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The Invisible in Translation: The Role of Text Structure

By Abdolmehdi Riazi, Ph.D. | Published 06/8/2005 | Transla ion Theory | Re!ommenda ion"

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Abdolmehdi Riazi, Ph.D. Abdolmehdi Riazi 'o his Ph.D. in T()* +rom ,-)(/.ni/ersi y o+ Toron o in 0115. 2urren ly he is an asso!ia e %ro+essor in he de%ar men o+ +orei'n lan'ua'es and lin'uis i!s o+ )hiraz .ni/ersi y, -ran &here he ea!hes !ourses a BA, 3A, and Ph.D. le/els. 4is areas o+ in eres in!lude &ri in', ransla ion, and e5 analysis. 4e is a &ri er and ransla or.

The Invisible in Translation: The Role of Text Structure

This Pa%er &as Presen ed a The 6irs -n erna ional 2on+eren!e on *an'ua'e, *i era ure, and Transla ion in he Third 3illennium Bahrain .ni/ersi y 3ar!h 06708, 2002 Abstract - is !on/en ionally belie/ed ha +amiliari y &i h he sour!e and ar'e lan'ua'es, as &ell as he sub8e! ma er on he %ar o+ he ransla or is enou'h +or a 'ood ransla ion. 4o&e/er, due o he +indin's in he +ield o+ e5 analysis, he role o+ e5 s ru! ure in ransla ion no& seems !ru!ial. There+ore, he %resen %a%er se s ou &i h an in rodu! ion on di++eren y%es o+ ransla ion +ollo&ed by some his ori!al re/ie&s on e5 analysis, and &ill hen des!ribe di++eren a%%roa!hes o e5 analysis. As a !ase in %oin , a e5 analysis o+ he rhe ori!al s ru! ure o+ ne&s%a%er edi orials in (n'lish and Persian and i s !on ribu ion o he ransla ion o+ his s%e!i+i! 'enre &ill be dis!ussed. - &ill be indi!a ed ha ne&s%a%er edi orials in hese &o lan'ua'es +ollo& a ri%ar i e s ru! ure in!ludin' 9*ead,9 96ollo&,9 and 9:alua e9 ma$in' ransla ion o+ his s%e!i+i! 'enre %ossible and more a!!ura e be &een he &o lan'ua'es. The %a%er &ill be !on!luded &i h he idea ha e5 analysis !an !on ribu e and lead o more a!!ura e and !ommuni!a i/e ransla ions.

Introduction 2on/en ionally, i is su''es ed ha ransla ors should mee hree re;uiremen s, namely" 0< 6amiliari y &i h he sour!e lan'ua'e, 2< 6amiliari y &i h he ar'e lan'ua'e, and =< 6amiliari y &i h he sub8e! ma er o %er+orm heir 8ob su!!ess+ully. Based on his %remise, he ransla or dis!o/ers he meanin' behind he +orms in he sour!e lan'ua'e >)*< and does his bes o %rodu!e he same meanin' in he ar'e lan'ua'e >T*< usin' he T* +orms and s ru! ures. ?a urally and su%%osedly &ha !han'es is he +orm and he !ode and &ha should remain un!han'ed is he meanin' and he messa'e >*arson, 018@<. There+ore, one may dis!ern he mos !ommon de+ini ion o+ ransla ion, i.e., he sele! ion o+ he neares e;ui/alen +or a lan'ua'e uni in he )* in a ar'e lan'ua'e. De%endin' on &he her &e !onsider he lan'ua'e uni , o be ransla ed, a he le/el o+ &ord, sen en!e, or a 'eneral !on!e% , ransla ion e5%er s

4o&e/er. ?e&mar$ >0188<. he uni o+ ransla ion is nei her he &ord nor is i he sen en!eB ra her i is he !on!e% . sen en!e7 o7sen en!e. i is %roblema i! a he le/el o+ sen en!e due o he di++eren!es in he syn a5 o+ sour!e and ar'e lan'ua'es. and !on!e% ual ransla ions. es%e!ially in ransla in' %hrases and %ro%er names su!h as . Transla ed e5 s as a %rodu! o+ his a%%roa!h are no usually lu!id or !ommuni!a i/$e o s&im. and 7 !on!e% ual ransla ion -n he +irs a%%roa!h. sen en!es su!h as 9. la!$ o+ lu!idi y &ill be remedied by obser/in' he sour!e e5 he 'ramma i!al rules and &ord order in he T* &hile %reser/in' he meanin' o+ indi/idual &ords. -n !on!e% ual ransla ed ?a ions. and so on. +or e5am%le.ui/alen !on!e% s in he T* o !on/ey he same meanin' and %rodu!e he same e++e! on he readers. This y%e o+ ransla ion is e++e! i/e.ui/alen &ord is sele! ed in he T*. o her s!holars ha/e su''es ed o her a%%roa!hes and me hods o+ ransla ion. +or ea!h &ord in he )* an e. Te5 s %rodu!ed +ollo&in' his a%%roa!h &ill re'ardin' &ha !ommuni!a e be er !om%ared o &ord +or &ord ransla ion. here+ore.9 9be!omes an hin$ he is !le/er. The bes e5am%le is he ransla ion o+ idioms and %ro/erbs su!h as he +ollo&in'. he %roblem o+ &ord +or &ord The s ru! ure o+ Ahen ransla ion and. -n addi ion o &ord7+or7&ord. should or should no a%%ear in he deri/ed e5 .9 and 9Ae &ere all ired9 !an easily be ransla ed in o a ar'e lan'ua'e a!!ordin' o he 'ramma i!al rules o+ ha lan'ua'e. 94e 'a/e me a nas y loo$9 92arryin' !oal o ?e&!as le9 9Do as Romans do &hile in Rome9 94e $i!$ed he bu!$e 9 )u!h idioms and %ro/erbs !anno be ransla ed &ord +or &ordB ra her hey should be ransla ed in o e. Dee% ) ru! ure. im%or an 'uide Transla ion a he sen en!e le/el may hus be !onsidered he same as he ransla ion a he &ord le/el e5!e% ha he 'ramma i!al rules and &ord o de!isions order in he T* are obser/ed. 3inis ry o+ (du!a ion.ha/e re!o'nized hree a%%roa!hes o ransla ion" 7 ransla ion a 7 ransla ion a he le/el o+ &ord >&ord +or &ord ransla ion< he le/el o+ sen en!e. ransla in' a he sen en!e le/el. has su''es ed . and readers &ill 'e hrou'h he e5 slo&ly and uneasily. )o.

. . 6or ins an!e.. !ommuni!a i/e ransla ion a em% s o %rodu!e on i s readers an e++e! as !lose as %ossible o ha ob ained on he readers o+ he sour!e lan'ua'e.!ommuni!a i/e and seman i! a%%roa!hes o ransla ion. &o main a%%roa!hes ha/e been de/elo%ed in lin'uis i!s o deal &i h he ransmission and re!e% ion o+ he u eran!es and messa'es. a s$ill. ?e&mar$ >0188" 0@@< !on ends ha here are hree basi! ransla ion %ro!esses" he in er%re a ion and analysis o+ he )* e5 B he ransla ion %ro!edure >!hoosin' e. 0181B 6reedman.&ill be su''es ed ha a ma8or %ro!edure in he in er%re a ion and analysis o+ he )* e5 should be e5 analysis a he ma!ro7le/el &i h he 'oal o+ un+oldin' rhe ori!al ma!ro7s ru! ures. and so on. bu may no be /ery %re!ise. a ma8or !on!ern o+ lin'uis s o +ind ou and de%i! !learly ho& human bein's use lan'ua'e o !ommuni!a e. and s%ee!hes. The +irs is 9dis!ourse analysis. he a%%ro%ria e norms o+ he T*. boo$ !ha% ers. 0181< al$ abou 9s%o$en and &ri en dis!ourses9B o hers >see. he readerCs e5%e! a ion. The %a%er &ill hen !on inue by indi!a in' ho& &o s%e!i+i! 'enresB namely. on he o her hand. e.'. A!!ordin' o 2onnor >011@<. :an Di8$. Bo h 9dis!ourse9 and 9 e5 9 !an be used in a mu!h broader sense o in!lude all lan'ua'e uni s &i h a !ommuni!a i/e +un! ion. 011=< al$ abou 9s%o$en and &ri en e5 . Aiddo&son. ha he dis in! ion be &een 9dis!ourse9 and 9 e5 9 is no !lear7!u .9 &hi!h mainly +o!uses on he s ru! ure o+ na urally o!!urrin' s%o$en lan'ua'e. ho&e/er. as +ound in su!h 9dis!ourses9 as !on/ersa &or h men ionin'. Historical Perspectives on Text Analysis . 01FFB 4alliday.9 -n his %a%er.9 &hi!h +o!uses on he s ru! ure o+ &ri en lan'ua'e. and he re+ormula ion o+ he e5 a!!ordin' o he &ri erCs in en ion. as +ound in su!h 9 e5 s9 as essays and ar i!les.. !ommen aries. The se!ond a%%roa!h is 9 e5 analysis.ui/alen s +or &ords and sen en!es in he T*<. Ano her as%e! o+ ransla ion e5%er s ha/e a ended o is he ransla ion %ro!esses. he e5a! !on e5 ual meanin' o+ he ori'inal. e5 analysis da es ba!$ o he Pra'ue )!hool o+ *in'uis i!s. )eman i! ransla ion. -n he ne5 %ar s o+ he %a%er. )eman i! ransla ion is a!!ura e. 01F8B Eress. The %ro!esses. as !losely as he seman i! and syn a! i! s ru! ures o+ he T* allo&. A!!ordin'ly. bu may no !ommuni!a e &ellB &hereas !ommuni!a i/e ransla ion !ommuni!a es &ell. 0185B *e!$ie7Tarry.'. By de+ini ion. ne&s%a%er edi orials and %oe ry. e !. )ome s!holars >see. This %a%er is !on!erned &i h some as%e! s o+ he +irs %ro!ess. are o a small de'ree %aralleled by ransla ion as a s!ien!e. +irs a brie+ his ory o+ e5 analysis &ill be %resen ed +ollo&ed by a%%roa!hes o e5 analysis. no i!es. ho& addressers !ons ru! lin'uis i! messa'es +or addressees and ho& addressees &or$ on lin'uis i! messa'es in order o in er%re and unders and hem. ini ia ed by :ilem . a em% s o render. lend hemsel/es o ma!roanalysis o+ e5 s and ho& his analysis &ill hel% ransla ors. as ?e&mar$ s a es. and. in %ar i!ular. &e s i!$ o 9 e5 analysis9 &i h a +o!us on he s ru! ure o+ &ri en lan'ua'e a mi!ro7 and ma!ro7le/els. By ma!ro7s ru! ures &e mean %a erns o+ e5%ression beyond sen en!e le/el. &he her s%o$en or &ri en. 018=B Drabe and Ea%lan. and an ar .

hose aimin' a %ro/idin' a de ailed lin'uis i! analysis o+ e5 s in erms o+ le5is and syn a5.'. 6irs . and 'radually dis!o/er more abou ho& %eo%le use lan'ua'e in so!ial !ommuni!a ion. as s a ed by ) ubbs. &ill be %resen ed. %sy!holo'is s. Then. emer'ed in he 0160s &i h he &or$ o+ lin'uis s su!h as 4alliday. and Persian.Cmar Ehayam. 0110<. &ill be %resen ed as &o !ases in . -n his %a%er. and !om%osi ion s%e!ialis s around he &orld embra!ed e5 and dis!ourse analysis. 2onnor >011@< belie/es ha The Pra'ue )!hoolCs ma8or !on ribu ion o e5 analysis &as he no ion o+ theme and rheme. This a%%roa!h has mos ly re+erred o as analysis a mi!ro7s ru! ure. here+ore.'. (n'lish.9 4allidayCs sys emi! lin'uis i!s has in+luen!ed e5 analysis remendously as &ell as !urri!ulum models +or lan'ua'e edu!a ion >see. he no ion o+ cohesion has been one o+ he %o%ular issues in e5 analysis. )e! o+ he inde5es o+ a 9'ood9 ransla ion &ould. 6irs . 01F8<.3a hesius in he 0120s. a rela ed a%%roa!h o e5 analysis and semio i!s. %la!in' %sy!holo'i!al and edu!a ional heories on an e.n he o her hand. 9sys emi! lin'uis i!s. many lin'uis s.ual s a us &i h lin'uis i! heories >&hereas he Pra'ue and sys emi! a%%roa!hes %rimarily orien hemsel/es o lin'uis i!s<. 015FbB 4alliday 0185. he ma!ro7s ru! ure o+ he %oems o+ a +amous Persian Poe . e. The same hin' !an be !onsidered &i h he dynami! %ro!ess o+ ransla ion in ha he dis!ourse and rhe ori!al s ru! ures en!oded in he sour!e lan'ua'e !an be re!ons ru! ed in he ar'e lan'ua'e. 0112B )in!lair 018F. and )in!lair >)ee. hose rela ed o he analysis and des!ri% ion o+ he rhe ori!al or'aniza ion o+ /arious e5 s. in he 01F0s and 0180s. lin'uis s build u% des!ri% ions o+ he lan'ua'e. A!!ordin' o 2onnor >011@<. he radi ion. e. Approaches to Text Analysis Ae may rou'hly di/ide he a/ailable li era ure on e5 analysis in o &o 'rou%s. is /isible mainly in he &or$ o+ 6ir h. This a%%roa!h has been labeled as ma!ro7s ru! ure analysis o+ e5 s.. 2onnor belie/es ha his ?e& )!hool o+ Te5 Analysis is !hara! erized by an e!le! i!. As >2onnor 011@" 682< s a es. *a er on i &as elabora ed by Gan 6irbas and 6ran ise$ Dane in he 0150s and 0160s. 015Fa. 6i z'erald. -n his re'ard. &hi!h des!ribes he %a ern o+ in+orma ion +lo& in sen en!es and i s rela ion o e5 !oheren!e. ) ubbs >0115< s a es ha he no ion o+ e5 analysis &as de/elo%ed in Bri ish lin'uis i!s +rom he 01=0s o he 0110s. demand s udyin' he use o+ real lan'ua'e in &ri en and s%o$en dis!ourse and %er+ormin' e5 ual analysis o+ na urally o!!urrin' lan'ua'e. and hen he ransla or 'oes +or he a%%ro%ria e syn a5 and le5i!on. in erdis!i%linary em%hasis. (5am%les o+ e5 analysis +rom his ne& a%%roa!h in!lude s udies o+ ma!ro7le/el e5 s ru! ures su!h as )&alesCs >0110< s udies o+ he or'aniza ion o+ in rodu! ions in s!ien i+i! resear!h ar i!lesB and BiberCs >0188< mul idimensional !om%u erized analysis o+ di/erse +ea ures in s%o$en and &ri en e5 s. .. 6ir h 01=5. Bloor and Bloor >0115< !on end ha by he %ro!ess o+ analysis.. 4a$im . 4alliday. e. be o see o &ha e5 en a ransla or has been able o re!ons ru! he rhe ori!al s ru! ures o+ he sour!e e5 in he ar'e lan'ua'e hrou'h e5 analysis. as ) ubbs >0115< !on inues. 6ollo&in' 4alliday and 4asanCs >01F6< a5onomy. . 3ohan 0186<. &hose heories em%hasize he idea ional or !on en 7bearin' +un! ions o+ dis!ourse as &ell as he !hoi!es %eo%le ma$e &hen hey use lan'ua'e o s ru! ure heir in er%ersonal !ommuni!a ions >see. and he (n'lish ransla ion o+ hese %oems by a &ell7$no&n (n'lish ransla or. 4alliday. &e are !on!erned &i h ma!ro7analysis and i s im%li!a ion in ransla ion. he ma!ro7s ru! ure o+ ne&s%a%er edi orials in &o lan'ua'es. The %rin!i%les underlyin' hese &or$s.'.

and e/alua ion o+ he &o. !i ed in Boli/ar >011@" 28070< is an e5am%le o+ a riad. Thus. * 6 Bri ain and -reland are no& ryin'.uen!e *6 is re%ea ed and : is he +inal urn. (a!h e5 >edi orial< &as se'men ed by sen en!e uni s and &as !odi+ied a!!ordin' o i s +un! ionB lead. o+ !ourse. The edi orials o+ si5 !urren ly %ublished Persian ne&s%a%ers &ere e5amined. Boli/ar e5%lains ha he +un! ion o+ he riad is o ne'o ia e he ransmission and e/alua ion in &ri en e5 and ha i !onsis s o+ hree urns or elemen s. Parallel o Boli/arCs s udy. hou'h hey are inde%enden o+ one ano her hey : A!!ordin' o Boli/ar. The +ollo&in' e5!er% +rom Iran >Gune 2F. An in er7!oder reliabili y inde5 abo/e . The in er7!oder reliabili y indi!es o+ he se'men a ion and !odi+i!a ion o+ he edi orials &ere hen de ermined. This is he mos ho%e+ul de%ar ure o+ he %as de!ade be!ause i o%ens +or ins%e! ion &ha had lain !on!ealed +or hal+ a !en ury and 'oes o he roo o+ he an'uish in ?or hern -reland. he %oin o+ dis!o/erin' and un+oldin' ma!ro7 s ru! ures in a )* &i h he 'oal o+ re!ons ru! in' nearly he same %a erns in he T* in he %ro!ess o+ ransla ion deser/es heore i!al and %ra! i!al a en ion. one o+ he ne&s%a%ers. Triads !an e5hibi more han hree urns %ro/ided ha he se.9 3ar!h =. she +ound ou ha a ri%ar i e s ru! ure !alled 9 riad9 or'anizes he ma!ro s ru! ure o+ he edi orials.80 &as ob ained. A sam%le o+ 60 edi e resear!h and em%iri!al e/iden!e. or /alua e.shares similari ies &i h he 9e5!han'e. +ollo&. &as randomly sele! ed o be analyzed.&as a re/olu ionary ins i u ion &hose +undamen al du y &as he im%ro/emen o+ 6 . Riazi and Assar >2000< !ondu! ed a similar s udy on Persian ne&s%a%er edi orials o see i+ he same ma!ro7s ru! ures are de e! able in his %ar i!ular 'enre. 0180. The &o !oun ries no& re!o'nize ha !anno be +orei'n. 00 +or ea!h ne&s%a%er. namely. be naH/e o 'eneralize hese !ases o all lan'ua'es and all y%es o+ 'enres &i hou ade. no all riads ha/e hree urns. riads su!h as *6*6: or *6*6*6: !an be +ound &hen he : urn is delayed by he &ri er. * The mo i/a in' !ommand o+ he *a e -mam in 3ay 01F1 &as he be'innin' o+ a re/olu ionary era +or he %o%ular mo/emen o !ons ru! and de/elo% he /illa'es hrou'h he es ablishmen o+ an or'aniza ion !alled Gihad7e7)azande'y. 9Behind !losed -rish doors. and :alua e. The s udy o+ edi orials +rom o her Bri ish ne&s%a%ers !ondu! ed by Boli/ar !on+irmed he e5is en!e o+ hree7%ar s ru! ures in hose ne&s%a%ers. *ead. ser/in' dis in! i/e +un! ions o+ ini ia ion. )he sele! ed 2= edi orials +rom The Guardian durin' he +irs hree mon hs o+ 0180. o &or$ ou a less ar i+i!ial lin$ be &een hem han ha &hi!h binds &o +orei'n s a es. +ollo&7u%. 6ollo&. The +ollo&in' e5!er% a$en +rom The Dardian. . and 2< a a mi!ro syn a! i! le/el. Based on he analysis o+ hese edi orials. a lon' las . 4o&e/er. . .9 as he minimal uni o+ s%o$en dis!ourse. is an e5am%le o+ a riad in Persian ne&s%a%er edi orials. 011F<. The Case of Newspaper ditorials Boli/ar >011@< s udied edi orials o+ The Guardian. The edi orials &ere analyzed a &o le/els 0< a a rhe ori!al ma!ro7s ru! ure le/el.%oin .&ould.

he asso!ia ion be &een : urns and !ondi ionals. 9des!ri% ion. Be!omin' a&are o+ hese ma!ro7 and mi!ro7+ea ures o+ e5 s. The usa'e o+ s%e!ial syn a! i! s ru! ures +or s%e!i+i! urns !an be 8us i+ied %ar ly in li'h o+ he dis!oursal +un! ion. 2hinese.mar Ehayam is amon' he +e& Persion mas er%ie!es ha ha/e been ransla ed in o mos lan'ua'es. : The mar/elous a!hie/emen s o+ Gihad7e7)azande'y and he +rui +ul a! ions o+ his %ubli! ins i u ion %ro/ed he -mamCs !orre! ness o+ re!o'ni ion and de% h o+ re/olu ionary %er!e% ion. Karmohammadi >0115< s udied he rhe ori!al or'aniza ion o+ EhayamCs Robaiya >.is in eres in' o %oin ou ha in bo h Boli/arCs and our s udy.uen %a ern %er ainin' o all he s udied ne&s%a%ers &as *6:. and !ommuni!a i/e. in!ludin' (n'lish. in era! i/e %rose o+ narra i/e. i &as +ound ha ea!h urn is !hara! erized by s%e!i+i! sen en!e y%es. Russian..rdu. hus. are used &i h he 'oal o+ eli!i in' in+orma ion or %resen in' some ne& o%i! +or dis!ussion.. he !orres%onden!e o+ %assi/e s ru! ures and 6 urns mi'h be due o he +a! ha %assi/es %ro/ide de/elo%men and elabora ion o+ he e/en s. i seems . a ribu ed o ea!h s ru! ure and re%or ed in %re/ious s udies. Based on his analysis. This !ommon %a ern be &een he &o lan'ua'es enhan!es he ransla abili y o+ he ne&s%a%er edi orials. -n erro'a i/e sen en!es. +or e5am%le. 6i z'erald. The Robaiya o+ .ui e reasonable o ha/e in erro'a i/es mos ly in * urns. The mos +amous ransla ion o+ he Robaiya +rom Persian in o (n'lish &as under a$en in 0851 by (d&ard G. Resul s o+ he analysis %er+ormed on he edi orials indi!a ed ha he mos +re. Derman. 4indi. and . 6ren!h. The +ollo&in' is an e5am%le o+ one o+ he EhayamCs . Karmohammadi !ame o he !on!lusion ha he reason +or 6i z'eraldCs su!!ess+ul ransla ion o+ EhayamCs Robaiya is ha he &as able o re!ons ru! he same ma!ro7s ru! ures in (n'lish and hen a%%ly a%%ro%ria e sen en!e s ru! ures and le5is. &e !an ma$e our ransla ions o+ %ar i!ular e5 s and 'enres more a!!ura e.e!onomi! and so!ial !ondi ions o+ /illa'ers in -ran. The as$ o+ ransla ors &ould be o loo$ +or he riads and 'o +or he a%%ro%ria e syn a5 and le5i!on. &e !an say ha he +un! ion o+ !ondi ionals is o %rodu!e or su''es some $ind o+ solu ion or desirable a! ion on some !ondi ions >Boli/ar 011@<. )in!e he main +un! ion o+ * urn is o in rodu!e he abou ness o+ he riad and a sub8e! . here+ore. Arabi!. 4e has ried his u mos o adhere o he s%iri o+ he ori'inal %oe ry. This +indin' is in line &i h ha o+ Boli/arCs >011@< as rela ed o The Duardian ne&s%a%er. namely.n he o her hand.9 9re!ommenda ion. -n o her &ords.mar Ehayam &as one o+ he mos +amous and belo/ed Persian %oe s o+ middle a'es. 4is s udy re/ealed ha he ma!ro7s ru! ure o+ all EhayamCs Robaiya in!luded hree !om%onen s.IaJ %rose as o%%osed o he more rains< and !om%ared i &i h i s (n'lish ransla ion by 6i z'erald. .alian. .9 and 9reasonin'9 &hi!h !an be used as a !ri erion o dis in'uish be &een he real EhayamCs Robaiya and hose erroneously a ribu ed o him. &e !an say ha he 'eneral ma!ro7s ru! ure o+ Persian ne&s%a%er edi orials is *6:. Fitzgerald: And his deli'h +ul 4erb &hose ender Dreen 6led'es he Ri/erCs *i% on &hi!h &e leanL . 6or rains as ransla ed by 6i z'erald. .9 As +or : urns. Reid >0110" 200< %oin s ou ha 9 he %assi/e /oi!e is indi!a i/e o+ he +ormal in era! ional !hara! er o+ . The Case of !haya"#s Robaiyat $%uatrains& . meanin'+ul. i &as +ound ha 9*eads9 &ere mos ly e5%ressed in in erro'a i/esB 96ollo&s9 mos ly used %assi/e s ru! uresB and 9:alua es9 used !ondi ional and !o%ulas.

6ir h. 6ir h. There are numerous s udies done on e5 hin' o+ &hi!h &e !an be !on+iden . As a +inal &ord. Te5 analysis is.ue o+ seman i!s. +. References y Press. lean u%on i li'h lyM +or &ho $no&s 6rom &ha on!e lo/ely *i% i s%rin's unseenM Literal: The 'rass ha 'ro&s by e/ery s ream *i$e an'eli! smiles +ain ly 'leam ) e% 'en ly.R. hus. y Press. ne/er heless. (1995 . >015Fb<. &e may say ha in ransla ion &e should +irs ry o re!ons ru! he ma!ro7s ru! ure and rhe ori!al s ru! ure o+ he sour!e e5 in he ar'e lan'ua'e and hen loo$ +or he a%%ro%ria e &ords and s ru! uresB his is a %ro!edure ha s$ill+ul ransla ors %er+orm in he %ro!ess o+ ransla ion !ons!iously or un!ons!iously. 2onnor. 6or e5am%le. >011@<. 01=070155. ou line o+ he ar'umen . D. G. e5%lana ion o+ he !ase under dis!ussion. T. The e!hni. 4o&e/er. is ha he %a erns are al&ays em%loyed in he ser/i!e o+ an o/erridin' rhe ori!al %ur%ose. *ondon" Arnold. *ondon" . 6827685. >01=5<. M. Transactions o! the philological societ".. re+u a ion and !on!lusion9 >4a !h 0112" 085<. A syno%sis o+ lin'uis i! heory. >015Fa<. . T#'() *uarterl". 'tudies in )inguistic %nal"sis. &e $no& li le abou &ha %a erns here are and ho& e.. )%e!ial :ol. a ransla or y%i!ally o%era es on he /erbal re!ord o+ an a! o+ !ommuni!a ion be &een sour!e lan'ua'e s%ea$er/&ri er and hearers/readers and see$s o relay %er!ei/ed meanin' /alues o a 'rou% o+ ar'e lan'ua'e re!ei/er>s< as an se%ara e a! o+ !ommuni!a ion.R.ui/alen!e !ould be a!hie/ed be &een hem.Ah. The s ru! ure o+ he sour!e e5 be!omes an im%or an 'uide o de!isions re'ardin' &ha should or should no a%%ear in he deri/ed e5 . he $ind o+ s ru! ure +re. The !unctional anal"sis o! #nglish$ % &allida"an approach . !ause i no o s!ream 6or i has 'ro&n +rom a lo/erCs dream. G. Conclusion As 4a im and 3ason >011F< s a e.. G. >0188<.R. &hi!h !an ha/e in eres in' messa'es +or ransla ors. . . %roo+. The %oin ha he %resen %a%er ried o ma$e is he bene+i ransla ors may deri/e +rom e5 analysis in ransla ion by de erminin' he mi!ro7 and ma!ro7indi!es o+ he e5 s o su%%or hem in heir di++i!ul as$. This is an as%e! o+ e5 ure &hi!h is o+ !ru!ial im%or an!e o he ransla or. . & Bloor. 6ir h.5+ord . Bloor. Te5 analysis. a!!ordin' o 4a im and 3ason >0110<. ?e& Kor$" 2ambrid'e . Variation across speech and writing. -apers in linguistics.uen ly re%or ed +or ar'umen a i/e 'enres in!lude 9in rodu! ion. be!omin' a %romisin' ool in %er+ormin' more reliable ransla ions.

ollins . 4alliday.Philolo'i!al )o!ie y. Reid.<. G. =0 N =2. N 3ason. >0180<. N Assar. Te1t and /iscourse. *ondon" (d&ard Arnold. . 3. Berlin" 3ou on. -n B.<. >0115<. >0110<. 4inds. 3.uan i a i/e analysis +rom a !on ras i/e rhe ori! %ers%e! i/e. N 3ason. A Te5 Analysis o+ Persian ?e&s%a%ers (di orials. )&ales.<. >011F<. >01F8<. 1+$ /iscourse and s"nta1. *ondon" (d&ard Arnold. G. A. ) ubbs.o3uild #nglish )anguage /ictionar". -n *. 2ambrid'e" 2ambrid'e . >0110<. /iscourse and the translator.o3uild #nglish Grammar.The dis!oursal and e5 ual s ru! ure o+ EhayamCs %oe ry in 6i z'eraldCs (n'lish /ersi+i!a ion. . 3. -. 607FF<. 5i!teen %rticles in . *.ohesion in #nglish. -n G. >0185<. 4eildber'" Gulius Droos :erla'. )/ar /i$ >(d. 3. %n introduction to !unctional grammar. y Press. Genre %nal"sis$ #nglish in %cademic and 4esearch 'ettings. G. ?e& Kor$" A!ademi! Press. 4alliday. *an'ua'e as sys em and lan'ua'e as ins an!e" The !or%us as a heore i!al !ons ru! . >0112<. 2ambrid'e" 2ambrid'e . ?e& Kor$" Rou led'e. )in!lair.ollins . '"nta1 and semantics$ Vol. >0180<. 4alliday. 3. >0110<. 4ar mann. 6.Karmohammadi >(d. -.ontrasti0e )inguistics and the 'tructure o! -ersian$ Grammar. B. *ondon" 4a%%er 2ollins. /irections in corpus linguistics >%%. Te1t and corpus anal" y Press.r'aniza ional %a erns in dis!ourse. N 4asan. 3A" Bla!$&ell Publishers -n!. R. 4a im. G. -n T. :ols.3. R. .com/translation-articles/articles/282/1/-The-Invisible-in-Translation%3A-TheRole-of-Te t-!tr"ct"re . >01F6<. 3. *ondon" *on'man. >2000<. )anguage as social semiotic. The translator as communicator. Riazi. 2ournal o! 'ocial 'ciences and &umanities o+ )hiraz . http://www. *ondon" 4a%%er 2ollins. Tehran" Rahnama Publi!a ions.ontrasti0e te1tolog". . B. >0110<. 07=2. Res%ondin' o di++eren o%i! y%es" A . >018F<.ni/ersi y.<. )in!lair.proz. . *ondon" *on'man. >0115<. 4a im. Eroll >(d. 4alliday. 'econd language writing. G. 2ambrid'e. Di/on >(d.