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Secrets of CNC

At Home with Computer Numerical Control (CNC)
Copy right 3-11-1999 By Dan Mauch The Internet, and in particular the easy access to home business/hobby eb sites, has generated a need to automate the manu!acturing o! products made in home shops by hobbyist" #rom manu!acturing identi!ication tags !or #iddo, to machining parts !or robots to ma$ing molds !or %e elry, there is a need to impro&e the rate and 'uality o! products produced in the home shops " This article ill e(plain the concepts o! C)C and ill be the !irst step in automating the home or$shop" It ill detail many o! the aspects o! C)C but this article should be considered to be a general discussion o! the concepts o! lo cost C)C" Bac$ground *e&eral years ago +*ee attached articles belo ,I rote three article that ere published in )uts and -olts Maga.ine" The /ctober 1990 article had a general o&er&ie o! C)C and it &arious applications !rom drilling printed circuit boards to running a metal cutting po er band sa " The )o&ember 1990 issue carried an article on ho to build a lo cost three a(is 1/2 stepper motor dri&er" 1ast, the December issue detailed the construction o! a lo cost stepper motor dri&en C)C operated printed circuit board +3CB, drilling machine" I intend to !ollo that same !ormat but ill signi!icantly update the rapid de&elopments in this area and build se&eral ne pro%ects" This article ill pro&ide an updated e(planation o! C)C and ho it all or$s together in the home shop" The ne(t article ill sho you ho to build a lo cost three a(is chopper step motor controller" The third article ill ta$e an o!! the shel! lo cost milling machine and con&ert it to C)C" 4 Basic /&er&ie o! C)C The parts that ma$e up a C)C system are5 1" The personal Computer +3C," 6" 3rograms that allo the users to design their products" 3" 3rograms that con&ert the designs into 7 code +see 7lossary, instructions hich are used by 7 code interpreter programs that in turn run the machine8s controller" 0" 3rograms that interpret the instructions and operate the machine" 9" The 3C parallel port that sends the signals to the machine8s controller"

this is the program here you design your part" There are numerous C4D programs !or creating the part to be made" 4utoC4D B . !unctions ill be an <@0<:D?6-133 or !aster computer" It should be Aindo s or Aindo s99B based machine" The 3C used in the shop should be a D/* based 0<:D?6-:: or better" The shop computer only needs a small hard dri&e o! 1@@ MB and needs only 0 Megs o! 24M" The shop computer must ha&e a parallel port ith standard parallel port addresses" 4 3entium is probably o&er$ill !or the shop computer i! it e(ceeds 133 MC.. set or$ "9E belo FG@E." *? type computers don8t or$ ell because they do not ha&e the math co-processor" The so!t are generally re'uires an *-74 monitor" There are se&eral programs that are used on a 3C" The !irst is a design program generally called Computer 4ided Design +C4D. program" This program reads the D?# !ile and generates 7 code instructions. hich operates stepper motors in a controlled manner" . !eed rates and depth o! cuts " The le&el o! user inputs ith the C4M program &aries ith the particular so!t are" 4n e(ample o! a C4M program is called Des$am" 4 demonstration copy may be do nloaded !rom "des$am"com" This program reads the D?# !ile and the user sets &arious parameters" The program then creates a tool path !ile in 7 Code" The belo listed !ile is an e(ample o! 7 code5 +Matl DE alum 3late." The stepper motors that mo&es the a(es o! the machine to the re'uirement o! the instruction sent to the controller" <" The machine that mo&es each a(is indi&idually or simultaneously" =sually these are three-a(is machines" C)C >?314I)>D 4 detailed e(planation o! the abo&e parts o! the C)C system is as !ollo s5 The 3C is the brains that runs the &arious so!t are programs that then send signals to the parallel port instructing the step motor controller hen and much to mo&e the stepper motor attached to each a(is" The 3C used !or most o! the design +Computer 4ided Design +C4D. and Turbocad B are e(amples o! the range o! programs a&ailable to the users" Ahen starting out loo$ !or a lo cost program that ill sa&e your !iles as D?# !iles because there are other programs that ill con&ert this !ile !ormat to 7 Code hich ill be e(plained belo " The ne(t piece o! so!t are . use 3/<D end mill. hich may or may not be part o! the C4D program is the Computer 4ided Manu!acturing +C4M. hich are sa&ed in a tool path !ile" 4 C4M program or$s ith the user to generate the instructions !or the machine" It allo s the user to set the &arious speeds. *etup instructions 79@ +This instruction sets the absolute mode as opposed to 791 Incremental Mode .:" The controller that reads the signals generated by the 3C &ia the program and the parallel port. and Computer 4ided Manu!acturing +C4M.

and pins 6-9 " The 7 code interpreter sends the step and direction signals to these pins" The controller attached &ia a cable recei&es these signals and translates them into step se'uences that mo&es the motors" The stepper motor controller as described abo&e recei&es the signals" Most modern controller ta$es step and directions signals" /ne o! the data bits recei&ed is used as a pulse stream o! in!ormation and a second data bit is used to determine the direction" This bit is either logic high or logic lo " The other a(es are similar" #or e(ample data bit @ is usually pin 6 and this is normally connected to the ?-a(is step signal line" Data bit 1 is usually pin 3 o! the parallel port and is connected &ia a cable to the direction line o! the controller" Data bit 6 is usually the H-a(is step signal line and operates pin 0 o! the parallel port" *ome 7 code interpreters produce phase se'uences but that is ine!!icient and step and direction type controllers are predominately used" There are se&eral types o! controller" 1/2 +Inductance o&er 2esistance.<C+<<<D. types are simple. HG1 and FG-"< 7@1 H6"@@@ + This again mo&es only the H a(is 1E !rom the H location o! HG1 to HG6E The last piece o! so!t are used by the computer is called 7 code interpreters" These programs read a con!iguration !ile here the numbers o! step per inch are declared as ell as &arious other parameters such as bac$lash compensation" Aith that in!ormation.<C +<<<D. 3. cheap and ine!!icient" Chopper type step motor controllers are much more e!!icient but are more e(pensi&e" They easily can handle much higher &oltages than 1/2 types" 4 good chopper dri&er operates at se&eral times the &oltage rating o! the motor" This allo s the coils in the stepper motor to charge 'uic$er and thus you get more speed e!!iciently" 4 1/2 .. !or 13T1" This is the address that is set in the con!iguration !ile o! the 7 code interpreter program" The standard parallel port uses data bits @-." =sually it is 3.<C +:36D. calculates the number o! steps !or each a(is to mo&e and then send signals to the stepper motor controller hich in turn mo&es the &arious a(es" Des$)C is an e(ample o! a lo cost 7 code interpreter program" 4 demo copy may be do nloaded !rom "des$am"com" There are se&eral other 7 code interpreters that are lo cost and or$ !ine" 4 !ree 7 code interpreter is a&ailable at "metal or$ing"com " The parallel port on most IBM compatible type computer has one o! the !ollo ing base addresses 3BCC +99:D. or 6.7@@ ?1"@@@ H1"@@@ F-@"0@@@ + This instruction ill cause the machine to mo&e in a rapid tra&erse mode to a location designated as ?G1. HG1 and ill mo&e the spindle do n "0 inch on a milling machine" 7@1 F-"< #1@ the material ill cause the end mill to be !eed at a rate o! 1@ inches per minute through 7@1 ?6"@@@ H1"@@@+this ill command the machine to mo&e !rom the abo&e coordinate to ?G6E +The parameters are modal hich means that the #eed rate ill remain at 1@ inches per minute until changed by the 7 code " Thus the machine has mo&e to the location ?G6. the 7 code interpreter reads the 7 code !ile.

a drill press or e&en a plasma cutter" Most C)C machine uses t o a(es" The ?-a(is mo&es !rom le!t and right.type uses large dropping resistors to limit the current" /ther !eatures o! a step motor controller are that they ha&e &arious settings !or !ull steps or hal! steps" The best controllers use microstepping " The problems ith most lo cost controllers are that they are open loop" That means that i! the stepper motor loses it position then there is no !eedbac$ to correct the position and the part is ruined" /n the other hand. one can mo&e !rom the design stage to the manu!acturing products in a matter o! minutes once the design is completed and the 7 code is generated" #or e(ample I designed a motor mount that re'uired a 1"@@@ J"@@1/-"@@1 hole and !our 3/1:-inch diameter holes" The design only too$ a !e minutes using a C4D/C4M program +see "bobcad"com. the H-a(is mo&e !ront to bac$" 4 third a(is is used in a milling machine !or mo&ing the spindle up or do n" *olid state relays may be added !or turning on or o!! coolant pumps. the controller and the machine are set up correctly" In my ne(t article. or a lathe. by their nature. a stepper motor system can operate ithout losing steps i! the so!t are." Aith a C)C retro!it $its ama.ing or$ can be done ith these machines" Arapping it up In general." My milling machine already had the mill &ice set up so it only too$ a !e minutes using an . plasma or o(y-acetylene torches" 4ddition o! solid state relays is so!t are dependent and you need to chec$ that out i! you are purchasing a 7 code interpreter program" The most popular machines to retro!it are small des$top milling machines such as the *herline +http5// "sherline"com/sherline. e ill assemble and test a lo cost chopper step motor controller" *tepper motors are incremental motion de&ices" They are di!!erent !rom brush type DC motors" The main types o! stepper motors used !or C)C are bipolar or unipolar" They re'uire 6@@ step to ma$e a !ull re&olution" The so!t are generates the pulses that the step motor controller translates in to phase se'uences" These phase se'uences increments the rotation o! the stepper motor" The tor'ue o! the motor is rated in ounce inches" The !aster the motor turns the less tor'ue it has" The slo er the motor turns the more po er it has" 1o inductance stepper motors. glue dispensers . perhaps an engra&ing machine. ill run !aster than high inductance motors" #our ire stepper motors ha&e t o coils and are called bipolar" =nipolar stepper motors ha&e t o coils ith center taps that create !our coils" I! the center tap is not used then a unipolar motor can be used as a bipolar series stepper motor" The machines that can be constructed or retro !itted to C)C is unlimited" I $no o! in&entors and technicians that ha&e built machines to accomplish tas$ such as precision dispensing o! glue to ma$ing butterballs" Don8t as$ me ho I In general the home shop need a milling machine.

a small &ertical mill and a < inch bench drill press" Hou ill not need as many machines !or your home shop but I ha&e !ound C)C at home to be &ery addicti&eI Ahat8s )e(tK 1oo$ !or an upcoming article on ho to build a lo cost. only" Commands" 7@ 2apid tra&el at ma(imum !eed rate" 7@1 1inear interpolation at current !eed rate" 7@6 Cloc$ ise circular interpolation at current !eed rate" ?-H plane only" 7@3 Counter Cloc$ ise circular interpolation at current !eed rate" ?-H plane only" 7@0 D ell in tenths o! a second" >"g" 7@0 ?1@ ill d ell !or 1 second" 7<1 Drill cycle" 79@ 4bsolute coordinates +4ssumed. a 13?69 metal cutting lathe. 4 des$top *herline milling machine.e milling machine." 796 *ets Coordinates M@ 3rogram *top . three a(es bipolar chopper step motor controller" 7lossary 7-Codes are industry standard commands used in C)C machines Common =sed 7-Code Commands 4ssumes 79@ +4bsolute coordinates. and uses incremental I and L +M. FG@ location" The enter button as pressed and in less than 0 minutes the 3/1: end mill drilled the !our holes and bored a "999 inch diameter hole" It as a esome to atch it ma$e 11 more identical parts " It almost too$ more time to deburr each part and load blan$ and unload !inished parts in the machine than it too$ to ma$e the part" Ahen you !irst start out using C)C operated machines there is a learning cur&e" It ta$es time to get the so!t are and the hard are all or$ing together but once it is set up then you are only limited by your imagination as to hat you can accomplish" 4s a !ootnote. a mill/drill.edge !inder to locate the ?G@. high per!ormance. 6 printed circuit drill machines. I as testing a raster to &ector program that as machining an image o! my granddaughter hile I as riting this article" Co is that !or producti&ityK In my shop I ha&e C)C controls on my !ull si. HG@.

The following should go along way to explain the concepts of CCNC. There are " elements to Cimple Computer Numerical Control #CCNC$. !t is recommended that you study the glossary.M6 3rogram end M. The computer that controls the CNC machine can be an obsolete !&' (T that will be operated in a rugged shop environment. 0. Those that speciali e in electronics may have trouble with the programming of a computer. No sense using your good computer for this task. These are generally available for under <6: at swap meets.C(' *rograms -. The folks that are good with mechanical things may have problems with the programming or the electronic portion of CNC.)river /ystem#Controller$ ". is that if there is information available. !&' compatible. Electronic Translator. photos. The computer must be 4::.2 'echanism (n explanation of each element is as follows% 1. They are% 1" !&' compatible computer 6" C() *rograms #Computer (ided )esign$ +. 9ther CNC. ! will explain the various aspects of home CNC and to make it simple. it is limited to a single facet of CNC. Even more appalling. !n the following. The computers should be e=uipped with the following minimum hardware% monochrome monitor single +>:? floppy drive >-:? of @(' . schematic and flow charts before reading the following information. The CNC. The computer that runs the C(' program must have a parallel port with a standard 3*T4 or 3*T5 port address of +67#8E0$.1. The Computer runs the C() programs and generates files that are used on the same computer or are transferred to another computer for execution of the tool path file by a C(' program. Coolant /n M< Coolant /n M9 Coolant /!! T(( Tool change to tool (( *ecrets o! CC)C There is very little information available for the hobbyist that will explain the whole process of CNC from the computer to the machine.C(' programs may use serial or other parallel port addresses. The folks that like to program don't seem to care about the mechanical end.

'& of memory above the >-:? base. (fter the part is designed.> #/hareware$ CNC. a hard disk.--? floppy drive and .::: :.-.:. then an optical isolator should be installed between the translator.::: -.::: -.C('. the C() program will generate a tool path data file for use by the CNC.:.(T computer can be used to send commands to the controller.::: .:.:. 'ore importantly.inch s=uare pattern follows. *rotel (utotrax #about <+D"$ /chematic capture.C(' B)(N*39T ver 5. C() programs should be run on a 7:+7>.This configuration is more than ade=uate to operate a + axis motion control system. This file contains all the instructions read by the C('. a 4.5": :.holes in a .C(' programs are known to work with the electronic motion control system that will be described below% )(NC()+) ver 5. 1E.:.-. return to home point$ . 2.::: . feed rates.-. 1E: drill down$ .->: 4 4 : : #0E:.::: -.::: .->: .5": 4 : : : #drill moves up$ .5": :. drill moves down$ :.->: 4 : : #0E-.::: .5": .:.::: .::: :.->: 4 4 : : #0E-.:.:.*39T program.5": 4 4 : : #drill moves up$ : : : : : : : : : : #End of file.::: -.printed circuit board C() programs 9ptimi er ver 4.::: :.> #/hareware$+) C() )(NC(' ver 5.::: .:.:.->: :.5": 4 4 : : #drill moves up$ .5": .:.::: . ENTE@ #starts tool path$ 4/T 0 4/T 1 4/T 2 5N) 0 5N) 1 5N) 2 CEE)/ :.::: . The following C(). an 0T.->: :.-.-. !f a sophisticated computer is used.::: .5": 4 4 : : #drill moves up$ :.::: :.::: :.::: . and coordinates for the tool path. (n example of a tool path to drill .::: -.::: .:.CNC program and provides. 1E-. !t provides various outputs to plotters or printers for a hard copy of the part.-.::: :.::: -.5" or better computer with a minimum of an EA( color monitor.->: 4 : : : #drill moves down$ :.> #/hareware$ CNC. driver and the parallel port to protect the computer in case of an operator problem or malfunction of the electronics.:.:.::: :.::: .::: -.::: :. )(NC()+) is a + dimensional C() program where the user designs the part to be made in 5 or + dimensions.::: .-.drill moves down$ .->: .::: .-.: #<5"$ Excellon file conversion and drill pattern optimi ation program.plot.*39TTE@ *rotel Easytrax #Creeware$ pc circuit board design.:.:.::: .::: -.::: .

driver. home switch set up.line but does allow the user to fix the up position and the down position. )ot matrix.1.#0E. . 9ther. !t is great for engraving or sign making. auto. The 2 axis up and down positions are set up by the user in the utility program. This is a low cost but very powerful program that has all the features of Easytrax but also has auto place components.> allows the user to import 8*.switches via the translator. ( laser transparency of the circuit traces can be produced for the artwork for the circuit board. !t sends steps and direction commands via the parallel port to the electronic translator. )(NC(' is a vital program that reads the tool path file. )(N*39T is similar to )(NC(' except that the 2 axis #vertical$ does not allow for a range of up or down locations for each hole.inches long and .!f you were to view that tool path file in )ancad you will see four dots in a s=uare pattern . motor steps per revolution. 3. user generated. optimi es the tool path for the shortest path to drill all the holes.1 coordinates and convert Excellon file formats to )ancam format.inches 1E.router.inches apart.of. (fter the design is completed. The 2 axis #drill head$ would move down . This program is used only for CNC drilling. programs may be written and sent via the parallel port to the translator. calculates the number of pulses to move the machine to the coordinates indicated by the file. )(NC(' provides numerous configuration setup screens to match the leadscrew.inches$ 0: #0E: inches 1E.Gersion 5. *ostscript and pen plotter printers are supported. The program receives input signals from the 0. !t takes the drudgery of converting the Excellon file to C('. !t also sets the drill bit up and down positions. driver as long as the code sends the tool path to the same parallel port data lines as set on the controller. This program was previously described. !t can provide an Numerical Control #NC$ drill data file for drilling steel plate Fust as easily as is used to layout drill patterns for the circuit board drill machine.->: inch and then move up clear of the work to . These signals are essential for protection of the machines and for repeatability.driver. motor direction. *@9TE3 E(/1T@(0 is an outstanding freeware printed circuit board design program.inches '+: #end of file$ *@9TE3 (HT9T@(0 is a combination schematic and printed circuit board design program. backlash compensation.5": inch.A3 files and run them directly. The NC output is used by the 9ptim er #see below$ to read the 0. ramping of the stepper motor. !t then plots the drill pattern on the computer monitor and then converts the Excellon file to a format the C(' program re=uires. schematic capture and numerous other features re=uired for professional electronic designs. The following is an Excellon file% T:.drive mechanism.range micro.inches 1E:$ 1."5. pulses per inch of travel and Fust about any other variable one could think of including auxiliary relays and a fourth axis set up utilities.#Tool number$ 01: #0 and 1 coordinates E :$ 0. 9*T!'!2E@ is a program that reads the Excellon NC drill file. The C(' program recommended is )(NC(' 5. The tool path file only needs the 0 and 1 coordinates. Easytrax produces Aerber photo plot files which can be sent to a photo plot service for plotting the circuit on film.2 home switches and out.#0E. the Easyplot portion of the program generates a numerical control Excellon drill file that will be used to provide the coordinates for the holes to be drilled.

usually found only in expensive controller.1. The problem must be cleared before the program will allow the user to continue. The stepping motor is bifilar wound which means that two coils are wound on the same bobbin. 0. ( 67'9" voltage regulator is used to take the 45G)C supply voltage and regulate the J" volts for powering the !C's. G' E The motor voltage rating. This feature. . The driver portion of the !C's are '9/CET/ that are capable of delivering 4. ( low cost #<7"$ 3.Gd. The micro switches are normally open. Next. and full.travel protection microswitch. !nhibit or control chopping. *in 4:. *eak current is 4. *ins 44. the C(' hardware configuration file is read. !t will output 5 amps at 5-G)C. sends a signal back to the computer that there is an over travel condition. !t will run -. the stepper motors simultaneous turn to move the 0. 5 phase on stepping motors are used with the controller that will be built in the next article. These coils are called phases. Thermal shut down provisions provide some protection for the !C's. *ower resistors are provided where needed to limit the current to stepper motors with a voltage rating of less than the 45 G)C supply voltage.5" amps per phase with two phases on to each unipolar stepping motor.1.2 axis mechanism into the home micro switches.1." amps per phase. Typically they are " volt.2 direction pulses are sent via the computer to pins >. Ihen pin 4: is low. when pulled high by an open over. Each stepper motors moves until each axis is at their respective home position and removes any backlash provided for in the configuration file. 1 and 2 step pulses are sent from the computer parallel port via pins 5. 45 and 4+ are 0. half or Iave drive. ! also have a three axis chopper drive that is much more powerful than the unipolar drive. /upply voltages to +"G)C will work with the controller with minor modifications.!m Ihere% @& E Galue of current limiting resistor.77 amp per phase. -: ounce inch stepping motors. This feature is essential for repeatability. /ee below for an explanation of the chopper drivers. > wire. !' E The current rating of the motor. The translator portion of each controller !C receives the signals from the computer and converts step and direction pulses into the correct stepping se=uence for the stepping motor. This formula provides the value of the resistor% @&E#Gs. G/ E /upply voltage to the steppers. 8eat sinks and a cooling fan are needed for heavy loads. Ihen the C(' program commands the machine to 8ome up. supplies the " volts source to the pull up resistors and output voltage to the computer input lines.4. The common leads are connected to J45 G)C.three times faster and is much more powerful that the unipolar drive. the C(' programs runs the tool path file and continues to monitor this line.2 axis home switches inputs to the computer. . 5:: step. The pull up resistors brings these pins up to J". 0. stops the program.respectively. two coils are formed with a single common lead.@ + axis motion control system is used with the shareware. which in turn free es the positions of the stepper motors and displays a message on the monitor that there is an open switch.phase. !t has a 5:?82 chopper and has numerous other features like (ll Iindings 9ff. (s each switch is closed the stepper motor is stopped by a logic low signal to the appropriate pin of the parallel port. !t runs two.Gm$. G) E The voltage drop across the 4C's #usually 4 volt$.The controller receives step and direction signals from the C(' program via the parallel port. . + and . ( current limiting resistor is used if the voltage of the supply is greater than the motor rated voltage. &y center tapping the coil. Eight such bobbins are e=ually spaced in most stepper motors. 9ther controller that are *I' chopper drivers are better. 6 and 7 respectively. protects the mechanism from damage by preventing the machine from over travel should the operator send a command to the machine that is beyond the travel of the mechanism. Hnipolar. Ihen any of the home switches closes it pulls the pin low and signals the computer that the mechanism has moved to a predetermined 89'E point.> or 7 wire motors.

Aenerally. 5. the greater the resolution of the machine and the greater the force applied to the 0. 5::$. ( little 45 ounce. The 1 axis motor is mounted on the 0 axis cross slides and moves with the 0 axis. a single step would move the mechanism . ( leadscrew rotates in a drive nut.2 cross slides. The motor is reversed by reversing the step pattern. or 7 as called for by the C(' file.5:: and a resolution of #* .:": .2 mechanism will vary from machine to machine but generally use the stepping motor to rotate a leadscrew or drive a timing belt. these pulses are received by the translator. Cor most CNC work . The load that a small stepper motor can drive is significant when used with a leadscrew. 6. @esolution of the stepper motor and the leadscrew is defined as% @E*.1. ( coarse leadscrew ie " T*! #threads per inch$ would have a resolution of l .1.inch stepper motor when coupled with a 5: T*! leadscrew yields 4> pounds of force at low .::+ per foot maximum pitch error #the lead angle of the thread$ is re=uired.9CC 9CC 9N 9N The stepper motor phase #coils$ are energi ed rotating the shaft the number of steps ordered. This mode provides the maximum tor=ue. The phases are then turned on or off in accordance with the following se=uence% /TE* *hase (&C) 4 9N 9CC 9CC 9N 5 9N 9N 9CC 9CC + 9CC 9N 9N 9CC . a 5:: step per revolution stepping motor directly coupled to leadscrew.5: E .:": Therefore.:::5" inch #.:": inch per revolution. The 0 axis stepping motor is fixed to a base. Iith a 5: thread per inch leadscrew the pitch would be% (ccordingly% * E 4. The accuracy of the mechanism depends on the =uality of the leadscrews and any backlash or looseness in the mechanism. The translator reverses the stepping se=uence starting with the previous step. The greater the number of threads.The wattage of this resistor is calculated with the following formula% !mK!mK@b (s the C(' program sends pulse and direction signals to the parallel port. " E . The 2 axis is fixed vertically and is coupled to leadscrew similar to the 0 axis. The translator is permanently configured for the full step mode. 5:: #steps$ E . would move the axis ./ Ihere% @ E resolution *E leadscrew pitch /E steps per revolution Thus. This is accomplished when the computer program sends a logic high pulse to pins >. 'ultiple leads #starts$ on a leadscrew with very high pitch will move the axis very rapidly but should be avoided because the resolution would be too coarse for most CNC applications. The drive nut is fixed to a cross slide thus converting the rotary motion of the leadscrew to linear motion. ::4 inch. The 0. you will trade speed for accuracy.

Neglecting friction. This completes the overview of Cimple Computer Numerical Control #CCNC$. the following formula can be used to calculate the load that can be driven with a stepping motor and leadscrew% 3ECK>. The table rolls on precision ball bearing slides or ways.1 coordinates at right angles at all times. This moves the drill power head or spindle up or down. a drive nut connected to a ball slide or way converts the rotary motion of the motor to linear motion.57+5@.* 3E load @E radius from center of lead screw to the point that the tor=ueis applied *E leadscrew pitch CE force applied The 0. The ball slides or ways keep the 0.speed and D pounds at high speed. C4D C4M I)T>232>T4D/2 C/)T2/14D/2 M/T/2 D> 34*/* M4N=I)432/D=CT/ .1 table. The 2 axis stepper motor is similar to the 0 axis in that it is fixed to a stationary mount.1 drive nuts are connected to the moving 0. (s the motor turns the leadscrew.