together or drugs are taken with certain herbs or foods. the ability to achie6e a desired result.(2 /%.G %)T". . ("9 (%)!8 see blinding. "!"MA8 swelling caused by accumulation of fluid in body tissues. !O. The generally accepted timeframe is EA weeks after starting treatment. !O-"9. !2-#.A)G%)G T. !rug interactions may enhance or reduce the action of a drug and may increase its side effects. !O-AG"8 the amount of a drug that is gi6en at one time.)A 46iral load7. "(%-A@"(%-A %%8 see en:yme9linked immunosorbent assay.78 the probability of achie6ing a sustained 6irological response early in treatment based on the decline in $C/ .)CT%O)8 lack or loss of normal function. !2-*(A-%A 4ad5ecti6e !2-*(A-T%C78 abnormal cell or tissue growth. pitta. "C3"MA8 a type of skin rash. !)A8 see deoxyribonucleic acid. !O-$A8 one of the three bodily humors 46ata. "##%CAC28 effecti6eness.7 recogni:ed in Ayur6edic medicine. !. causing a blockage. "M O(%-M8 a blood clot that tra6els through the bloodstream and becomes lodged in a blood 6essel.

g. the heart. ")."ATM")T . and beha6ior of a disease within a population. pituitary gland. ")!9-TAG" . ")/"(O*"8 the outer coat of a 6irus.)A at the completion of treatment 4typically 0eek A> for genotypes A or B.!78 kidney failure. ")!9O#9T. flexible fiber optic instrument that conducts light. -ee also inclusion criteria. ")32M"8 a protein that induces or accelerates a chemical reaction.8 see lami6udine. death7 or laboratory results such as A(T le6el or 6iral load 4sometimes called surrogate markers7. ")!O-CO*28 a method of examining the interior of a body ca6ity or hollow organ 4e.. and gonads 4o6aries and testes7. "*%!"M%O(OG28 the study of the fre<uency.")C"*$A(O*AT$28 disease of the brain. .. stomach7 using an endoscope. ")!*O%)T8 a marker of disease progression. "(%-A %%78 a laboratory test used to detect the presence of antibodies in the blood."-*O)-" 4"OT or "T. a narrow. exclusion criteria.78 undetectable $C/ .)O-O.M 4ad5ecti6e ")!OT$"(%A(78 a layer of cells that lines blood and lymph 6essels.")A( !%-"A-" 4"-.%C $"*AT%T%-8 see hepatitis ". ")32M"9(%)'"! %MM. ")!OC. -ee also hepatic encephalopathy. "*O8 see erythropoietin. esophagus. ")T". adrenal glands.%A8 factors used to determine whether a person is eligible to participate in a clinical trial. "ndpoints may be clinical manifestations 4e. disease symptoms. "OT8 see end9of9treatment response.O((M")T C. and 6arious body ca6ities. "*%/%.%C8 ha6ing to do with the intestines.%T". distribution.%)"8 endocrine glands are ductless glands that regulate bodily functions 6ia hormones secreted into the bloodstream. 0eek >? for genotype E7. thyroid. The endocrine system includes the hypothalamus. ")T". ")!OT$"(%. ")T A--A2 4"(%-A.g.

"-. #A%(. "pogen7 is used to treat certain types of anemia.4ad5ecti6e "-O*$AG"A(78 the swallowing tube. "1T. ack to top # #ACTO.-%O) C. "rythrocytes transport oxygen to the tissues of the body.%/"8 a condition in which an infant loses or fails to gain weight and .%T". "T%O(OG28 the cause of a disease.2OG(O .OC2T"8 a mature red blood cell.O*O%"T%) 4"*O%"T%). "strogens stimulate the de6elopment of female secondary sex characteristics and regulate the reproducti6e cycle in women.2T$." TO T$.%M")TA( A. "*O78 a hormone produced by the kidneys that stimulates the production of red blood cells. "1AC".2T$. "-O*$AG. "--")T%A( M%1"! C.A!%CAT%O) 46erb ". ". Genetically engineered "*O 4brand names *rocrit.. /%%%8 a protein synthesi:ed by the li6er that is necessary for proper blood clotting. "-T.M8 the group of participants in a clinical trial that recei6es the new experimental treatment under study. AT"8 to worsen or make more se6ere. "1C(.A$"*AT%C8 outside the li6er.(%)"M%A8 see cryoglobulinemia. "1*".."*OG")8 see erythropoietin.%M")TA( !.A!%CAT"78 the complete elimination of an organism from the body. Contrast with inclusion criteria.%A8 conditions that dis<ualify someone from participating in a clinical trial.!8 see end9stage renal disease. the portion of the digesti6e tract between the mouth and the stomach.OG")8 the primary female sex hormone or a synthetic analog. "..G8 a new drug that is being tested as a treatment for a specific condition and has not yet been appro6ed by the #!A for use. ". "1*".

#AT9-O(. or polyunsaturated. #"CA(9O. prolonged.g.4ad5ecti6e #% . #"C". #"((AT%O8 oral sex on a man. #% . #% . by ingesting contaminated food or water. #atty acids may be saturated. #" . #A-T T. #AT%G. #%(G. Contrast with false9negati6e. . #ATT2 AC%!8 an organic molecule made up of a hydrocarbon chain and a carboxylic acid group.OM2O-%T%-78 a condition characteri:ed by pain throughout the body.O-%.de6elops at a slower rate than expected. often accompanied by fatigue.OT%C78 li6er damage in which fibrous tissue de6elops and replaces normal cells. #. Contrast with false9positi6e. contact between the mouth and the penis.% . oral@anal sex7.%)OG")8 a factor produced by the li6er that is necessary for proper blood clotting. excreted waste matter. monounsaturated.. Contrast water9soluble.O. #A(-"9*O-%T%/"8 a positi6e test result in for a person who in fact does not ha6e the disease or condition being tested. ("8 capable of being dissol6ed in fat.T"8 a route of transmission of infectious organisms which in6ol6es the transfer of fecal matter to the mouth 4e.OM2O-%T%-8 see fibromyalgia.(AT%O)8 an in6oluntary muscle contraction. #% ."8 unusual.4ad5ecti6e #"CA(78 excrement. #"MA(" CO)!OM8 see condom.AC'8 a designation by the #ood and !rug Administration to help facilitate the de6elopment and to expedite the re6iew process for an experimental drug that has the potential to address an unmet medical need for a serious or life9threatening condition.A-T%M8 see granulocyte colony9stimulating factor. or excessi6e tiredness.OM2A(G%A 4#% .%("8 ha6ing a fe6er or increased body temperature. #A(-"9)"GAT%/"8 a negati6e test result in a person who in fact has the disease or condition being tested.A( . #A-C%C. #!A8 see #ood and !rug Administration.

#OO! A)! !. ack to top G GA(( (A!!".AT%O) %O*-28 a type of li6er biopsy in which a tissue sample is withdrawn using a 6ery fine needle. #(AT. #." 4#(A. acute worsening of disease symptoms. #(. life9threatening form of hepatitis.AM%!8 a diagram showing what foods are included in a balanced diet.*78 a sudden.#%)"9)""!(" A-*%.TAM2( T. folic acid also helps pre6ents neural tube defects in fetuses. #(A/%/%. #. federal agency responsible for regulating the de6elopment. #(A.-8 a group of 6iruses.AT%O) 4#!A78 the ."9.(M%)A)T $"*AT%T%-8 a se6ere. $C/ is related to fla6i6iruses.-. GAMMA9G(. "le6ated GGT .(%)8 a preparation of antibodies in5ected to pre6ent or treat infection. A9B ser6ings of dairy products. A9B ser6ings of meat.A)-*"*T%!A-" 4GGT78 a li6er en:yme. B9C ser6ings of 6egetables.MA!%)"8 see rimantadine.(")C"8 excessi6e intestinal gas.A!%CA(8 a molecule that contains an unpaired electron. The FtheftF of electrons by free radicals can disrupt normal cellular processes and cause cellular damage 4oxidati6e stress7. use. and limited fats and oils. The #!A appro6es new experimental drugs based on the results of clinical trials. se6eral of which cause diseases in humans. Gamma globulin is used as postexposure pre6ention for hepatitis A and hepatitis . -ee also antioxidant. #ree radicals are a byproduct of normal metabolism. cosmetics. A healthy diet includes I9EE ser6ings of breads and grains 4the bottom le6el of the pyramid7. #O(%C AC%! 4#O(AT"78 a 6itamin necessary for red blood cell production and proper neurological function. #OO! G. and safety of drugs. and related products..8 an organ beneath the li6er where bile is stored.%!" *2. or nuts. A9> ser6ings of fruit. fish. beans. #."" . medical de6ices.G A!M%)%-T. They are highly reacti6e and bind with other molecules..(M%)A)T8 an unusually se6ere or aggressi6e form of a disease.. and some taxonomists consider the $epaci6irus genus to be part of the #la6i6iridae family. GAMMA G(O .

G9C-#8 see granulocyte colony9stimulating factor. $C/ has six ma5or genotypes 4designated by the numbers E through I7. and anus.C 4G /9C78 see hepatitis G 6irus. genotype Ea@b is most pre6alent. G")OT2*"8 the genetic makeup of an organism..le6els may indicate bile obstruction and li6er damage. -ee also <uasispecies. especially the stomach and intestines. GA-T. small intestine.ACT8 the digesti6e tube consisting of the mouth. the molecules that carry hereditary information.@(. stomach. G")OM"8 the complete genetic code or FblueprintF of an organism.g.O")T".O(OG2 4also GA-T.%T%-8 inflammation of the stomach and intestines. %n animal and plant cells. or introducing genes. A normal GGT le6el is BD9ID %. G")" T$". GA-T.O%)T"-T%)A(8 ha6ing to do with the digesti6e system. pegylated interferon is the generic name of the drug marketed under the brand names *eg9%ntron and *egasys7. G")". remo6ing. G /%. G")"T%C ")G%)"". GA-T.O")T". GA) CAO8 see licorice root. as opposed to a brand name used by a particular company for marketing 4e. %n the .G8 a drug that is not protected by a patent and may be produced by any manufacturer.%C )AM"8 a common name used to identify a drug.)A7. G")" 4ad5ecti6e G")"T%C78 the basic unit of heredity.O(OG%-T78 the medical specialty that deals with the digesti6e system. a gastroenterologist treats digesti6e diseases. .)A in some 6iruses7. G")"T%C MAT"..O")T".A*28 an approach to pre6enting or treating disease by replacing... large intestine. and also more difficult to treat. genes are located on the chromosome in a cell=s nucleus.O%)T"-T%)A( T. G")".. GA-T.%)G8 manipulation of an organism=s genetic material to modify the proteins it produces.. Genes contain hereditary information encoded in the form of !)A 4or .-.%C !.%A(8 deoxyribonucleic acid 4!)A7 and ribonucleic acid 4. esophagus. or otherwise manipulating genetic material.

A). brand name )eupogen7 is used to treat neutropenia.A).CO-%!A-" %)$% %TO.G%8 see gastrointestinal. J9glucosidase has been shown to inhibit 6iral replication and secretion. G. basophil.78 a form of sugar that is the body=s primary fuel..CO-"9I9*$O-*$AT" !"$2!.. GI*! deficiency can cause se6ere anemia. GM9C-#8 see granulocyte macrophage colony9stimulating factor. diabetes7.g. 4GM9C-#78 a cytokine that stimulates growth of granulocytes and macrophages. eosinophil7 that releases toxic chemicals to kill in6ading microorganisms and mediate allergic reactions. G(.(OC2T" CO(O)29-T%M.CO)"OG")"-%-8 the con6ersion of glycogen to glucose in the li6er.4plural G(OM". G.A#T8 a transplanted organ or tissue. The li6er con6erts glucose from food into glycogen and stores it for later use. G(2C2.g..7. G(2C%)"8 an amino acid. G(OM".(OC2T" MAC.OG")A-" 4GI*!78 a human red blood cell en:yme.%T%-8 an inflammatory disorder of the glomeruli..CO-" 4 (OO! -. two types of white . often due to the build9up of cryoglobulins.(. Genetically engineered G9C-# 4filgrastim.. neutrophil. G(. 4G9C-#78 a cytokine that stimulates the production of granulocytes.. The li6er stores glucose after meals and releases it again as needed.(%)8 see immunoglobulin.O*$AG" CO(O)29-T%M.A)..TAT$%O)"8 a natural antioxidant found in the body. G(2COG")8 a carbohydrate stored in body tissues. G(OM". the li6er con6erts glycogen back into glucose. G(.GA. G(.$%3%)8 see licorice root.-8 %nhibitors of endoplasmic reticulum 4". G(O . Abnormally low or high le6els of glucose in the blood may indicate a metabolic disturbance 4e. one of the building blocks of glutathione. G. 0hen needed. G(.(OC2T"8 a type of immune system white blood cell 4e. G.(AT%)G #ACTO.(O)"*$.(%78 a small capillary bed in the kidney where blood filtration takes place.(AT%)G #ACTO.

especially in the li6er. Genetically engineered GM9C-# 4sargramostim. . $"MOG(O %) 4$gb78 the red. $AT8 see hepatic arterial thrombosis.blood cell. $"MATO(OG%CA(8 ha6ing to do with the blood.)A8 the genetic material of the hepatitis C 6irus. *rokine7 is used to treat neutropenia. %n practice. $C/ . which may lead to an increased risk of bacterial infection. $ematopoietic stem cells gi6e rise to all types of red and white blood cells. A normal hematocrit is >D9C>K for adult men and BL9>LK for adult women. G. the term is used to refer to neutropenia. $"(%CA-" %)$% %TO.A). brand names (eukine. a disease in which iron is not properly metaboli:ed and builds up in tissues throughout the body. ack to top $ $A(#9(%#"8 the time re<uired for half of the original amount of a drug to be eliminated from the body.(OC2TO*")%A8 an abnormally low number of granulocytes in the circulating blood.8 a drug that inhibits the action of a 6irus= helicase en:yme. thus pre6enting the 6iral genetic material from unwinding. A detectable le6el of $C/ . the hematocrit reflects the oxygen9carrying capacity of the blood. and interfering with 6iral replication. $A-8 see hepatic arterial stenosis. or for a drug to decrease to half its original concentration in the blood. Also refers to a test of the amount of hemoglobin in red blood cells. $"MOC$. $"M"8 the iron9based pigment in red blood cells. $"MATO*O%"-%-8 the production of blood cells in the bone marrow.)A on a 6iral load test indicates that $C/ is acti6ely replicating. $CT8 see hematocrit. iron9based pigment in red blood cells that enables them to transport oxygen. $"MATOC. $CC8 see hepatocellular carcinoma. a component of hemoglobin that is released when red blood cells are broken down.%T 4$CT78 the percentage of red blood cells in a gi6en amount of whole blood.OMATO-%-8 iron o6erload disease.

$epatic coma is an indication of ad6anced li6er failure. also. toxins. $"MO. $"*AT%C /"%)8 the blood 6essel that carries filtered blood from the li6er to the heart. $"*AT%C A. and hea6y alcohol consumption. $epatitis A typically resol6es on its own and does not become chronic. $"MO*$%(%A8 a hereditary disease in which a person does not produce sufficient blood clotting factors and is prone to prolonged bleeding. $"*AT%T%. $"*AC%/%. an herbal remedy used to treat li6er conditions.$"*AT%T%-78 a 6iral disease of the li6er that is primarily transmitted by the fecal9oral route. $"MO(2T%C A)"M%A8 a low red blood cell count due to excessi6e cell destruction.4$AT78 the formation of clots in the hepatic artery. 0hen the li6er is damaged..4$A-78 narrowing of the hepatic artery.T".$"MO(2-%-8 the breakdown or destruction of red blood cells.28 the blood 6essel that deli6ers oxygen9rich blood to the li6er. may be done to treat li6er cancer. it cannot remo6e toxins from the body. $"*AT%C ")C"*$A(O*AT$28 impaired brain function due to ad6anced li6er damage. these toxins build up in the bloodstream causing brain damage and other symptoms. including 6iruses.%A( T$. -ymptoms may include fe6er. fatigue. $epatitis may ha6e 6arious causes. There is no standard treatment for hepatitis A.-8 a genus of 6iruses that includes $C/. $"*AT%C A."-"CT%O)8 surgical remo6al of part of the li6er. $"*AT%C A.. but an effecti6e 6accine is a6ailable. $"*AT%T%-8 inflammation of the li6er..T".OM O-%.%A( -T")O-%.$AG"8 bleeding. nausea. $"*AT%C COMA8 loss of consciousness due to ad6anced li6er disease. . and 5aundice.A 4%)#"CT%O.T". this occurs when the damaged li6er can no longer effecti6ely filter toxins from the bloodstream. $"*AT%C . $"*AT%C8 ha6ing to do with the li6er. $"*AT%C *A)"(8 see li6er function tests.

and ele6ated li6er en:ymes..4$"/78 the 6irus that causes hepatitis ". in rare cases it may be transmitted sexually or 6ertically from mother to child. $"*AT%T%. an effecti6e 6accine is a6ailable. there is currently no 6accine.. $epatitis " is spread through the fecal9oral route.. -ymptoms may include fe6er. $"*AT%T%..A /%.C%)OMA 4$CC78 a type of primary li6er cancer seen in some people with long9term li6er damage due to chronic hepatitis C or hepatitis . %t is usually mild. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to long9term li6er damage. 5aundice. %t is not known to cause disease.(%) 4$ %G78 a preparation of antibodies administered as postexposure prophylaxis to pre6ent illness in people exposed to the hepatitis 6irus. $"*ATO(OG2 4also $"*ATO(OG%-T78 the medical specialty that deals with the li6er.4$A/78 the 6irus that causes hepatitis A.." 4")T".%MM..C. $"*AT%T%. abdominal pain." /%. The disease is rare in the . abdominal pain.(A.-.M $"*AT%T%-78 a 6iral disease of the li6er. $"*AT%T%. and ele6ated li6er en:ymes. . fatigue. fatigue.4$!/78 the 6irus that causes hepatitis !.. $epatitis is a blood9 borne disease. 5aundice. $"*ATOC2T"8 a working li6er cell.4$ /78 the 6irus that causes hepatitis ..4$C/78 the 6irus that causes hepatitis C. $epatitis C is a blood9borne disease.. CA.$"*AT%T%.%C $"*AT%T%-78 a 6iral disease of the li6er.4$G/. )"C. $"*ATOC"((.. G /%..... -ymptoms may include fe6er. but may be se6ere and possibly fatal in pregnant women. $"*ATOC"((. but may also be transmitted sexually transmitted or 6ertically from mother to child. $"*AT%T%. but common in Africa and Asia.. -tandard treatment for hepatitis C is a combination of interferon 4standard or pegylated7 plus riba6irin.O-%-8 concerning locali:ed li6er cell tissue death.(A. $"*AT%T%/%.! /%. G /9C78 a recently disco6ered blood9 borne 6irus that appears to be related to hepatitis C. $epatitis becomes chronic in about C9EDK of infected adults.! 4!"(TA $"*AT%T%-78 a 6iral disease of the li6er.G /%.C /%. $"*AT%T%.)OG(O . $"*AT%T%. $"*AT%T%. $"*AT%T%.C 4formerly )O)9A@)O)9 $"*AT%T%-78 a 6iral disease of the li6er. -tandard treatments for hepatitis are interferon and lami6udine.4-".. $epatitis ! is caused by a blood9borne 6irus that only causes disease in people already infected with hepatitis ..

.OM"8 pertaining to the kidney failure in the presence of li6er disease. $ormones may act locally or be secreted into the bloodstream. $%-TO(OG%CA( . $%/8 see human immunodeficiency 6irus.%!" 4brand name C"*(")".OC$(O. adrenaline.g. A%!.. $%-TAM%)"8 a cellular compound that is released in response to an allergen and causes the symptoms of allergic reactions. which attacks the body=s immune system.is the late. $OM"O*AT$28 an alternati6e healing system based on the theory that Flike cures like. and shingles. reduced inflammation7 in response to treatment.!%-"A-"8 tumor or cancer of the lymphatic system. $OM"O-TAT%-8 the state of e<uilibrium of the body to maintain a stable internal en6ironment.MO)"8 a chemical messenger 4e.g. $gb8 see hemoglobin. formerly MA1%M%)"78 a histamine analog being studied as a treatment for chronic hepatitis C. $%-TO(OG2 4ad5ecti6e $%-TO(G%CA(78 the study or examination of body tissues. $"*ATO. $"*ATOM"GA(28 enlargement of the li6er. testosterone7 in6ol6ed in the regulation and coordination of bodily or cellular functions.*"-8 a common 6iral infection that can cause fe6er blisters. genital sores. including decreased inflammation and reduced fibrosis or cirrhosis. $O.a hepatologist treats li6er disease.F $omeopathic therapy uses extremely diluted doses of substances that normally cause the types of symptoms being treated. symptomatic stage of $%/ disease. A(%-M 4$".. %n people with $C/."-*O)-"8 an impro6ement in li6er tissue condition 4e.")A( -2)!. $%-TAM%)" !%$2!. A( T$". $%/ !%-"A-"8 infection with the human immunodeficiency 6irus. $O!G'%)H. $". histological impro6ement refers to impro6ed li6er tissue health.A*278 the medicinal or therapeutic use of plants or plant products. $". $"*ATOTO1%C%T2 4ad5ecti6e $"*ATOTO1%C78 toxic or poisonous to the li6er.

.G(O .MO)" .O*$%C CA.O%!%-M8 decreased thyroid gland acti6ity and reduced thyroid hormone production.T78 the administration of hormones to replace those that the body is unable to produce.O#")8 a nonsteroidal anti9inflammatory drug used to relie6e pain and reduce fe6er. $2*". or from mother to child.A*2 4$. .4$%/78 a slow9acting retro6irus associated with A%!-. and Motrin are common brand names. and dark urine.O%!%-M8 increased thyroid gland acti6ity and thyroid hormone o6erproduction $2*". $2*". $2*". $.-8 see 5aundice.MA) (". $2*".MA) %MM.T$2.)O!"#%C%")C2 /%.T")-%O)8 high blood pressure. ack to top % % ."*(AC"M")T T$". $2*OT$2."M%A8 a high le6el of cholesterol in the blood.C$O("-T". characteri:ed by 5aundice.'OC2T" A)T%G") 4$(A78 a genetic marker of FselfF which pre6ents the immune system from attacking the body=s own tissues...M%)"M%A8 a low le6el of the blood protein albumin. sexual acti6ity. Ad6il.$O.(%)"M%A8 an abnormally high le6el of immunoglobulins 4antibodies7 in the blood. typically refers to estrogen replacement therapy in postmenopausal women. $O-T C"((8 a cell infected with a 6irus or other microorganism. Ale6e. %(%. $2*". $.*. $%/ is transmitted through blood9to9blood contact..T.!%OM2O*AT$2 4$CM78 a disease of the heart where enlargement and thickening de6elops in one part of the heart.G(2C"M%A8 high blood sugar. %)"M%A8 an excess le6el of bilirubin in the blood. pale9colored stools. $2*OA( . %CT". $2*".

%MM. %MM..)OCOM*"T")T8 capable of mounting an immune response. %mmunity may be either natural or ac<uired 4for example.(ATO. phagocytosis7.**.)O!"#%C%")C28 inability of the immune system to work properly. production of antibodies7. thymus. *assi6e immuni:ation in6ol6es the in5ection of an antibody preparation 4e. 6iruses7.)OG(O .OM%-"8 see immunodeficiency. -ome immune defenses are nonspecific 4e. for example against an outside in6ader 4e. gamma globulin7.**.g.)" G(O . %MM."--%O)8 see immunodeficiency.(%)8 see antibody.g. %MM. .. spleen.)O-.)" -2-T"M8 the body=s defense system that protects against foreign in6aders 4e.g.. bacteria. %MM. see antibody. %MM. %MM.)OMO!.)OCOM*. Acti6e immuni:ation 46accination7 in6ol6es exposing a person to antigens to prompt the body to mount an immune response 4e. artificially induced through a 6accine7. bacteria. resulting in increased susceptibility to disease. 6irus7.)O-.g.. %!. while others are directed against specific in6aders 4e."-*O)-"8 the acti6ity of the immune system. %MM.g. %G8 immunoglobulin.%!%O*AT$%C8 a term used to describe a disease or condition of unknown cause or origin. Organs of the immune system include the lymph nodes.g.(%)8 see antibody.. cancerous cells.)%T28 resistance to disease... and tonsils. antibody production7. bacteria. 6irus7. the body=s ability to recogni:e and defend against outside in6aders and cancerous cells."--%/"8 a drug or other agent that decreases immune system function.)%3AT%O)8 the process by which a person is protected against illness caused by a pathogen 4e. %MM. %MM.g. or the body=s own tissues 4autoimmune response7.8 see in5ection drug user.8 an agent that influences the body=s immune response. %#)8 see interferon. %MM.)" . %MM.

g.. %M*!$ %)$% %TO. Contrast with pre6alence. Contrast with exclusion criteria.. %)&"CT%O) !.8 see inosine monophosphate dehyrogenase inhibitor. %)!. and pain. swelling. produced by Amgen@/aleant *harmaceuticals.g..G . fungus7.)"9 A-"! T$".%A8 conditions that a person must meet in order to be eligible for a clinical trial. . Contrast with maintenance therapy.7 is also sometimes used. The term intra6enous drug user 4%/!.$"*AT%T%-8 see hepatitis A. AT%O) *".A*2 4%MM. typically characteri:ed by redness. %)#"CT%O)8 a condition in which the body is in6aded by an infectious organism 4e. cocaine7 administered with a needle and syringe.A*28 the initiation phase of a particular treatment. bacteria. heroin.8 an agent that inhibits or blocks an acti6ity.-8 a disease or condition that can be transmitted from one person to another.-". of a drug.. participants must sign a form stating that they ha6e been gi6en and understand important information about the trial 4including possible risks and benefits7 and 6oluntarily agree to take part. nutrients7 into the bloodstream. %)$% %TO. %)#". %)#"CT%O. The incidence rate is determined by di6iding the number of new cases by the total population.%MM.. %)#"CT%O. efore entering a trial.)OT$".%T". %)#(AMMAT%O)8 the body=s response to tissue in5ury or infection.G")8 brand name of interferon alfacon E consensus interferon. heat.CT%O) T$".-%O) C. Typically induction therapy uses higher or more fre<uent doses of a drug. %)C%!")C" 4also %)C%!")C" .%O!8 the period of time between initial exposure to an infectious microorganism and the de6elopment of disease symptoms.M"! CO)-")T8 a mechanism designed to protect sub5ects in clinical trials.-%O)8 direct in5ection 4e.78 a person who uses an illegal drug 4e. %)#.AT"78 the number of new cases of a disease or condition in a specific population during a gi6en period of time.A*278 a therapy that attempts to modify or enhance the immune response or reconstitute a damaged immune system. %)C(. 4%!. %)#O.g. 6irus. %)C.

8 an agent 4e.#".'%) 4%(78 a cytokine 4chemical messenger7.#". -ide effects may include flu9like symptoms.."AT A)A(2-%-8 a method of analy:ing the results of a clinical trial in which all participant who were originally assigned to an arm are analy:ed. leading to blood sugar imbalances. %)TO(". The three ma5or classes of interferon are alpha. secreted by immune system blood cells."/%"0 OA. and gamma. %)T".! 4%. %)T"..O)9A(*$A8 a naturally occurring protein produced by the immune system that interferes with 6iral replication.(A. Contrast with as9treated analysis. and anxiety.78 a standard unit of measurement.(%) 4%/%G78 an antibody preparation administered intra6enously to treat illness in a person whose own immune system does not produce sufficient antibodies.)AT%O)A( .4%/78 in5ected directly into a 6ein.%)O-%)" MO)O*$O-*$AT" !"$2!. resulting in ad6erse side effects. %)T.8 within a cell. %)T")T9TO9T. thus inhibiting 6iral replication.8 an agent that interferes with the translation of 6iral genetic material and thus inhibits 6iral reproduction. %)T".)%T 4%. %)-T%T.)OG(O .(%) .O) 4%#)78 a cytokine 4messenger protein7 that plays a role in immune response. %)-. loss of appetite. that regulates a range of immune functions..A)C"8 inability of the body to tolerate a drug. %)T".A/")O.2 -%T" %)$% %TO. %)-.% O-OM" ")T.OG")A-" 4%M*!$7 %)$% %TO. 78 a multidisciplinary group that re6iews and ensures the ethical conduct of clinical trials that include human participants. beta. %nterferon9alpha 4brand names include %ntron9A.)A( . (ack of or insensiti6ity to insulin results in diabetes.A/")O.%MM. %)T".(".(%)8 a peptide hormone produced in the pancreas that enables cells to use glucose.AC"((. fatigue."-%-TA)C"8 a condition in which the body=s tissues cannot properly use insulin.T%O)A( . %)T.g. .oferon9A7 is standard treatment for $C/ and is also appro6ed for $ /. %)T. including those who dropped out due to treatment failure or side effects. riba6irin7 that interferes with the synthesis and storage of guanine. %)-OM)%A8 inability to sleep. . depression.

%. %.G 4%)!78 an #!A classification for experimental drugs that are undergoing clinical trials to assess their safety and effecti6eness prior to marketing appro6al. %. refers to studies done in a test tube or culture medium in the laboratory.O)9A8 brand name of interferon9alpha9Ab.8 see internal ribosome entry site inhibitor.8 a clinical researcher who is in6ol6ed with a clinical trial protocol and its implementation.)!%C"8 4icterus. %) /%T. $igh le6els of iron can be toxic to the li6er. itcteric7 yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin le6els in the blood. %-C$"M%A8 reduced blood supply to bodily tissues. %) .%)T.O)9!"#%C%")C2 A)"M%A8 the most common type of anemia.8 see in5ection drug user. %) /%/O8 (atin for Fin a li6ing organismF.8 see international unit. refers to studies done using human or animal sub5ects. %/8 see intra6enous.O8 (atin for Fin glassF.. %/%G8 see intra6enous immunoglobulin ack to top & &A.O8 in the uterus.%)$% %TO. The *rincipal %n6estigator is ultimately responsible for the conduct of the trial. %-("T C"((8 a cell in the %slets of (angerhans in the pancreas that produces insulin.". caused by a lack of iron. %)/"-T%GAT%O)A( )"0 !. %. &aundice is often a sign of li6er damage or gallbladder disease. %)/"-T%GATO.O)8 an important trace element needed for the production of hemoglobin in red blood cells. %/!.T". . produced by -chering9*lough. refers to e6ents that occur in the womb before birth.

. minerals7 in the kidneys. C"((8 a type of macrophage that resides in the li6er and ingests bacteria absorbed from the intestines.O-CO*28 a procedure in which a lighted instrument is inserted through an abdominal incision for the purpose of diagnosis.O-CO*%C (%/".g. neutrophil7. ("-%O)8 a tissue in5ury or wound. (". brand name "*%/%. the li6er con6erts fatty acids into ketones. (A*A. leading to blockage and pain.78 a nucleoside analog drug used to treat chronic hepatitis and $%/ disease. '"TO)"8 a byproduct of fat metabolism. '%!)"2 -TO)" 4)"*$.. 0hen the body does not ha6e enough glucose. '. (".O(%T$%A-%-78 an accumulation of substances 4e. %O*-28 a type of li6er biopsy using a laparoscope. (AM%/.%)G-8 see 0ilsonHs disease. (A1AT%/"8 an agent that promotes bowel e6acuation 4defecation7.!%)" 4BTC.9#("%-C$". but not acti6ely replicating or causing illness.*##". drug crystals. '%!)"2 4ad5ecti6e . 9cell.")A(78 one of two bean9shaped organs located in the lower back part of the abdominal ca6ity. T9cell.ack to top ' 'A2-".'OC2T"8 an immune system white blood cell 4e. or surgery. ("C%T$%)8 a fatty compound re<uired for proper metabolism.g.'%)"8 see granulocyte9macrophage colony9stimulating factor. which are used as fuel by the muscles. The kidneys filter waste material from the blood and excrete urine. (AT")C2 4ad5ecti6e (AT")T78 the state in which a disease9causing organism is present in the body. . (A*A. biopsy. ack to top ( (ACTAT%O)8 production of breast milk.

/iral load is sometimes expressed in logs.DDD to ED.DDD is a A9log decrease7.(" O# (%/". (%/".OOT 4G(2C2.O*$28 a syndrome that in6ol6es abnormal lipid metabolism and redistribution of body fat. a change from E. The most common type of li6er cancer in people with chronic hepatitis is hepatocellular carcinoma.g. Glycyrrhi:in is an acti6e component of licorice root.(%C$") *(A).$%3A G(A . proteins.4$"*AT%C *A)"(78 a set of blood tests that measure le6els of li6er en:ymes.8 malignant proliferation of cells in the li6er.. G(2C2.. or ED9fold. A log change is an exponential. assess the degree of li6er damage and determine how well treatment is working. (O ..-8 an inflammatory disease of the skin and mucous membranes characteri:ed by red or purple bumps or blotches.8 a structural unit consisting of hepatic 4li6er7 cells shaped like a hexagon with six portal triads surrounding a central 6ein. a change from ED to EDD is a E9log increase.8 a large organ on the upper right side of the abdomen that plays an important role in the metabolism of sugars and fats. (%CO. and filters toxins from the blood. (OG8 a measure based on the logarithmic scale that refers to <uantities in factor of ten. (%/".$%3%). CA)C". lobes are further di6ided into lobules. (i6er function tests are used to help diagnose li6er disease.%C" .A. increase or decrease 4e. (%*OG")"-%-8 production of lipids 4fats7.DDD. ")32M"8 see aminotransferase. and 6arious other substances. (O "8 one of the four anatomical di6isions of the li6er. (%/". C"((8 see hepatocyte. GA) CAO78 an herbal remedy traditionally used to treat diseases of the li6er and bronchial conditions. The cause of lichen planus is not known. (%/". (%/%)G !O)O. (%/". (%*O!2-T. (%*%!8 a fat.)CT%O) T"-T. . synthesi:es se6eral proteins. #. but it appears to be an autoimmune condition.8 a person who donates an organ or part of an organ while ali6e to another person.

T.-8 see systemic lupus erythematosus.*. and other tissues. MA()."-O)A)C" %MAG%)G 4M. harmful. Contrast with benign. to distinguish FselfF from Fnon9selfF7. (2M*$OC2TO*")%A8 a deficiency of lymphocytes. (2M*$ )O!" 4(2M*$ G(A)!78 a small. non9in6asi6e method for 6iewing soft tissues of the body using a magnetic field. or $(A. thymus. and adenoids. Contrast with induction therapy. MA(%G)A)T8 a condition that is se6ere. etc. ack to top M MAC. MA(A%-"8 a generali:ed feeling of illness and discomfort. The lymphoid organs include the lymph nodes. 6itamins. or resistant to treatment. MA(%G)A)C28 a cancer. -peciali:ed macrophages protect the skin. minerals. spleen. lungs 4al6eolar macrophages7. tonsils. MA&O. with concentrations in the neck.O*$AG"8 a large sca6enger white blood cell that ingests and processes foreign in6aders and cellular debris. (2M*$AT%C -2-T"M8 a network of organs and 6essels that help maintain the fluid en6ironment of the body and coordinate immune responses. li6er 4'upffer cells7. lipids. carbohydrates. or inade<uate absorption of nutrients from the gastrointestinal . MAG)"T%C .7 necessary for good health. Malnutrition may result from poor diet. T9cell. or tumor that grows in an uncontrolled manner. to other areas of the body. a flu9like feeling. and may in6ade nearby tissue and metastasi:e. bean9si:ed organ located throughout the body. generally maintenance therapy continues for a long period of time 4possibly for life7 to pre6ent disease recurrence.(.%T%O)8 lack of the minimum amount of nutrients 4proteins. markers7 that allow immune cells to recogni:e the body=s own cells 4that is.. MA%)T")A)C" T$". lack of appetite. groin. neoplasm. $%-TOCOM*AT% %(%T2 COM*("1 4M$C78 a group of genes that controls the expression of cell surface protein markers 4also known as human leukocyte antigen. and armpits. (ymph nodes filter out antigens and are the site of immune cell acti6ation. or spread. natural killer cell7 that plays a role in the body=s immune defense.g. (2M*$OC2T"8 a type of white blood cell 4e. 9cell. brain 4microglia7.A*28 therapy that follows successful initial treatment of an illness.%78 a sensiti6e.

"8 in the . AE. or a6erage. M")-T. #or example.. MA1%M%)"8 see histamine dihydrochloride. in the series of 6alues FE. ?. B. the uterine lining 4blood and tissue7 is shed and expelled 4the menstrual period7. Contrast with median.(O)"*$. M"!%CA%!8 in the . a program that pays for certain health care expenses for people IC and older..nited -tates. E. M"M . ?. An o6um 4egg7 matures and is released e6ery month.-"8 the cessation of menstruation.A)O. M"(!8 an acronym for Model "nd -tage (i6er !isease. M"!%CA.AT%/" G(OM". edema and arterial hypertension. M")O*A.AG"78 a statistical measurement of the central tendency.)A78 a piece of ribonucleic acid that carries genetic information from !)A to ribosomes in order to synthesi:e new proteins.4M$7 is a condition that affects the kidneys that is usually 4but not always7 associated with cryoglobulinemia. B. C.nited -tates. M"!%A)8 the number within a series that is preceded and followed by an e<ual number of 6alues.A)"8 a thin sheet or layer of tissue that ser6es as a semi9permeable co6ering. I.O#(%#". E. %f pregnancy does not occur. M"!%TAT%O)8 a techni<ue for relaxation and clearing and focusing the mind. M"GA'A. $ormones prepare the uterus for possible implantation.2OC2T"8 a large precursor blood cell that gi6es rise to platelets. #or example.F the median is I 4there are four 6alues lower and four 6alues higher7. ?. ED. of a set of 6alues. ED.)A 4m.tract. . ?. in the series of 6alues FE. . M"A) 4A/".A)O*.)"*$.. Contrast with mean.F the mean is L 4determined by adding up all the 6alues and di6iding by the number of 6alues7. I. A se6erity score or calculation used for adults with li6er disease to rank candidates for li6er transplantation. AE.%T%. -ymptoms include weakness. C. M"--")G".O*AT$28 a disease of the kidneys where $C/ antibodies and 6iral particles are deposited in the kidneys. a program that is funded by federal and state go6ernments that pays for medical care for those who canHt afford it.AT%O)8 a stage of the female reproducti6e cycle. M"M . 4-ee also glomerulonephritis7 M"M .

when they migrate to the tissues. and toxins. MO)OGAM2 4MO)OGAMO.A(8 an inorganic element that promotes chemical reactions within the body and is necessary for proper cellular metabolism. -%(2MA. M%)".4ad5ecti6e M"TA-TAT%C.("8 a small unit of matter made up of atoms. -tudies suggest that milk thistle can reduce hepatitis symptoms and helps pre6ent li6er damage. -ilymarin is a combination of acti6e components deri6ed from milk thistle. iodine. . Monocytes circulate in the bloodstream. MO)OT$".M"TA O(%-M 4ad5ecti6e M"TA O(%C78 the processes of building the body=s molecular structures from nutrients 4anabolism7 and breaking them down for energy 4catabolism7.g. they mature into macrophages. M"T$%O)%)"8 see s9adenosylmethionine. M%(' T$%-T(" 4-%(2 .-78 ha6ing a single spouse. iron. drugs.%)78 the most widely used herbal remedy to treat chronic hepatitis. Monotherapy for $C/ 4interferon alone7 is no longer considered standard treatment.%AG"8 a pregnancy that ends prematurely and is not carried to term... "ssential minerals include calcium. MO)OC2T"8 a large white blood cell that plays a role in immune defense. magnesium. M"TA-TA-%. MO)OC(O)A( A)T% O!%"-8 a preparation consisting of identical antibodies acti6e against a specific pathogen. 6erb M"TA-TA-%3"78 a disease 4especially cancer7 that spreads from one part of the body to another. Methadone maintenance therapy pre6ents withdrawal symptoms by administering small doses of the drug on a regular basis. and :inc.A*28 use of a single drug for treatment. Also. M%TOC$O)!. M"T$A!O)"8 an oral opiate9like drug used for pain management and to treat opiate 4e. M%-CA. A molecule is the smallest unit of a substance that retains its uni<ue characteristics.%O) 4plural M%TOC$O)!. more often used to refer to ha6ing a single sexual partner. heroin7 addiction.%A78 a rod9shaped organelle in the cytoplasm of a cell that produces energy.M MA.%A). Contrast with combination therapy. the chemical processing or breakdown of food. M$C8 see ma5or histocompatibility complex.M. MO("C. potassium.

TAT"78 a change in the character of a gene that is perpetuated when a cell di6ides or a 6irus replicates.TAT%O) 46erb M. M. infections.TA(%T2 4also MO. the gastrointestinal.TA(%T2 .**. respiratory.%8 see magnetic resonance imaging.CO.. M2"(O-. M2"(%)8 a white fatty substance that forms a sheath around the axons of neurons 4ner6e cells7 and pro6ides the insulation necessary for the proper transmission of electrical impulses. M. MO1% .(T%*(" M2"(OMA8a form of cancer of the bone marrow that causes anemia.g.(C". M.M"M . the burning of an herb 4moxa7 to generate heat and stimulate the flow of <i. m.(T%/%TAM%)8 a nutritional supplement that contains se6eral different essential 6itamins and minerals. the state of being affected by disease.CO-A78 a moist layer of semi9permeable tissue lining the openings of the body 4e. %!%T28 sickness.AT%O)8 a condition affecting the eyes causing pain. and genitourinary tracts7. M2A(G%A8 muscle pain.)A8 see messenger .(T%/A.") CO.A)" 4M. MO.%AT" A)A(2-%-8 a statistical analysis that takes into account se6eral different factors or 6ariables. M. MO1A8 the herb mugwort. and bleeding. . tearing and loss of sight.)"A( .. inflammation. MO. M.MOO.-T%O)8 in traditional Chinese medicine. M2"(OTO1%C8 poisonous to or destructi6e of the bone marrow.8 abbre6iation for million units.AT"78 death. resulting in decreased blood cell production. M. The mortality rate is the rate of death in a gi6en population.(T%#OCA(8 occurring at more that one site. M. M."--%O)8 inhibition of the bone marrow.)A.

.. )A%/"8 inexperienced. The )ational %nstitute of Allergy and %nfectious !iseases 4)%A%!7 and the )ational %nstitute of !iabetes and !igesti6e and 'idney !iseases 4)%!!'7 conduct research on 6iral hepatitis.O# $"A(T$ 4)%$78 a large biomedical research organi:ation that is part of the . a wart7 is locali:ed . especially within the first days or weeks after birth.CT%O)8 blockage of the arteries ser6ing the heart.T". or to an undifferentiated immune system cell.-. )9AC"T2(9C2-T"%)" 4)AC78 a form of the animo acid cysteine that is a6ailable as a nutritional supplement.O-%-8 cell or tissue death. and di6isions. or disease. )AC is used to pre6ent li6er damage due to acetaminophen o6erdose.O%)#(AMMAT%O)8 tissue inflammation and death. M2O*AT$28 muscle inflammation. )"O*(A-M 4)"O*(A-%A78 a tumor or growth. )"C. ack to top ) )AC8 see n9acetyl9cysteine. often leading to angina pectoris and@or heart attack. )AT. centers. )AT%O)A( %)-T%T. *ublic $ealth -er6ice. tissue that de6elops abnormally or cells that proliferate more rapidly than normal. )A.-"A8 stomach distress characteri:ed by an a6ersion to food and an urge to 6omit.!%A( %)#A. A benign neoplasm 4e.. The )%$ includes se6eral institutes.A( '%((". )"C.COT%C8 see opiate. 4)'7 C"((8 a type of white blood cell that attacks and kills tumor cells and cells infected with microorganisms.O*AT$28 a system of natural healing based on the philosophy that the body has the ability to cure itself. )"O)AT" 4ad5ecti6e )"O)ATA(78 a newborn.M2OCA. damage. )A. )!A8 see new drug application.. )AT.g. Often used to describe an indi6idual who has ne6er taken a certain drug.

)"*$. )O)%)/A-%/"8 a de6ice or procedure that does not re<uire puncturing the skin. -ee )ational %nstitutes of $ealth. a malignant neoplasm 4cancer7 can spread to other parts of the body. )%$8 see )ational %nstitutes of $ealth.. )%A%!8 )ational %nstitute of Allergy and %nfectious !iseases. )".O*$%(8 the most common type of immune system white blood cell.%*TA-"%)$% %TO.ecent studies ha6e shown that nonoxynol9M causes tissue damage and may increase the risk of .and does not spread to other tissues. )O)9A@)O)9 $"*AT%T%-8 see hepatitis C. )".O*AT$%C78 ner6e damage or disease.T.. resulting in increased susceptibility to infection. )%!!'8 )ational %nstitute of !iabetes and !igesti6e and 'idney !iseases. 4)).(2M*$OMA 4)$(78 cancer of lymphoid tissues.-" T..*OG")8 see granulocyte colony9stimulating factor. . -ee )ational %nstitutes of $ealth.O*AT$2 4ad5ecti6e )"..O(%T$%A-%-8 see kidney stone. )eutrophils are phagocytes that engulf and destroy in6ading organisms such as bacteria and fungi. )O)O12)O(9M8 a chemical formerly used as a spermicide and microbicide. )%AC%)8 see 6itamin .G A**(%CAT%O) 4)!A78 an application made by a drug manufacturer to the #!A to re<uest marketing appro6al for a new drug.T. )O)9).C("O-%!" . )"0 !. )O)9$O!G'%)H. )"*$.A(G%A8 ner6e pain.A)-C. )' C"((8 see natural killer cell. )".O*")%A8 an abnormally low number of neutrophils.OTO1%C%T28 the property of being poisonous or harmful to the kidneys. )". )"."/".T%78 an anti6iral drug that suppresses 6iral replication by interfering with the action of the re6erse transcriptase en:yme.

T.T%.C("O-%!" A)A(OG78 a drug that mimics a nucleoside. O)COG")8 an agent that promotes neoplastic cell growth.g. O)COG")"-%-8 the de6elopment and growth of cancer. ).2 !. 4)."/". )). ibuprofen7 that relie6es pain and reduces inflammation by blocking the body=s production of prostaglandins. ack to top O O##9(A "(8 use of an #!A9appro6ed drug for an indication other than that for which it was appro6ed. ).T. or cancer. ).C("O-%!" A)A(OG8 see nucleoside re6erse transcriptase inhibitor. O)CO(OG%-T8 a physician who speciali:es in the treatment of cancer. )O)-T".A)-C.. )-A%!8 see nonsteroidal anti9inflammatory drug. %n $C/.G 4)-A%!78 a drug 4e. ). ).. ). )O). O)CO(OG28 the study and treatment of cancer.-" T.C("O-%!" .O%!A( A)T%9%)#(AMMATO. .%")T8 an agent that promotes proper growth and metabolism. aspirin.C("OT%!"8 a genetic building block. one of the building blocks of genetic material 4!)A or .)A7.-T! transmission. ).T%8 see nucleoside re6erse transcriptase inhibitor.T%s suppress 6iral replication by interfering with the action of the re6erse transcriptase en:yme.%T%O)8 the process by which li6ing organisms digest and metaboli:e food to use for maintenance and growth of tissues. acetaminophen. a nonresponder does not achie6e normal A(T le6els or an undetectable 6iral load.%*TA-" %)$% %TO.T%8 see non9nucleoside re6erse transcriptase inhibitor."-*O)!". ).8 person who does not show impro6ement while undergoing treatment. causing premature termination of new chains of genetic material.

4O**O. Opiate drugs relie6e pain. ack to top * *A((%AT%/"8 offering symptomatic relief and comfort care 4e.8 paleness.g.T. both participants and in6estigators know what drug is being tested and what dosages are being used. *A((O. 4OTC78 drugs that are a6ailable without a prescription. alle6iation of pain7 rather than a cure. O*%AT" 4)A.g. taken by mouth.T$.T. *A.%T%-8 degenerati6e 5oint disease.AC")T"-%-8 a procedure to remo6e fluid that has accumulated in the abdominal ca6ityNa condition called ascites. O-T"OA."AT%T%-8 inflammation of the pancreas.. dull the senses. *A)C. typically due to bone marrow damage. O. potentially leading to cell damage and death. O%78 an illness or infection that does not normally occur in a person with a healthy immune system. O. and induce sleep. O1%!AT%/" -T. *A."A-8 a digesti6e gland in the abdominal ca6ity that secretes digesti6e en:ymes. pesticides. *A)C. methadone7 that are deri6ed from the opium poppy or produced synthetically and ha6e opium9like effects.COT%C78 a class of drugs 4e. heroin.9T$"9CO."--8 increased le6els of free radicals in the body.)%-T%C %(()"-. O**O.AC"TOMA(8 see acetaminophen . O/". OTC8 see o6er9the9counter. or other artificial inter6ention. but affects immunocompromised persons.)%-T%C %)#"CT%O). *A)C2TO*")%A8 an abnormally low le6el of all types of blood cells.O*")9(A "(8 a drug trial which is not randomi:ed and not blinded. codeine.)T".A(8 relating to the mouth.GA)%C #OO!8 food that is grown naturally without the use of chemical fertili:ers..

de6elopment..TA)"O.A(8 nutrients gi6en by in5ection into a 6ein. *AT$O(OG2 4ad5ecti6e *AT$O(OG%C78 the study of disease. *"%8 see percutaneous ethanol in5ection. bypassing the gastrointestinal tract.#"."T$A)O( %)&"CT%O)8 a treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma in which ethanol 4alcohol7 is in5ected into the tumor.#". *"G2(AT"! %)T".")T".C.#".*A.C.O)78 a recently de6eloped form of interferon that has a long half9life in the body and can be in5ected less often 4typically once per week7. produced by . fungus. *". *"G9%)T. *egasys7 appears superior to standard interferon as a treatment for $C/. parasite7. *". and how the body is affected. *"GA-2-8 brand name of pegylated interferon9alpha9Aa.%)ATA( T.%$"*AT%T%-8 inflammation of the lining of the li6er. *AT$OG") 4ad5ecti6e *AT$OG")%C78 any disease9causing agent. Contrast with trough le6el. especially a microorganism 4bacteria. *"A' ("/"(8 the highest le6el of drug reached in the body after a dose is taken. *". *AT$OG")"-%-8 the de6elopment and progression of a disease. *"G%)T".%)ATA(8 the period around the time of birth. .8 see polymerase chain reaction.TA)"O. produced by -chering9 *lough.-8 through the skin.O)8 see pegylated interferon.O)8 brand name of pegylated interferon9alpha9Ab.O) 4*"G%)T". *"G2(AT%O)8 a process in which polyethylene glycol 4*"G7 molecules are attached to proteins in order to extend their acti6ity in the body. and progression of disease.A)-M%--%O)8 see 6ertical transmission.oche (aboratories. including the causes. *". *". *egylated interferon 4brand names *eg9%ntron. 6irus. *C.

%*$". *hase %%% trials are designed to determine the efficacy of a treatment. which may lead to easy sunburning and other ad6erse effects. distribution to tissues. *$A-" %%% T.)%C%O. *hase %% trials e6aluate safety and preliminary efficacy in a larger number of participants than *hase % studies.O*AT$28 damage to the peripheral ner6es. *$A-" %/ T.T%CA(8 ha6ing to do with the de6elopment and manufacture of drugs. safety. and elimination.A( )".-8 tropical plant species that traditionally ha6e been used to treat li6er conditions. . *hase % trials e6aluate drug pharmacokinetics. *$A.*".%TO)%T%-8 inflammation of the peritoneum. *$(" OTOM28 withdrawal of blood from a 6ein. including the processes of absorption. usually in6ol6ing the feet and hands. *$A-" %% T.%A(8 the second stage of the e6aluation of a new treatment in humans. *$2((A)T$. metabolism. their sources. *$A.MACO(OG28 the science of drugs.A)"M%A8 a type of anemia caused by the inability of the intestine to absorb 6itamin EA. typically in a small number of healthy 6olunteers. *$AGOC2T"8 a sca6enger cell that engulfs and destroys in6ading pathogens 4phagocytosis7. These trials pro6ide additional information about safety and efficacy in large numbers of patients under Freal worldF conditions. *". often by comparing it to an existing standard therapy or a placebo.%A(8 post9marketing studies done after a new treatment is appro6ed and offered for sale.%A(8 the third stage of human testing of an experimental treatment. and how they work. *$A. which is needed to produce red blood cells. *".MAC". or to a manufactured drug.MACO'%)"T%C-8 the action of drugs in the body. and toxicity at different dose le6els..%TO)"..%A(8 the first stage of human testing of a new treatment.M8 the thick membrane that lines the abdominal ca6ity and co6ers the 6isceral organs. *$A-" % T. *$OTO-")-%T%/%T28 an increased sensiti6ity to light. *".

*(AT"("T8 see thrombocyte. *(A-MA8 the fluid. and discoloration.M8 the group of participants in a clinical trial that recei6es an inacti6e substance 4placebo7."-%-8 a procedure in which certain components are remo6ed from the blood plasma. *O(2M".78 a highly sensiti6e test that uses an amplification techni<ue to detect small amounts of genetic material 4!)A or .*$2. in5ection7 that has no treatment 6alue. *eople with ad6anced li6er disease may ha6e reduced platelet counts.*$2.*%GM")T8 a substance responsible for the color of bodily tissues. *O8 taken by mouth.A-" %)$% %TO. non9cellular portion of circulating blood. *O. nutrients. *(AC" O "##"CT8 a change in symptoms or disease progression associated with the treatment process itself.8 an agent that inhibits 6iral replication by interfering with the polymerase en:yme. *)".%A C.DDD9>DD. *(AC" O8 an inert. and waste products.A-" C$A%) . *O.MO)%T%-8 lung inflammation. skin damage.)A7 in a blood or tissue sample.g. *(A-MA*$"."ACT%O) 4*C. pill.!A8 a condition in which porphyrins build up in the body leading to symptoms including increased photosensiti6ity. *(AC" O9CO)T.)T8 The number of platelets in the blood. A normal platelet count is EBD.%A(8 a clinical trial in which a group recei6ing an inacti6e substance or mock therapy 4placebo7 is compared to a group recei6ing the experimental treatment.TA)"A TA. *O(2M". *(AT"("T CO.O(("! T. . inacti6e agent 4e.. rather than the actual therapeutic 6alue of a treatment. -ee also serum. *(AC")TA8 the organ that connects the fetus and the mother=s uterus and enables the exchange of oxygen.DDD@mcl. resulting in easy bleeding.%)8 a metabolic byproduct of hemoglobin production. *(AC" O A.

OC.T")-%O)8 high blood pressure in the portal 6ein that carries blood to the li6er. *.A)A8 in Ayur6eda. *.!28 see *hase %/ trial."/A(")C" .8 a statistical term used to describe the ability of a clinical trial to detect a particular result. The pre6alence rate is determined by di6iding the number of people with the condition by the total population. stomach.T. *. *.M78 the period following birth.8 the chief researcher conducting a clinical trial. *OTA--%. *O.TA( -2-T"M8 a series of 6eins from the small and large intestines."/A(")C" 4also *." *$2-%C%A)8 a physician who is responsible for the o6erall long term health maintenance of a patient. *O..TA( $2*".."C(%)%CA( .'"T%)G -T. *O0".%MA.C$8 laboratory and animal studies on an experimental treatment prior to clinical trials in humans.O*$2(A1%-. Generally the power of a study increases as more participants are included or as the trial continues for a longer period of time. *O-T9MA.*O."-"A.TA( /"%)8 the blood 6essel that carries oxygen9poor blood from the intestines to the li6er for filtering. *..M8 an element and electrolyte responsible for the bodyHs growth and maintenance.G8 a compound that is con6erted to an acti6e drug within the body. *. *.%T8 see erythropoietin. *O-T)ATA( 4*O-T*A." *.2 CA. during which the fetus de6elops in the uterus. the body=s 6ital energy.AT"78 the number of indi6iduals with a condition in a specific population.O!. caused by the de6elopment of fibrous scar tissue 4cirrhosis7 in the li6er. *"*78 treatment gi6en immediately following exposure to an infectious organism in an attempt to pre6ent the infection from taking hold in the body.%)C%*(" %)/"-T%GATO. ."/")T%O) 4*O-T"1*O-. and spleen that 5oin into the portal 6ein and are carried into the li6er.")ATA(8 the period preceding birth. Contrast with incidence." *. *. *O-T"1*O-.

%A-%-8 a skin condition characteri:ed by scaling and red patches.OM %)8 a protein synthesi:ed by the li6er that is necessary for proper blood clotting..!28 a clinical trial in whichparticipants are selected and their progression is followed o6er time.OT$.4ad5ecti6e *.. Contrast with retrospecti6e study. *roteins are ma5or components of li6ing cells and are essential for bodily growth and repair. *-2C$O-%-8 a serious mental illness. *-O.OG)O-T%C78 a forecast of the probable course or outcome of a disease. length of the trial. *. *.O)"8 a female hormone with anti9estrogen effects.%AT%C A. endpoints. which typically includes details such as the hypothesis to be tested. *.O*$2(A1%-8 a measure taken to pre6ent a disease or condition. *-O... *.%T%-8 a form of rheumatoid arthritis associated with psoriasis. . A normal *T is ED9EA seconds. *. how the treatment under study will be administered."--%O)8 de6elopment of a disease o6er time. *eople with ad6anced li6er disease may ha6e a slower than normal *T.g..%T.T$. *.4ad5ecti6e *. family situation7 can ha6e an important effect on disease risk and progression and are an essential aspect of a person=s well9being. socioeconomic status.OT"%)8 a complex organic compound consisting of a se<uence of amino acids folded in a specific configuration. *.OG. *.. *. due to the o6erproduction of skin cells. *.OM %) T%M" 4*T78 a measure of blood clotting time.OT"A-" %)$% %TO. *.8 an agent that inhibits 6iral replication by interfering with the 6irus= protease en:yme.OG)O-%.%T%C78 itchiness. *-2C$O-OC%A(8 a term used to refer to factors that affect the psychological or social realm.O-*"CT%/" -T. and potential risks and benefits. who can participate. *rogesterone prepares the uterus for the de6elopment of the fertili:ed o6um and maintains the uterus throughout pregnancy. education. *sychosocial factors 4e.*.OG"-T".OT$.OTOCO(8 a written plan for a clinical trial.O'%)"8 see granulocyte colony9stimulating factor.

*-2C$OT$",A*28 treatment of mental problems with non9medical therapies, in particular counseling. *-2C$OT,O*%C8 a drug that affects psychological or mental functioning or beha6ior. *.(MO)A,2 #% ,O-%-8 the de6elopment of fibrous tissue in the lungs. *T8 patient. *.,*.,A8 see thrombocytopenic purpura. *.,.(")T8 characteri:ed by the accumulation of pus. *.-8 a thick, greenish9yellow fluid composed of dead white blood cells, killed microorganisms, and other cellular debris. *9/A(."8 a measure of probability that is reported with clinical trial results. The p9 6alue indicates the likelihood the result obtained are due to chance alone. Traditionally, a p96alue of less than .DC is considered statistically significant, or not likely due to chance alone. -ee also confidence inter6al. *2,,O(%3%!%)" A('A(O%!8 a hepatotoxic component found in plants of the Crotalaria, -enecio, and $eliotropium families. ack to top + +8 medical abbre6iation for e6ery, often used to specify drug dosing schedules 4e.g., <Ih means e6ery I hours7. +% 4C$%78 the 6ital energy belie6ed to be responsible for health and disease in traditional Chinese medicine. +%GO)G8 a form of traditional Chinese exercise that promotes the healthy flow of <i. +.A(%TAT%/"8 relating to, or expressed in terms of, <uality. A <ualitati6e 6iral load test measures the presence of a 6irus. +.A)T%TAT%/"8 relating to, or expressed in terms of, <uantity. A <uantitati6e 6iral load test measures the amount of 6iral genetic material. +.A-%-*"C%"-8 indi6idual genetic 6ariants of $C/. 0ithin a single genotype there may be multiple <uasispecies. ack to top

, ,A8 see rheumatoid arthritis. ,A!%AT%O) T$",A*2 4,A!%OT$",A*278 the use of radiation to treat disease 4especially cancer7. ,A!%OG,A*$28 the use of 19ray pictures, for example for diagnosis. ,A!%O(OG%-T8 a physician who uses x9rays or other imaging procedures for diagnosis and treatment. ,A)!OM%3"! T,%A(8 a clinical trial arranged to produce a chance distribution of participants into different arms 4e.g., experimental treatment, standard treatment, or placebo7. ,andomi:ation is done to minimi:e bias. ,A*%! /%,O(OG%CA( ,"-*O)-" 4,/,78 the probability of achie6ing a sustained 6irological response early in treatment based on a decline in $C/ ,)A 46iral load7. The generally accepted timeframe is > weeks after starting treatment. ,A2)A.!=- *$")OM")O)8 temporary interruption of blood flow to the extremities 4fingers, toes, tip of nose and ears7, often associated with exposure to cold temperatures. , C8 red blood cell. -ee erythrocyte. ,"ACT%/AT%O)8 the return of a pre6iously latent 4inacti6e7 infection to an acti6e, pathogenic state. ,"ACT%/" A,T$,%T%- 4,"%T",=- -2)!,OM"78 an arthritic disorder, often linked to con5uncti6itis, that appears to be associated with 6iral infections. ," "TO(8 -cheringHs brand of riba6irin. see riba6irin. ," "T,O)8 a bundled kit for $C/ treatment that packages together %ntron9A brand interferon and riba6irin. ," O.)!8 an increase in 6iral load following a pre6ious decrease. ,"C"*TO,8 a specific binding site on a cell=s surface or in its interior. 0hen chemical messengers or drugs bind to receptors, 6arious cellular functions are acti6ated or inhibited. /iruses must bind receptors in order to enter cells. ,"COM %)A)T8 produced by genetic engineering. ,"CO)-T%T.T%O)8 mixing a substance 4e.g., *eg9%ntron brand pegylated interferon7

with water to return it to a usable form. ,"C.,,")T8 returning or occurring repeatedly. ,"! (OO! C"((8 see erythrocyte. ,"#("1O(OG28 an alternati6e healing techni<ue that in6ol6es putting pressure on 6arious :ones of the body. ,"#,ACTO,28 resistant to treatment. ,"G")",AT%O)8 regrowth. ,"G%M")8 a specific treatment protocol, including what drugs are taken and at what dosages. ,"%'%8 a healing techni<ue in which energy is channeled through the hands of the healer. ,"%T",=- -2)!,OM"8 see reacti6e arthritis. ,"(A*-"8 recurrence of disease symptoms following a period of impro6ement. %n $C/, relapse can refer to an increase in 6iral load after it has been suppressed. ,")A(8 ha6ing to do with the kidneys. ,"*(%CAT%O)8 multiplication or reproduction, specifically used when referring to a 6irus. ,"-"CT%O)8 see hepatic resection. ,"-%-TA)C"8 the mutation of a microorganism in such a way that it loses its sensiti6ity to a drug; a resistant organism can function and replicate despite the drug=s presence. ,"-O(/"8 when referring to a condition, to clear up or heal. ,"-*O)!",9,"(A*-",8 a person who initially responds well to a treatment, but then experiences a relapse. %n chronic $C/ infection, this refers to a person who initially has a positi6e response to treatment 4e.g., normal A(T, undetectable $C/ ,)A7, but does not sustain this response once treatment is stopped. ,"-*O)-" TO T,"ATM")T8 see treatment response. ,"T%)O*AT$28 disease of the retina of the eye. ,"T,O-*"CT%/" -T.!28 a study based on medical records, looking backward in

other organs. . and skin. and uracil.F .% O-OM"8 small organelles in the cell where new proteins are built from the . A ribo:yme directed against a specific region of the $C/ genome is currently under study as a treatment for $C/. kidneys.% A-*$".-8 a class of 6iruses that ha6e their genetic material in the form of ."8 Medmark -pecialty -olutionsH brand of generic riba6irin. The presence of 6iral .A78 an autoimmune condition characteri:ed by 5oint inflammation and destruction of connecti6e tissue.$".O#".8 a type of antibody 4%gM7 that reacts to abnormal %gG antibodies produced by people with autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis.oche (aboratories.-.)A8 see ribonucleic acid.MATO(OG28 the study and treatment of conditions of the 5oints. .)A and use the re6erse transcriptase en:yme to transcribe their . bones.time at e6ents that happened in the past.AT%O8 a measurement used to e6aluate whether potential benefits outweigh potential risks 4e.MATO%! A. . . . cytosine..%MA)TA!%)" 4brand name #(. ."78 an anti6iral medication appro6ed for use in combination with interferon to treat chronic $C/ infection. may also be affected.C("%C AC%! 4.)A Fblueprint.O)9A8 brand name of interferon9alpha9Aa. Contrast with prospecti6e study. see riba6irin. .% A is often used to confirm $C/ antibody positi6ity detected on an "(%-A %% test.%-'@ ")"#%T . . .g. including the heart. in a clinical trial7."T.)A in the blood indicates that a 6irus is acti6ely replicating.$".%) 4brand name . and connecti6e tissues.)A molecule that clea6es 4cuts7 .. produced by .)A into !)A within the host cell. .%T%.% A-*$". muscles.MATO%! #ACTO. .$". .4.% O32M"8 an . .MA!%)"78 a drug used to treat influen:a that is also under study as a treatment for chronic hepatitis C.)A78 a single9stranded nucleic acid that encodes genetic information.)A is made up of se<uences of four building blocks8 adenine.% O)." "TO(.% A8 a type of antibody test.% A/%. . lungs. . .)A strands at a specific site.O/%.T$. CO*"G. . guanine.

ussian medicine to treat li6er conditions.. -A. 3oloft7 used to relie6e depression.g.AMO-T%M8 see granulocyte colony9stimulating factor. eyes.CO%!O-%-8 an autoimmune condition characteri:ed by granulomas 4small nodules of cells7.% drugs act by moderating le6els of the neurotransmitter serotonin.18 treatment ack to top -9A!")O-2(M"T$%O)%)" 4-AM9". 0"% 3%78 a plant used in traditional Chinese and .O!".OTO)%) . -"%3. how likely a . -A.A*28 emergency treatment with experimental drugs for an illness that does not respond to standard therapy. -C$CDBDB>8 )-B serine protease inhibitor under study to treat chronic $C/. -"(")%. typically by blocking contact with semen and@or 6aginal fluid. -ensiti6ity also refers to a statistical measure of the accuracy of a screening test. *ro:ac. -C(". li6er. -C$%-A)!. the condition may affect the lungs. -")-%T%/%T28 the ability of an organism to respond to a drug or other agent.MA8 an autoimmune condition characteri:ed by hardened skin and connecti6e tissue."8 a burst of abnormal electrical acti6ity in the brain. 4--.*TA'" %)$% %TO. skin. -"18 sexual acti6ities that reduce or eliminate the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. -AM*(" -%3"8 the number of participants in a clinical trial.%78 a psychotropic drug 4e.G.. M"T$%O)%)"78 a natural compound found in cells and a6ailable as a nutritional supplement.M8 a trace mineral that acts as an antioxidant. -A(/AG" T$".. -AM9"8 see s9adenosylmethionine. and other organs. -A#". --. -"("CT%/" -". that is.".A 40. -"M")8 male e5aculatory fluid containing sperm and 6arious proteins.

-". -ee also plasma.")=. leading to dry eyes. herpes. -"1.-O%!-8 ca6ities through hepatic or li6er tissue allowing exchange of nutrients and other substances between blood and hepatocytes 4li6er cells7. syphilis.M8 the fluid.-8 the presence or absence of antibodies against a pathogen in the blood. -%A(A!")%T%-8 -ialadenitis is an inflammatory disease that causes dry mouth and eyes and is associated with hepatitis C infection.. Contrast with specificity.O-TAT. -ialadenitis destroys the sali6ary glands. an acti6e component of milk thistle.%)8 see milk thistle.OM"8 an autoimmune disorder in which the immune system attacks fluid9producing exocrine glands.A)-M%TT"! %)#"CT%O). -"..g. -$"!!%)G8 release of infectious particles 4e.A((2 T. etc. mouth. -". lymphatic fluid.A((2 T. $%/7 that is transmitted through sexual contact. -"*-%-8 infection. -%(2MA. -%(% %)8. -%).M $"*AT%T%-8 see hepatitis . -ee alanine aminotransferase.O)"GAT%/"8 lack of antibodies against a pathogen in the blood. noncellular portion of blood that remains after coagulation. -&OG. -". -T%. chlamydia. 6iruses7 into the en6ironment. bacteria.-%O)8 the de6elopment of antibodies against a pathogen.OCO)/".O*O-%T%/"8 presence of antibodies against a pathogen in the blood.-2)!. -"1. gonorrhea. -$O9-A%'O9TO8 a traditional herbal li6er formula containing bupleurum. . -%!" "##"CT8 see ad6erse reaction. -".test is to label as positi6e those who ha6e a disease or condition. the change in a person=s antibody status from negati6e to positi6e.A)-M%TT"! !%-"A-" 4-T!... -ee aspartate aminotransferase. -". -GOT8 serum oxaloacetic transaminase. -G*T8 serum glutamic pyru6ic transaminase.g. 6agina. /")"."A( !%-"A-"78 a disease 4e.

"8 the le6el of care that all persons with a particular illness should recei6e. -TAG" %%%8 a stage of li6er damage characteri:ed by fibrosis in ad5acent areas of the li6er. characteri:ed by li6er inflammation without fibrosis or cirrhosis.! %)T". -TA)!A. a result of a clinical trial is considered statistically significant if there is a less than CK probability that the difference obser6ed would occur by chance .-O!%. -TA)!A. and later remo6es old red blood cells and platelets from circulation. -TAG" %/8 the most ad6anced stage of li6er damage. A)G%OMA8 a mass of 6isible 6eins on the skin surface. -TAG" %8 the earliest stage of li6er damage. -TAG" %%8 a stage of li6er damage characteri:ed by fibrosis in a single area of the li6er.. that is. the le6el below which care would be considered substandard.oferon9A. -TA)!A. -*"C%#%C%T28 a statistical measure of the accuracy of a screening test.%TO)T%-8 bacterial infection of ascitic fluid in the abdominal ca6ity.M8 an element and electrolyte and a component of salt that helps to regulate cell fluid balance. how likely a test is to label as negati6e those who do not ha6e a disease or condition.%8 see selecti6e serotonin reuptake inhibitor.O)8 the type of interferon9alpha traditionally used to treat $C/.! T$". -*%!".A*28 the best or most widely used currently a6ailable treatment for a disease. Contrast with sensiti6ity.ACT". -+8 see subcutaneous. rand names include %ntron9A and . -TAT%-T%CA( -%G)%#%CA)C"8 the probability that a clinical trial result is not due to chance alone. -*(")OM"GA(28 enlargement of the spleen.%A( *".! O# CA. -ee also pegylated interferon. characteri:ed by cirrhosis and loss of normal li6er architecture. --. The spleen produces blood cell in the fetus. -*("")8 an immune system organ located in the abdominal ca6ity. -*O)TA)"O. %n general. may be a symptom of chronic li6er damage.#".

-. -. (ack of blood flow can lead to brain damage 4resulting in symptoms such paralysis7 and death. taken in addition to the normal diet.O1%!" !%-M. -ubtypes are a more narrow classification than genotypes. T2*"8 a genetic 6ariation of an organism.TA-"8 an en:yme that destroys free radicals.g. -. -T". including certain hormones 4e. -. -. ACC%!")T78 interruption of the normal flow of blood to the brain due to a blood clot or hemorrhage.A*".'".. usually in pill form.T G. -T"ATO-%-8 buildup of fat tissue in the li6er. C(%)%CA(8 disease symptoms that are too subtle to be noticed by a patient. C. .%)#"CT%O)8 the ac<uisition of a second infection while a pre6ious infection is still present.*".O/A-C.8 see endpoint. -T")O-%-8 narrowing or tightening of an opening or passage in the body. -T!8 see sexually transmitted disease.O. -..O'" 4C".**O.alone if the treatments being compared were e<ually effecti6e." .O%!8 a family of substances that share a similar chemical structure.*8 a group of peers with a common condition that meet for mutual emotional support or education. -. T$". Also refers to a microorganism that is 6ulnerable or sensiti6e to the effects of a drug. -.T%C8 a drug dosage that is too low to be effecti6e. &"CT8 a 6olunteer participant in a clinical trial.. but may be apparent in laboratory results. -. -. -. -T%8 see sexually transmitted disease. but broader than <uasispecies.(A.**("M")T8 a nutrient.OGAT" MA. Genotype E $C/ is di6ided into subtypes Ea and Eb. usually refers to a drug in5ected under the skin.-C"*T% ("8 6ulnerable to or potentially able to contract a disease. testosterone7 and 6arious drugs.*".4-+78 underneath the skin..TA)"O. -T.

G%-T%C "##"CT8 The interaction of two or more drugs such that their combined effect is greater than the sum of the indi6idual effects when each drug is administered alone.-78 an autoimmune disease characteri:ed by inflammation of connecti6e tissue throughout the body. -2-T"M%C (.OM"8 a set of symptoms or disease manifestations that occur together. . -2)!. %n $C/. 0eek LA for genotype E7.O(OG%CA( .EA8 continued undetectable 6iral load EA weeks after the completion of therapy.*. -/. -2-T"M%C8 affecting the whole body. -2)"."-*O)-" 4-/..78 continued undetectable 6iral load A> weeks after the completion of therapy 4typically 0eek >? for genotypes A or B.G2 4-2)".".g. -2)T$"-%-8 production. -. normal A(T le6els.2T$"MATO-. T=A% C$%8 a traditional Chinese exercise that promotes the health flow of <i. -18 see symptoms.-.8 a person who maintains a long9term response to treatment.-TA%)"! .4(.G%-T%C78 an interaction between drugs that produces an effect greater than the expected additi6e effect of the different drugs used separately. -2M*TOMAT%C8 showing outward signs or symptoms of a disease. ack to top T TAC"8 see transcatheter arterial chemoemboli:ation. especially in the 5oints. -2MM"T..G%-M. -2)".-TA%)"! /%. -2M*TOM 4-178 any perceptible change in the anatomy or function of the body that indicates the presence of a disease or condition. undetectable $C/ .."(8 see amantadine.8 see sustained 6irological response8 -/. ad5ecti6e -2)". a sustained responder has a long9term response 4e.*."-*O)!".)A7 that persists after treatment is stopped.

T$..OM OC2TO*")%A8 an abnormally low number of platelets. -mall blood 6essels under the skin bleed.G(A)!8 a gland in the chest that plays an important role in immune system function. T$%-2(%)8 an acti6e component of milk thistle.OM O-%-8 de6elopment of blood clots within blood 6essels or the heart.O)"8 the primary male sex hormone or a synthetic analog. #actors include thymosin. Testosterone stimulates the de6elopment of male secondary sex characteristics and the production of sperm.. ..ATOG")%C%T28 causing birth defects or malformation of the fetus. thymopentin. T$2M.OM O*O%"T%) 4T*O78 a cytokine that stimulates the production of platelets. resulting in purplish discolorations.A8 a condition caused by a lack of platelets. 4/19MCD78 an $C/ protease inhibitor under de6elopment by /ertex to treat hepatitis C. T"-TO-T". T$%OCT%C AC%!8 see alpha lipoic acid. and are under study as a treatment for $C/.OM OC2T" 4*(AT"("T78 a type of blood cell responsible for normal blood clotting.8 a hormone produced by the thymus gland or a synthetic substance that has a similar effect. T$2MO*")T%)8 see thymic factor. the gland is acti6e in children. but less so in adults.*. which may result in abnormal bleeding and easy bruising. T$."/%. Thymic factors help promote immune system acti6ity. T$. T". T"(A*.TA. T$2MO*O%"T%)8 see thymic factor. T9C"(( 4T9(2M*$OC2T"78 a type of immune system white blood cell. and thymopoietin. T$.%)"8 an amino acid synthesi:ed by the li6er that is necessary for many bodily functions.OM OC2TO*")%C *.. T$2M%C #ACTO. T$. T$2MO-%)9A(*$A 43A!A1%)78 a thymic factor under study as a treatment for chronic $C/.

A)-CAT$"T". moxibustion. T%!8 taken three times daily. T$2. in the case of autologous transfusion7. highly sensiti6e 6iral load test. TMA8 see transcripton mediated amplification. TOCO*$".T$2.A)-AM%)A-"8 see aminotransferase.A %(%T28 the degree to which a drug or other agent produces ad6erse side effects. TO1%)8 a harmful or poisonous agent. often used to refer to drug side effects. . TO(".A)-#. TO*%CA(8 a medication applied to the skin surface.%*TO) M"!%AT"! AM*(%#%CAT%O) 4TMA78 a recently de6eloped.% "78 the process of copying genetic material. T.-8 ringing or bu::ing in the ears. T.O%! G(A)!8 an organ at base of the neck that produces thyroxin and other hormones in6ol6ed in regulating metabolism.A)-C. and exercises such as t=ai chi and <igong to restore the flow of <i 46ital energy7 within the body. TCM practitioners use methods such as acupuncture. T.%*T%O) 46erb T. T.A)-C.A(8 see 6itamin ". herbal formulas. T.O%!%T%-8 inflammation of the thyroid gland.-%O)8 the transfer of blood or blood components from one indi6idual to another 4or back to the donor.A)-C.%A( C$"MO"M O(%3AT%O) 4TAC"78 a treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma that in6ol6es the in5ection of chemotherapeutic drugs into the tumor=s blood supply.A!%T%O)A( C$%)"-" M"!%C%)" 4TCM78 an ancient Asian system of healing that focuses on achie6ing internal balance. T. TO1%C%T2 4ad5ecti6e TO1%C78 the <uality of being poisonous or harmful. T.AC" "("M")T8 a substance needed in 6ery small amounts for the proper functioning of the body. A.T". T%))%T.

T. T. ack to top . T2*" A !%A "T"-8 see diabetes mellitus. not permanent. T. T."--O."ATM")T9)A%/"8 a person who has not had prior treatment for a particular condition.A)-*(A)T8 surgical transfer of an organ from one person to another.%18 brand name of a combination hepatitis A@hepatitis T18 treatment. 6accine. T. T9-. C"((8 a type of T9cell that helps to regulate and control immune system acti6ity.G$ ("/"(8 the lowest le6el of a drug reached between doses. T-$8 thyroid stimulating hormone. .G.**.(A.%!"8 an organic compound made up of a fatty acid plus glycerol. end9of9treatment response. Contrast with peak le6el. Tumors may be malignant 4cancerous7 or benign 4harmless7.A)-&. and sustained 6irological response.MO. T.%G(2C". including biochemical response. T2*" E !%A "T"-8 see diabetes mellitus.%")C"!8 a person who has had prior treatment for a particular condition.%A(8 see clinical trial.O.8 an abnormal growth of cells. T. T0%).A)-M%--%O)8 spread of a pathogenic organism from one person to another. T.A)-%")T8 short9li6ed."ATM")T9"1*".T. -e6eral different measures are used to describe $C/ treatment response."-*O)-"8 a fa6orable outcome from therapy. transplant. T. (%/"."ATM")T . %O*-28 a type of li6er biopsy in which a sample is taken through the 5ugular 6ein in the neck. histological response. T.

A pre6enti6e 4prophylactic7 6accine is intended to pre6ent initial infection.(T.(T.(T.)+.)!78 a method of 6isuali:ing the internal parts of the body.4. .)%/A. or genetically engineered pieces.A-O)OG.-A( *.%AT" A)A(2-%-8 a statistical analysis that takes into account a single factor or 6ariable.)CO)T.A*$2 4. artery.)A7 that is below the le6el of detection of the test being used.O(("! T. .A-O.nited )etwork of Organ -haring78 a non9profit organi:ation that runs the Organ *rocurement and Transplant )etwork which o6ersees the fair distribution of organs for transplantation.)A at 0eek A of treatment./... /A. use of glo6es and face masks. . . .%A(8 a clinical trial in which all participants recei6e the experimental treatment and none recei6e a standard treatment or placebo for comparison. using sound wa6es.)%/". proper disposal of used syringes7 to pre6ent the spread of infectious diseases.-O!%O( 4brand name ACT%GA((78 a bile acid deri6ed from bears that is being studied as a treatment for $C/. A therapeutic 4treatment7 6accine is gi6en after infection and is intended to reduce or stop disease progression.."-*O)-" 4.)O. .$AG"8 bleeding from stretched and weakened blood 6essels.A9.4ad5ecti6e /A.g.%C"A( $"MO. A 6accine typically includes a small amount of a killed or inacti6ated microorganism.)!"T"CTA (" 4.T%O)-8 techni<ues used by health9care pro6iders 4e.A*%! /%. /A.) (%)!"!8 see blinding."CA. especially in the esophagus or stomach.78 undetectable $C/ . ack to top / /ACC%)"8 a preparation administered to stimulate an immune response to protect a person from illness. .. .A)T%#%A ("78 a term used to describe a 6iral load 4amount of 6iral .O(OG%CA( .%C"A(78 an abnormally dilated or swollen 6ein. . or lymph 6essel resulting from portal hypertension. or a fetus within the uterus.%C".. /A(O*%C%TA %)" 4)MA?B78 an $C/ polymerase inhibitor under study to treat chronic $C/.

"-*O)-"8 reduction in 6iral replication in response to treatment. The most common types are hepatitis A. ability to cause disease. /%. 6itamins are crucial for many 6ital bodily functions.A( $"*AT%T%-8 a type of hepatitis caused by a 6irus./A-C. /%.O(OG%CA( #A%(..-8 a microscopic infectious organism that is unable to grow or replicate outside of a host cell. /%. /%. The presence of genetic material indicates that a 6irus is acti6ely replicating. /%. /%.)A or !)A7. /ertical transmission may occur in utero 4in the womb7. /%.AM%!%)"8 a prodrug of riba6irin under study to treat chronic $C/. /%. /". and TMA tests are most often used to determine $C/ 6iral load.(")T78 aggressi6eness."8 failure of a treatment to suppress a 6irus. /%TAM%)8 an organic substance that acts as a coen:yme or regulator of metabolic processes..A)-M%--%O) 4*".%)ATA( T. usually expressed in terms of copies of 6iral genetic material 4. 6ia breast9feeding7."M%A 4ad5ecti6e /%.A( (OA!8 the amount of 6irus in the blood or other tissues.A)-M%--%O)78 transmission from a mother to a fetus or newborn. *C. a complete 6irological response means that a person=s $C/ .g..(%T%-8 blood 6essel inflammation. /%. /%TAM%) A8 a fat9soluble 6itamin synthesi:ed from beta carotene within the body that ."-*O)-"8 see 6irological response. %n $C/. or postpartum 4e..)A7 into a host cell and take o6er the cell=s biological mechanisms to reproduce new 6irus particles.A( (OA! T"-T8 an assay that measures 6iral load.(")C" 4ad5ecti6e /%.O(OG%CA( .)A becomes undetectable with treatment.. /%. /%. the b!)A."M%C78 the presence of a 6irus in the blood.O(OG28 the study of 6iruses and diseases caused by 6iruses.%O)8 a complete 6irus particle. hepatitis . /%. intrapartum 4during birth7. /iruses integrate their genetic material 4!)A or .T%CA( T.. and hepatitis C.A( . /"%)8 Any of the membranous tubes that form a branching system and carry blood to the heart from other organs.

/%TAM%) " 4TOCO*$". eyes. ack to top 0 0A-$O.O)8 brand name of lymphoblastoid interferon9alpha9nE. 0"((#". "xcess 6itamin A can be toxic to the li6er. ("8 capable of being dissol6ed in water. . /%TAM%) EA 4CO A(AM%)78 a 6itamin needed for red blood cell production and !)A synthesis and repair. B 4niacin7. -ee leukocyte.%O!8 the time it takes for a drug to be cleared from the body after it is discontinued. A 4ribofla6in7. neurological dysfunction. knees and wrists. I 4pyridoxine7. /%TAM%) !8 a fat9soluble 6itamin that is important for mineral metabolism and which may play a role in immune function. 0 C8 white blood cell. /itamin C deficiency may result in poor healing.O(78 an antioxidant 6itamin that protects cell membranes from oxidati6e damage. /%TAM%) 8 a complex of se6eral important 6itamins including E 4thiamin7. and changes in mental status. /19MCD8 an $C/ protease inhibitor under study to treat chronic $C/. /%T%(%GO8 a condition in which there is loss of pigmentation P usually around the mouth. and EA 4cobalamin7. /%TAM%) '8 a substance important for blood clotting.OM"8 a condition characteri:ed by atrophy of lean body mass and in6oluntary weight loss. Contrast with fat9soluble. easy bruising and anemia. produced by Glaxo-mith'line. nose. /itamin EA deficiency may result in anemia.has antioxidant properties and is important for proper immune system functioning. elbows. %C AC%!78 an antioxidant 6itamin that protects cells from oxidati6e damage. 0AT".T *". "xcess 6itamin ! can be toxic to the li6er. /%TAM%) *8 see biofla6inoid. /%TAM%) C 4A-CO.9-O(. 0A-T%)G -2)!.

%O!8 the time between exposure to a microorganism and the production of sufficient antibodies to be detected on a test.) M"!%C%)"8 allopathic medicine.) (OT8 an antibody test used to confirm a positi6e "(%-A test for $%/. ack to top 1 1")OG. 0%(-O)=. .0"-T".A)-*(A)T78 a transplant of an organ or tissue from a different species. 0)(8 within normal limits.A#T 41")OT. 3%)C8 an essential trace mineral. ack to top 2 4no definitions are posted at this time7 ack to top 3 3A!A1%)8 see thymosin9alpha.!%-"A-"8 a hereditary disorder affecting copper metabolism. 0$%T" (OO! C"(( 40 C78 see leukocyte. the type of medical practice typically used in )orth America and 0estern "urope. 0%)!O0 *". 0"-T".