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SECTION 1 - BELIEVING IN GOD

GCSE Revision Booklet Year 10 Unit 2 K Bullard

GLOSSARY AGNOSTICISM ATHEISM CONVERSION FREE WILL MIRACLE MORAL EVIL NATURAL EVIL NUMINOUS OMNI-BENEVOLENT OMNIPOTENT OMNISCIENT PRAYER

Not being sure whether God exists Believing that God does not exist When life is changed by giving yourself to God The idea that human beings are free to make their own choices Something which seems to break a law of science and makes you think only God could have done it Actions done by humans which cause suffering Things which cause suffering but have nothing to do with humans The feeling of the presence of something greater than you The belief that God is all good The belief that God is all powerful The belief that God knows everything that has happened and everything that is going to happen An attempt to contact God usually through words

GCSE Revision Booklet Year 10 Unit 2 K Bullard

Honour your father and your mother "/ .astersend their children to Sunday school to learn about God maybe send their children to a church school where they will be taught the National !urriculum in a !hristian environment take care of each other in difficult times often with reference to !hurch and Biblical teachings celebrate religious festivals The Bible is clear on the importance of family) .xodus 01 GCSE Revision Booklet Year 10 Unit 2 K Bullard .The most important part of the !hristian religion is belief is God" #owever not everyone believes in God and those that do believe do so for a variety of reasons" Religious U !"i#gi#g $amilies and communities play an important part in the way in which people come to believe in God" The faith of many believers is closely linked with the beliefs that their families hold and the important aspects of their faith are passed down from one generation to the next" %n the !hristian religion the main purpose of marriage is to have children and bring them up in a secure and loving !hristian environment so that they will come to believe in God and love &esus" 'ost !hristians take their children to be baptised and promises are made about their upbringing and family life" (ater they may be confirmed" Both are sacraments" To bring their children up as !hristians the parents are likely to) • • • • • • teach their children bedtime prayers take their children to church *especially to family service and+ or special services at !hristmas .

The family is the community in which. begin to honour God and make good use of freedom "/ !atechism of the !atholic !hurch Religious E$ e"ie#%e Some people believe in God because they feel that somehow they have actually experienced him" A religious experience can be briefly defined as 2an encounter with God"3 This can occur in many ways for instance4 i.Similarly the !hurches teach about the importance of the family for religious belief" .A %o#(e"sio# experience 5 the feeling that there is something inside you wanting you to change your life and to believe in God" %t is sometimes called a regenerative experience because it gives a feeling of being born again" iv.A &i"'%le 5 a belief that prayers are answered or that an act of God has occurred" %t is an event that seems to break the laws of science and can therefore only be explained by God" iii. from childhood.A #u&i#ous experience 5 a feeling of great wonder where you feel that there is something greater than yourself which you can only call God" %t is often described as an experience of the transcendent" ii.P"'+e" 5 All religious believers think that they can make contact with God through prayer" 6rayers can be formal e"g" for a !hristian in .ucharist in the (ord3s 6rayer" 6rayers can also be informal where a believer makes their own prayer to God in their own private place" GCSE Revision Booklet Year 10 Unit 2 K Bullard . one can learn moral values.A #e'"-De'*) experience 5 an experience of God when in the process of dying or having died but then being resuscitated" vii.A %)'"is&'*i% experience 5 an experience where the #oly Spirit descends upon you for example speaking in tongues prophecy or healing" v.A &+s*i%'l experience 5 an experience of the divine which is difficult to describe for example hearing God3s voice or seeing a vision" vi.

the disciples asked Jesus if they could send the crowd away to get something to eat. he gave thanks and broke them. Jesus told them to give the crowd something to eat. He gave them to the disciples who were able to feed the entire crowd with &" basketfuls left over. Jesus started to teach them about the Kingdom of God. Then Jesus held the fishes and loaves and looked up to heaven. P"'+e" 6rayer is the way in which religious believers communicate with God" %t may involve words or be silent" A believer will feel closer to God through prayer and it can take many forms) A.and eternal and performs miracles because as an all7loving *omni7benevolent.sgi(i#g 5 giving thanks for all that God has given I#*e"%essio# 5 asking God to meet the needs of the people Pe*i*io# 5 praying for you own needs and asking for God3s help GCSE Revision Booklet Year 10 Unit 2 K Bullard .and all7powerful *omnipotent. But Jesus told them to gather people in to groups of about !% each.being he wants the best for his creation" An example of a Biblical miracle is &esus feeding the five thousand which can be found in the New Testament) Jesus and the disciples went to a town called Bethsaida and were followed by many crowds. ate in the afternoon.o"'*io# '#. -o"s)i 5 praising God T)'#. The disciples answered that they had gathered only ! loaves of bread and " fishes # it wasn$t anywhere near enough to feed the whole crowd.Mi"'%les 'iracles are actions carried out by God that break a natural law" A natural law is something that happens so often within the world that it would be considered beyond the workings of nature if it happened differently or failed to happened when it was expected to do so for example the sun rising in the morning" %f someone is healed of a disease and there is no other explanation for it then it may be convincing enough to lead people to believe that God did it and must exist after all" Believers say that God is unchanging *immutable.

Desig# 5 <sing the appearance of design to lead to belief in God is often called the Teleological Argument *William 6aley-" %f the world has been designed it must have a designer" The only possible designer of something as beautiful and complex as the world would be God" • • The universe appears to have been designed A being with intelligence must therefore have designed the universe GCSE Revision Booklet Year 10 Unit 2 K Bullard .by some great intelligence a cosmic designer whom they call God" i. $or many people belief in God comes through their experience of seeing and living in the world 5 they look at the world the solar system and feel that it has been somehow deliberately . le'. or caused *%'us'*io#.esig#e.- E$ e"ie#%e o/ *)e -o"l.i#g *o !elie/ i# Go. *or everyone who asks receives) he who seeks finds) and to him who knocks the door will be opened.Co#/essio# '#. e#i*e#%e 5 asking for forgiveness for the wrongs you have done and promising not to do them again" 6rayers may be private or individual or they may be corporate when a number of people pray together" They may be formal or spontaneous when people make up a prayer to meet a particular need" Some believers practise meditation" This is a 8uiet form of prayer where believers focus their thoughts entirely on God" The person meditating simply sits still and concentrates on God" !hristians believe that although God is a loving father who listens to and answers prayers this does not mean every prayer will be answered 9ust like a good parent does not give in to every re8uest from a child" !hristians believe that God answers prayer in his own way and that he always does what is best" &esus said the following about prayer) '(sk and it will be given to you) seek and you will find) knock and the door will be opened to you.+ *'atthew :):7.

C'us'*io# 5 The appearance of causation in the world is often called the !osmological Argument *William 6aley-" Anything cause to exist must be caused to exist by something else because to cause your own existence you would have to exist before you exist which is nonsense" There must be a beginning to all chains of cause and effect" The universe must therefore have a first cause" The only possible first cause of the universe is God" .+ Genesis > • • • • Nothing can come into existence on its own 5 everything needs a cause The universe therefore needs a cause =nly God is powerful enough to bring the universe into existence and to keep it going Therefore God exists iii.Religio# '#. 7 Some people think that religion itself is evidence for the existence of God" 6eople have always had religious beliefs with the idea of God as creator and that life should be led in accordance with religious moral codes" With ..n the beginning.• • =nly God could design something as complex as the universe Therefore God exists ii.@A of the world3s population belonging to some form of religion religion is clearly a ma9or feature of the world" W)+ so&e eo le . God created the heavens and the earth. GCSE Revision Booklet Year 10 Unit 2 K Bullard .Me'#i#g o/ li/e0 Pu" ose 5 'any people ask 8uestions such as why are we here where are we going or what3s the purpose of our life on earth? This searching can lead people to think the purpose of this life involves the existence of life after death where the good are rewarded and the evil are punished" =nly God could provide an afterlife and decide who should be rewarded and punished" iv. !elie/ i# Go.o #o* !elie(e i# Go.

P"'+e" 6rayers that go unanswered can lead people away from believing in God" Atheists argue that if an apparently loving God exists then surely he should answer prayers" <nanswered prayers also test the faith of believers too especially if they pray in faith at times of hardship and nothing happens" No#-"eligious e$ l'#'*io#s o/ *)e u#i(e"se The scientific theory known as the 2Big Bang3 suggests that the universe came bout not be God3s creation but through an explosion of matter and energy about >B billion years ago" Another non7religious explanation is the theory of Natural GCSE Revision Booklet Year 10 Unit 2 K Bullard .'any people are unsure about the existence of God * 'g#os*i%is&.or simply do not believe *'*)eis&"An agnostic is someone who says that they do not know whether or not God exists" Agnostics will be open to believe in God if they discover convincing evidence" <ntil then they will hold back from making a decision either in favour of God3s existence or against it" An atheist is someone who does not believe in God3s existence" There are many reasons why people may be atheists 5 for instance because they believe that there is a lack of empirical evidence that is evidence which can be confirmed by use of the senses 5 things that can be seen heard smelt or touched" When things can3t be seen or heard it is difficult to decide whether they are true or not" T)e "o!le&s -i*) &i"'%les 'iracles are acts of God that apparently break the laws of nature" $or believers they offer convincing evidence for the existence of God" #owever there could be other better explanations for what appears to be a miracle" Sometimes a person may recover unexpectedly from an illness" At other times apparently miraculous events are simply coincidences not God intervening in peoples3 lives" U#'#s-e"e.

NietDsche 7 believing that God is simply a kind of 2superstition3" ii.$reud 5 believing that God is 9ust a 2wish3 or 2dream"3 iv.Science has given us comprehensive explanations for how the universe came in to being and miracles" This effectively relegates God to the 2god of the gaps"3 v.$euerbach 5 believing that God is 2made up3 by mankind" ii. Su//e"i#g The greatest argument against believing in God is the problem of evil and suffering) • • • • • God is said to be omni7benevolent omnipotent and omniscient %f God is omni7benevolent he would want to remove evil and suffering %f God is omniscient he would know how to remove evil and suffering %f God is omnipotent he would be able to remove evil and suffering Therefore both God and evil cannot exist GCSE Revision Booklet Year 10 Unit 2 K Bullard .<nanswered prayers may make people feel that God isn3t there or doesn3t care enough to act" vi.Selection" !harles Carwin argued that all living things have descended from common ancestors and have evolved from more primitive forms of life" The earth itself is also in a process of evolution or change" (iving things were not created by God but evolved from chemical matter" Both theories are potentially compatible with religious belief by !hristians who do not believe that the Bible is literally true" They believe that the creation story in Genesis is a myth which tells people about God3s relationship with human beings rather than a factual telling of creation" God could be responsible for the Big Bang and evolution" There are a number of reasons why people do not believe in God" These include) i.The problem of evil and suffering *further discussed below"T)e P"o!le& o/ E(il '#.

• • .N'*u"'l e(il 5 suffering caused by nature itself e"g" earth8uakes" A *)eo.vil exists God is omni7benevolent God is omnipotent Eeligious believers try to answer this by saying that there are two kinds of evil4 i.vil and suffering are caused by God not humans" 0" P"e '"i#g !elie(e"s /o" )e'(e# 5 God allows evil and suffering to prepare believers for heaven" Bad things happen so that good can result and believers can become more like &esus for instance if there were no poor people then believers could not give to charity" 'oreover in heaven all evil and suffering will cease" F" Go. -o".Mo"'l e(il 5 suffering caused by human beings doing wrong things e"g" murder" ii.i%+ is a way in which believers explain how there can be both evil and yet a loving God" There are four possibilities) >" F"ee Will De/e#%e 5 that God has given human beings the free will to do as they wish and God therefore cannot interfere" .s i# &+s*e"ious -'+s 5 We cannot understand God3s reasons" $or some !hristians the answer is that they don3t know why there is suffering but that they should trust God3s love 5 even &esus had to suffer" God works with a final plan in view which is all good and all loving) GCSE Revision Booklet Year 10 Unit 2 K Bullard .vil and suffering do exist Therefore God cannot exist" This is the problem of evil and suffering which when laid out as in the diagram below can be referred to as the inconsistent triad) .

+ *Eevelation 0>)GG" O"igi#'l si# 5 =ne of the oldest !hristian responses is based on the accounts of creation and the $all in Genesis >7F" These accounts suggest that God created the world and human beings perfectly and that he gave humans free will" The first human beings Adam and .ve chose to use their free will to disobey the command God gave them not to eat of the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil" When they did eat it sin and suffering were brought into the world be their freely chosen actions" The main responses of !hristians to suffering are to help those in need either by i#*e"%essio# *praying to God for help.o "og"'&&es '!ou* "eligio# '//e%* ' e"so#1s !elie/s '!ou* Go.and+ or )el i#g and serving others by doing voluntary work and giving to charity" Ho.'He will wipe every tear from their eyes.. or pain.2 GCSE Revision Booklet Year 10 Unit 2 K Bullard . There will be no more death or mourning or crying...

nding someone3s life painlessly when they are unable to ask but you have good reason PARANORMAL 5UALITY OF LIFE RESURRECTION forthinking they would want you to do so <nexplained things which are thought to have spiritual cases eg ghosts mediums The idea that life must have some benefits for it to be worth living The belief that after death the body stays in the grave until the end of the world when it is SANCTITY OF LIFE VOLUNTARY EUTHANASIA REINCARNATION raised" The belief that life is holy and belongs to God .MATTERS OF LIFE AND DEATH GLOSSARY ABORTION ASSISTED SUICIDE EUTHANASIA IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL NEAR-DEATH E4PERIENCE NON-VOLUNTARY EUTHANASIA The removal of a foetus from the womb before it can survive 6roviding a seriously ill person with the means to commit suicide The painless killing of someone dying from a painful disease The idea that the soul lives on after the death of the body When someone about to die has an out of body experience .nding life painlessly when someone in great pain asks for death The belief that after death souls are reborn in a new body GCSE Revision Booklet Year 10 Unit 2 K Bullard .SECTION 3 .

xodus 01 ./ > !orinthians @ The sacredness of human life is highlighted for !hristians in the life and death of &esus" They believe that God sanctified *made holy. who is in you. whom you have received from God. / !atechism of the !atholic !hurch 'oreover the body is not 9ust a physical ob9ect it is the dwelling place of the #oly Spirit and must always be treated with reverence and respect" . we die to the ord. he created them "/ Genesis > Since life is sacred and precious !hristians believe that it is wrong to kill another person" .n the image of God he created him) male and female.ou shall not commit murder"/ ../ Eomans >G !hristians believe that life is a gift from God and therefore is sacred 5 this means that life is to be treated as holy and therefore valued and preserved" #umans are in a sense created in the image of God #imself" .our body is a temple of the Holy -pirit. we live to the ord) if we die. we belong to the ord.human life by becoming human himself and that the way &esus suffered without attempting to do anything GCSE Revision Booklet Year 10 Unit 2 K Bullard . -o whether we live or die.-o God created man in his own image. ..ou are not on your own.T)e S'#%*i*+ o/ Li/e The Bible teaches that life is a gift from God and so essentially belongs to God 5 this is known as the sanctity of life" .f we live. ..God alone is the ord of life/no one can under any circumstances claim for himself the right directly to destroy an innocent human being.

to cut short his sufferings shows that life is not to be ended except when God decides" Li/e '/*e" De'*) 6hysical life eventually ends but many people believe that there is something more beyond this life" There are many reasons for this) • • • • • • There ought to be something beyond earthly life which gives meaning to life .arthly life is short" An after7life would enable humans to fulfil their potential 6erhaps there should be a reward for those who lead good lives on earth and punishment for those who have been evil %mmanuel Hant believed that the three points above proved that life after death must be real %f life is sacred it ought to carry on beyond death 'ost religions talk about an afterlife The Bible says of God3s love continues beyond death and resurrection of &esus !hrist is proof that there is life beyond the grave" !hristians believe that earthly life is preparation for eternal life with God" !hristians differ in their views about life after death" There are two basic concepts) '6 I&&o"*'li*+ o/ *)e Soul 5 this is the belief that humans have a physical body and a spiritual immortal soul which is their real self" The soul survives the physical death of the body and goes to exist in a spiritual place for ever such as heaven or hell" This idea is known as dualism since it rests on the belief that there are two parts to human nature 5 the physical and the spiritual" There are problems with this viewpoint" The most crucial one is whether or not the immortal soul is really a person" Are there for instance male and female souls? And where do these souls go when the body dies? The philosophy Thomas A8uinas suggested three possible places) GCSE Revision Booklet Year 10 Unit 2 K Bullard .

he will give eternal life.vil will be banished forever and the righteous will be rewarded with eternal life) 'God will give to each person according to what he has done. the dead will be raised and all these souls will be reunited with their bodies. but the resurrected from hell will return there forever. honour and immortality. 1atholic sinners2 will go to 3urgatory and be purified. Those who have refused to believe will go to hell.il+ Resu""e%*io# 5 this is view that by an act of God3s love one day the dead will be restored to life again in bodily form" =n this Cay of &udgement the dead will be raised and God will 9udge the world" .• • • #ell 5 a place of eternal punishment for the worst people 6urgatory 5 a place where !hristians who have lapsed in their faith may undergo a period of punishment and purification Beatific Iision 5 #eaven4 a place of everlasting 9oy and happiness where God dwells" The doctrine of the communion of the saints supports the belief that !hristians died and go to heaven and that it is perfectly possible for !hristians on earth to pray to the Saints in heaven to ask for their help and guidance" 'Those who have died in God$s grace and are perfectly purified go to heaven. Those who have died in God$s grace but were imperfectly purified 0eg.+ Eomans 0)B God re7creates the person on the Cay of &udgement but this time their body is spiritual and will never die" This is shown by the resurrection of &esus !hrist himself who appears to the disciples after his death" #e talks to them eats with them and they can touch him) GCSE Revision Booklet Year 10 Unit 2 K Bullard . Then Jesus will come back to earth. ( new heaven and earth will be made and the resurrected from heaven will live there forever. Then God will 4udge everyone.Bo.+ !atechism of the E!! b. To those whose by persistence in doing good seek glory.

e'*)2 GCSE Revision Booklet Year 10 Unit 2 K Bullard . as you see .o so&e eo le #o* !elie(e i# li/e '/*e" .' ook at my hands and my feet. it is raised imperishable. it is raised a spiritual body.t is .e'*) e$ e"ie#%es Scientist have examined the cases of many people who have died and been resuscitated" %n a near7death experience people describe a feeling of floating out of their bodies and then travelling down a tunnel to emerge into another world" #ere they met &esus or a figure associated with their own religious tradition" Non7religious believers claimed to meet a dead relative or friend" Between them and the figure was often a barrier or gate" At this point they are forced to make a choice as to whether to cross the barrier or to return to earth" %t has been suggested that such accounts are simply hallucinations dreams or subconscious memories" P'"' s+%)olog+ The Spiritualist 'ovement claims that there is a spirit world where peoples3 spirits live on after death and which can be reached through sKances and mediums" #owever the Spiritualist 'ovement has been the sub9ect of many hoaxes that have made the whole thing appear bogus" W)+ ..+ > !orinthians >B)G07GG There are problems with this doctrine 5 for instance if a person is resurrected is it really them or something that 9ust looks like them? And what about people who have disabilities on earth 5 will they still have these disabilities in eternal life? Ne'"-. myself5 Touch me and see. a ghost does not have flesh and bones..+ (uke 0G)FJ St 6aul explains that the resurrected body is spiritual and cannot die) '-o will it be with the resurrection of the dead. . have. The body that is sown is perishable.it is sown in a natural body.

arth *on the Cay of &udgement.to raise the dead and reunite their bodies and souls" God will make a new #eaven and a new .ngland #ell" Believe that after death the body will stay in the grave but the soul will go straight to God for 9udgement" There is a difference of opinion about what • &esus told a thief on the cross that he would be in #eaven that day *(uke 0F)GF• • • • Eesurrection of &esus Teachings of New Testament *See aboveTeaching in the !atechism of the E!! *See aboveBelief that &esus is seated on the right hand of the father and will come again to 9udge the living and the dead" GCSE Revision Booklet Year 10 Unit 2 K Bullard .arth and the souls in 6urgatory will go to #eaven and the souls from #ell with return to !hurch of .There are many people who do not believe in any kind of life after death" There are several reasons for this) • • • • When someone dies they 9ust decay %t does not make sense to speak of life after death since if there is such a thing then the person could not really be dead in the first place %s an afterlife desirable anyway? (ife is about personal identity" %f a person dies and have life after death in a different form 5 say as an immortal soul 5 then that are not the same person who died Eoman !atholic !hurch Believe in both the resurrection of the body and immortality of the soul" They believe that the soul of a !hristian who has not sinned since their last confession will go straight to #eaven" The soul of a !hristian that has sinned will go to 6urgatory for their souls to be cleansed" The souls who do not believe in God or have committed unforgivable sins will go to #ell" After this &esus will come back to .

vidence of the paranormal such as ghosts and mediums &esus3 body was raised from the dead *(uke 0G)FJ- .will happen to those who do not go to #eaven and some believe there is no such place as #ell" • &esus said his father3s house had many rooms that &esus was preparing for his followers *&ohn >G)0- • The teaching of the !hurch is that there can be a communion of the saints *communication between dead and living !hristians- • .vangelical Believe that after death the body and !hristians soul stay in the grave until the end of the world" At this time a !hristian will be 9udged" The good will go to #eaven and sinners who have not repented will go to #ell" • • They are taught to believe in the resurrection of the body and everlasting life • St 6aul teachers this belief in > !orinthians >B)G07GG T)e P"o!le& o/ A!o"*io# A!o"*io# presents a serious moral problem for !hristians since it conflicts with the belief in the s'#%*i*+ o/ li/e" GCSE Revision Booklet Year 10 Unit 2 K Bullard .

. formed you in the womb..mbryology Act which allows abortion up to 0G weeks only on certain conditions" %f two doctors agree that) iiiiiiiiiiii!ontinuing the pregnancy would pose a risk to the physical+mental health of the mother 6hysical+ mental health of the existing family would suffer after the birth !hild is likely to be born mentally+ physically handicapped" A risk to the mother3s life .Before . that is the foetus is removed by doctors" %t is abortion in this sense which we shall deal with here" %n the <H a woman can only have a legal abortion if she comes within the Abortion Act >J@: and >JJ1 #uman $ertilisation and . knew you.vidence that the baby will be severely handicapped Eisk of serious physical+ mental in9ury to the mother" Abortion after 0G weeks is allowed if there is) %n >J:> there were JG B:1 abortions carried out compared with >:@ F@G in 011>" Abortion is often 9ustified by politicians and others by saying that it helps to control the rise in population" P"o-%)oi%e groups often say that abortion supports the right of every woman to choose what happens to her body and enables her to choose the right time for her to have a baby rather than have an 2accident"3 A pregnancy as a result of an accident a rape or a 2one night stand3 should not be allowed to 2spoil3 a woman3s life" GCSE Revision Booklet Year 10 Unit 2 K Bullard ./ &eremiah > An abortion is the termination of the foetus in the womb" This may be natural in the sense that the foetus is expelled by an act of nature itself 5 this is called a &is%'""i'ge" Alternatively the abortion may be "o%u"e.

or even when the baby becomes viable that is capable of existing outside the womb" That is why the law gives a limit of 0G weeks 5 until that time the foetus is not viable and therefore is not in a sense a human being" 'any religious believers say that abortion is wrong" The Bible says that God gives the gift of life to everyone) '*or you created my innermost being) you knit me together in my mother$s womb.ngland and the 'ethodist !hurch agree that abortion is undesirable but at the same tiem argue that an abortion might sometimes be the most loving thing to do for instance in the case of rape severe handicap or where the life of the mother is at risk" C'*)oli% (ie-s GCSE Revision Booklet Year 10 Unit 2 K Bullard .e#i#g.Abortion presents many problems 5 the most important is the 8uestion of when does life begin? Some religions including !atholicism believe that life begins at conception and that to have an abortion is to kill a human being" =thers say that life does not really begin until much later perhaps when the baby starts to move in the womb *called 7ui%.very human being has the right to life The Coctrine of double effect is permitted by the !atholic !hurch 5 if the mother3s life is in danger and treatment to save her might harm the foetus then treatment is permitted" As long as the harm to the foetus is unintentional it is acceptable" The !hurch of .+ *6salm >FJ)>FThe E!! and many 6rotestant groups are opposed to abortion because) • • • • • (ife is a sacred gift from God The Bible forbids the murder of human beings (ife begins at the moment of conception The unborn child is created in the image of God .

/ Me*)o.is* (ie-s .6e affirm that every human life is uni7ue. But we also believe that to withdraw compassion in circumstances of e8treme distress or need is a very great evil./ *NB) !ontraception 5 Some religious believers suggest that the use of contraception itself is wrong since it prevents a human life from forming and that in a sense contraception is a kind of abortion anyway" The morning after pill has been dubbed the 2abortion pill3 by some" A"gu&e#*s i# /'(ou" o/ '!o"*io# 8 "o-%)oi%e6 >" The woman3s right to choose" 'any argue that the mother has the right to make choices concerning4 • • • • What happens to her body What happens to her life #er future #er relationships GCSE Revision Booklet Year 10 Unit 2 K Bullard .n an imperfect world the 9right$ choice is sometimes the lesser of two evils. (ie-s . / !atechism of the !atholic !hurch C)u"%) o/ E#gl'#. in an imperfect world there will be circumstances where a termination of a pregnancy may be the lesser of two evils.(bortion is always an evil to be avoided if at all possible/However.Since !atholicism states that life begins at conception the !atholic !hurch is generally opposed to abortion" The Sanctity of (ife is very important for religious views on abortion" . born or yet to be born/we therefore believe that abortion is an evil. .(bortion is a horrible crime/the law must provide appropriate sanctions for every deliberate violation of the child$s rights.

and The Society for the 6rotection of the <nborn !hild *S6<!.claim that the foetus is a human being and has the right" • • • • Not to be killed To fulfil its potential $or its life to be valued To be fairly represented by an unbiased third party They argue that it is wrong to kill a foetus 9ust because it is handicapped would have a poor 8uality of life or because having a baby might affect the mother3s life or career" T)e P"o!le& o/ Eu*)'#'si' Eu*)'#'si' is defined as the action of inducing 2a 8uiet and easy death3 or 2a good death3" %t is used to refer to the termination of the lives of people suffering GCSE Revision Booklet Year 10 Unit 2 K Bullard .• Whether to have a child %n other words the right of the mother take precedence over those of the foetus as long as the foetus is not able to survive outside the mother3s womb" 0" The Luality of life %t may be argued that the foetus has the right to a reasonable 8uality of life which means a life free from pain and the right to be a wanted child" %f these things are not possible then abortion may be the best option" F" The Coctrine of Couble effect %f a woman3s life is in danger an abortion may save her life" The doctrine of double effect is the principle that whilst an abortion is undesirable it is carried out to save the mother3s life" G" 6opulation growth Some argue that abortion helps to keep the population numbers down" A"gu&e#*s 'g'i#s* '!o"*io# 8 "o-li/e6 Anti7abortionist groups such as (%$.

e 5 providing a seriously ill person with the means to commit suicide" b.uthanasia Society has campaigned for people to be given the right to make (iving Wills or Advance Cirectives" These are documents made by individuals in a time of good health indicating that should they become severely in9ured or handicapped that they be allowed to die rather than receiving intensive medical treatment" #owever such documents are not legally binding" %n >JJF GCSE Revision Booklet Year 10 Unit 2 K Bullard . sui%i.Assis*e.No#-(olu#*'"+ 8o" 'ssi(e6 eu*)'#'si' 5 where medical treatment given to prolong the patient3s life is not longer given and the patient is allowed to die naturally for example switching off a life7support machine" British law says that all these methods of euthanasia are crimes and people involved in them can be sent to prison" This is an area of great controversy especially as some countries such as the Netherlands have made euthanasia legal if it is agreed to by the patient the patient3s relatives and at least two doctors" This debate has recently been reignited by Terry 6ratchett in his Cimbleby (ecture in 'arch 01>1 as well as the case of Hay Gilderdale who was ac8uitted of killing her daughter when she helped her to die" A"gu&e#*s i# /'(ou" o/ Eu*)'#'si' Those who support euthanasia offer the following reasons) • • • • %t leads to a pain7free death %t allows the sufferer to die with dignity rather than a slow uncomfortable death %t saves on hospital and medical expenses %t relieves the burden on families The Ioluntary .Volu#*'"+ eu*)'#'si' 5 the situation where someone dying in pain asks another person to end his+ her life painlessly" c.from great physical or mental handicap or a painful terminal illness" There are several ways in which this might be done) a.

knowing that it will also shorten a person3s life *a secondary effect"The blame for ending the person3s life cannot be given because the intention was purely to ease their suffering the shortening of their life was purely a by7product" *6ermitted by the E!! because the intention is not to end a person3s life"C)"is*i'# (ie-s The !atholic !hurch is absolutely against euthanasia and unlike many !hristian churches is also against doctors having the right to switch off life support machines with the consent of the patient3s family" GCSE Revision Booklet Year 10 Unit 2 K Bullard .the #ouse of (ords re9ected a proposal to legalise euthanasia saying) .%t would be next to impossible to ensure that all acts of euthanasia were truly voluntary"/ A"gu&e#*s 'g'i#s* Eu*)'#'si' Those against euthanasia say that doctors should save lives not kill" They argue that euthanasia is the easy option and that there are many moral issues which need to be considered" • • • • Not all illnesses diagnosed as terminal will necessarily end in death %f doctors are allowed to kill those who are very sick then society will stop looking for cures The elderly and the sick might feel pressure on them to die The #ospice 'ovement cares for the terminally ill and offers an alternative to euthanasia" #owever at present hospice care is expensive" P'lli'*i(e %'"e 5 Heeping people pain7free by use of drugs which may leave them semi7conscious all the time" P)'"&'%ologo!li(io# 5 Sometimes the only way of easing a person3s pain is to give them huge doses of painkillers which in the end may kill them anyway" This is sometimes done deliberately" Do%*"i#e o/ Dou!le E//e%* 5 Giving a large dose of painkillers to relieve pain *first effect.

6e are now always able to control pain in terminal cancer in the patients sent to us/euthanasia as advocated is wrong/it should be unnecessary and is an admission of defeat. / Salvation Army As an alternative to euthanasia many !hristians look to the #ospice 'ovement" A #ospice is a kind of residential home where those suffering a terminal illness can live out their remaining days being cared for in a peaceful and dignified way" .C!s are situated in areas of the world where natural disasters *earth8uakes floods droughts etc". 6e deny the right to legalise the termination of life by a doctor. Po(e"*+ 19 W'"s Wars destroy crops homes schools hospitals etc" causing even more poverty" They also force many people to leave their homes and become refugees in other safer countries" These neighbouring countries may have been developing but a sudden influx of refugees with no money or food can make that country poor again" 39 N'*u"'l Dis's*e"s 'any (.6e believe that it is right to use medical treatment to control pain..(n act or omission which causes death in order to eliminate suffering constitutes a murder greatly contrary to the dignity of the human person and to the respect due to the living God.are more fre8uent and more severe than GCSE Revision Booklet Year 10 Unit 2 K Bullard ./ !atechism of the !atholic !hurch 'ost !hristian churches are against euthanasia but would agree with the right of doctors to switch off life support machines with the consent of the patient3s family" This cross !hurch agreement comes about because of the Sanctity of (ife principle" . his 1reator./ !hristian #ospice 'ovement C'uses o/ Wo"l.

0 the country had paid M>0".C! farmers produce more crops than are needed they export them at lower prices than the (.C!s" #owever the rich countries are using their wealth to protect their farmers" They pay subsidies to their farmers to grow crops and put high tariffs *import taxes.C!s have to borrow money from the banks of developed countries to survive and begin to develop" #owever these banks charge interest so a less developed country can find itself paying more in interest that it earns in foreign currency" %n the early seventies for example !hile borrowed MF"J billion" By >J.on crops from poor countries so that their products are more expensive" Then if the '.9 U#/'i" T"'.C!s" 'ost people in poor countries work in agriculture and one way for them to become richer would be for them to grow surplus crops and export their surplus to earn money from '. billion in interest but still owed money" This extra MJ billion could have been used to speed up !hile3s development instead it went to countries that were already rich" Because unpaid interest is added to the original debt since >JJ1 the amount of money poor countries have to pay in interest to rich countries has risen from N:"G billion to N>1"F billion" . billion" GCSE Revision Booklet Year 10 Unit 2 K Bullard .C!s are starving because land is used to grow cash crops instead of food and the prices for the cash crops go down because too many countries are growing them" The price of coffee has fallen by :1A since >JJ@ costing poor countries M.C!s grow cash crops such as cotton coffee tea and tobacco which they can sell to the developed world" 'any people in (.anywhere else" An earth8uake or a flood for example can destroy many thousands of homes and the farmland on which the inhabitants depend" %f rains does not fall crops will not grown unless people have the wealth to sink wells install pumps and organise an irrigation system" :9 De!* 'ost (.e World trade is dominated by the rich countries of the world" %t is often the rich countries that determine the prices paid for products from (.C!s can produce them for" To overcome the problem many (.

urope set up in >JGB to help relieve the suffering of people left homeless after WW0" %t is now a leading <H and %rish overseas Cevelopment Agency that works across the globe in more than B1 countries" %t acts where the need is greatest regardless of religion" !hristian Aid prefers to work alongside local partner organisations in the belief that local people are best placed to find their own solutions to the problems they face" GCSE Revision Booklet Year 10 Unit 2 K Bullard . o/ o#e "eligious 'ge#%+ /o" -o"l. .C!s do not have the skills needed to work in industries that might improve the country" (ack of clean fresh water leads to disease and children dying at a young age4 such low life expectancy leads families to have a large number of children so that a sufficient number will survive to look after their parents in their old age" Eelying on one export *such as copper or oil.e(elo &e#* There are many religious agencies working for world development" =ne of the ma9or agencies based in the <H is !hristian Aid" !hristian Aid began as !hristian Eeconstruction in .can lead to poverty because if the value of the product goes down in the world market the country will be making a loss instead of a profit" This can change a country form rich to poor almost overnight" T)e -o".<9 HIV0AIDS This disease is sweeping the (.C!s" The methods of safe sex and drugs to control the disease used in the rich countries are far too expensive" South Africa has the largest number of people with #%I+A%CS in Africa and the disease is having a horrifying effect on children" %t is estimated that by 01>1 one78uarter of all the children in South Africa will have lost their parents" The loss of so many earners and the presence of so many children who will not be able to have an education is causing many African countries to become poorer" This effect is going to get worse and only the rich countries can help" =9 O*)e" /'%*o"s There are other factors contributing to world poverty" (ack of education means that young people in (.

-"'isi#g %n order to do any work to relieve poverty !hristian Aid needs money which is raised in several ways" Since >JB: !hristian Aid Week has been organised as a nationwide event in 'ay each year" !hurches divide up towns between them and try to put an envelope and information sheet about the work of !hristian Aid into every house" %n 011G !hristian Aid week raised N>B million" 'any churches and individual also have fund7raising events throughout the year" !hristian Aid also receives government grants" E&e"ge#%+ Ai. !hristian Aid has an advantage over many charities because it is in contact with organisations at the receiving end of the aid" 'uch of !hristian Aid3s emergency and long7term aid is channelled through organisations in the country concerned" GCSE Revision Booklet Year 10 Unit 2 K Bullard .!hristian Aid works on the basis of need regardless of race or religion" To achieve its aim the work of !hristian Aid is split into different groups or sections" Fu#. !hristian Aid has funds to deal with emergencies such as the recent tsunami in south7east Asia and the displaced people in Sudan" This work takes place alongside long7term aid because without it people would die" The sort of emergency help !hristian Aid gives via its local partner organisations includes sending food antibiotics and shelters to the victims of the 011G Bangladesh floods sending food to drought7stricken Oimbabwe and sending blankets tents and food to war refugees in Carfur and the !ongo" !hristian Aid spends between >1A and >B A of its funds each year on emergency aid" Lo#g-*e"& 'i.

o(e"*+2 S*e-'".s)i !hristianity teaches that God created the universe and everything in it and when it was created it was good" This means that !hristians should regard the whole of creation as a gift from God to be used by humans in the way in which God intended" %t is a basic believe of !hristianity that God gave humans the stewardship of the earth and its resources" GCSE Revision Booklet Year 10 Unit 2 K Bullard .u%'*io# '#.oes C)"is*i'# Ai.C!s" %t publishes a 8uarterly newspaper !hristian Aid News and many educational materials" These not only give information about what !hristian Aid is doing but also about world development" What the world spends on arms in two weeks for example would give everyone in the world enough food water education and shelter for a year" !hristian Aid also campaigns to improve the situation in (.=ften these local groups come up with ideas for long7term aid which they ask !hristian Aid to support" !hristian Aid sees its function as helping people to help themselves so that they will not need aid" =ften this is done through the use of appropriate technology *technology that can be operated and repaired by people using it rather than needing support from the outside-" E. -o".C!s" %n addition to is own campaigns it was part of the &ubilee 0111 which campaigned to persuade rich governments and banks to cancel the debts of poor countries and is a member of the Trade &ustice 'ovement which is a campaign to persuade the rich governments of the world to agree to world trade systems that will allow poor countries to develop their economies" W)+ . *o "elie(e -o"l. %'& 'ig#i#g About BA of !hristian Aid3s budget is spent on educating the people and !hurches of the <H and %reland about the need for development and the way in which people can help (.

&S taught that God expects humans to pass on to the next generation more than they have been given" The !hurches teach that stewardship does not only mean looking after the earth3s resources it also means making sure that the earth3s resources are shared out fairly" T)e Relie/ o/ Po(e"*+ According to the NT riches must be used for the help of others especially the poor" !hristians believe that all humans are e8ual in the eyes of God and that all the good things of the earth have been given to humans by God to use to help each other" &esus told the 6arable of the Sheep and the Goats about the good and bad people being separated at the end of the world 9ust as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats" The good would be sent to heaven because as &! said 2When % was hungry you fed me" When % was thirsty you gave me drink" When % was naked you clothed me" When % was sick or in prison you visited me"3 The good people wanted to know when they had ever done this and &! replied 2When you did this for the least of my brothers you did it for me"3 The bad people were told they were going to hell because they had never fed the hungry given drink to the thirsty clothed the naked or visited the sick or imprisioned" When they asked when they had never done these things &! said 2When you did not do it for other people you did not do it for me"3 !learly this means that !hristian should help to relieve world poverty" %n the Sermon on the 'ount *'atthew B7:.Stewardship means looking after something so that it can be passed on to the next generation" %n the 6arable of the Talents *(uke >J)>>70@.&! taught that !hristians should share their time and possessions to help those in need and this has been backed up by the teachings of all the !hristian !hurches that !hristians have a duty to help the poor" GCSE Revision Booklet Year 10 Unit 2 K Bullard .

God blesses those who come to the aid of the poor and rebukes those who turn away from themQ"(ove for the poor is incompatible with immoderate use of riches or their selfish use"/ *!atechism of the E!! 0GGF70GGB- GCSE Revision Booklet Year 10 Unit 2 K Bullard .&! showed that the commandment to !hristians to love God and love their neighbours means they must help anyone who is in trouble whether they live next door or far away" When &! was asked by a rich young man what he should do to gain eternal like as well as obeying all the Ten !ommandments &! said) 2Pou need to do one thing more" Go and sell what you own and give the money to the poor and you will have riches in heaven4 then come follow me"3 But his face fell at these words and he went away sad for he was a man of great wealth" &! looked around and said to his disciples 2#ow hard it is for those who have riches to enter the Hingdom of God"3 So !hristian teachings on stewardship and the relief of poverty mean that !hristians should share their wealth with the poor to help remove the causes of world poverty and promote world development" .The universe as a whole is a product of God3s creative and imaginative will" All its parts are interdependent" 'en and women are to be stewards not exploiters of its resources material animal and spiritual"/ *Statement by the 'ethodist !hurch in What the !hurches Say.God saw all that he had made and it was very good"/ *Genesis >)F>.%n the 6arable of the Good Samaritan *(uke >1)0B7F:.Now it is re8uired that those who have been given a trust *made stewards.must prove faithfulQ%t is the (ord who 9udgesQ#e will bring to light what is hidden in darkness and will expose the motives of men3s hearts"/ *> !orinthians G)07B.

%f anyone is well off in worldly possession and sees his brother in need but closes his heart to him how can the love of God be remaining in him? !hildren your love must be not 9ust words or mere talk but something active and genuine"/ *> &ohn F) >:7>.Give to the one who asks you and do not turn away from the one who wants to borrow from you"/ *'atthew B)G0.The !hurch should concern itself first and indeed second with the poor and needy whether in spirit or in body"/ $aith in the !ity a !of.. report on poverty and the !hurch#ow has an issue arising from matters of life and death been presented in form of the media and was it fair to religious beliefs and religious people? 'illion Collar Baby GCSE Revision Booklet Year 10 Unit 2 K Bullard ..