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ENLIGHTENMENT AND THE ART OF TAXONOMY

The Orchestra
The Orchestra An ensemble that comprises a core group of string instruments, which are doubled (i.e., An ensemble comprises core group of string more than one that to a part) a along with pairs of instruments, which are doubled (i.e., more than one to a part) wind (woodwind and brass) instruments, and, along with pairs of wind (woodwind and brass) instruments, often timpani and percussion.
and, often timpani and percussion.

The Orchestra ThePhiladelphia Philadelphia Orchestra

Development of the Orchestra

Strings, occasional winds, sometimes doubling, sometimes with separate lines

Winds increasingly become regular members, with increasingly specific parts

Continued expansion Increase in and enlargement, percussion especially of brass instruments. instruments. Continuo abandoned.

17th. C

18th. C

19th. C

20th. C

The baroque orchestra Strings! Violins! Violas ! Cellos! Continuo group! Harpsichord! Theorbo (bass lute)! Basoon! Bass viol (double bass)! Woodwinds! Flutes ! Oboes .

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Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) .

Encyclopédie (1751-1772) Diderot.Diderot. D’Alembert. D’Alembert. Encyclopédie (1751-1772) .

Taxonomy of Human Taxonomy of Human Knowledge: Knowledge: Memory (History) Memory (History) ! Reason (Philosophy) Reason (Philosophy) Imagination (Poetry) ! Imagination (Poetry) .

Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1712!.1778 The first “alienated” intellectual Emphasized nature and the individual Blasted social institutions Wrote articles on politics and music Attacked Baroque opera Advocated simpler. more natural music that focused on real life Encouraged development of comic opera .

1779) .Article “Sonata” from Rousseau’s Dictionary of Music (English translation.

What does it mean for music to be enlightened? .

What does it mean for music NOT to be enlightened? .

. and from the lofty to the somber. since they conflict with Nature. for he demands that singers and instrumentalists should be able to do with their throats and instruments whatever he can play on the clavier.which however are vainly employed. on Bach (1737) ! ! This great man would be the admiration of whole nations if he had more amenity. Turgidity has led [Bach] from the natural to the artificial.Johann Adolf Scheibe. if he did not take away the natural element in his pieces by giving them a turgid and confused style. Since he judges according to his own fingers. his pieces are extremely difficult to play. and one admires the onerous labor and uncommon effort-. and if he did not darken their beauty by an excess of art. But this is impossible.

Allegreto . 1 in C major. Piano concerto No.The Galant Style Johann Christian Bach.

Functional harmony and tonality Different harmonic areas have different functions This includes a strong sense of direction—the home key functions as the center of gravity for a piece .

TONIC (home) Subdominant (link from Tonic to Dominant) DOMINANT (farthest point away from tonic. leads back home: there-and-back) .

moods .The Symphony Originated in Classical period Outgrowth of public concerts Large multimovement work for orchestra Each movement a distinct musical work “Pleasing variety” Contrasting tempi. forms. themes.

The Symphony I II Opening movement Slow movement III Minuet (with trio) IV Closing movement .

First movement Moderate to fast tempo Sonata form Optional slow introduction Many moods possible Emphasizes contrast and development .

Second movement Slow tempo No standard form Often lyrical and songlike .

triple meter Minuet form (ternary) Stylized dance Usually aristocratic in mood .Third movement Moderate tempo.

tuneful.Fourth movement Fast to very fast Usually sonata or rondo form Light. brilliant .

but is often a three or four movement work. a Piano Sonata. or a Sonata for Cello and Piano).SONATA FORM NOT the form of a sonata A sonata is a multi-movement composition for a solo instrument or small ensemble (i.e. and is found in many genres: symphonies. Sonata form is the FORM of a single movement. string quartets. A sonata is a GENRE. . sonatas. etc. etc. The form of a sonata varies.

(like the Da Capo aria and other baroque forms) .SONATA FORM SEEN FROM A DISTANCE A B A’ Rounded binary form.

reworks it.Sonata form A Exposition Presents thematic material B Development Takes thematic material and breaks it down. wanders to other keys A’ Recapitulation Brings thematic material back to the tonic .

wanders to back to the tonic other keys .Sonata form |:A:| Exposition Presents thematic material B Development A’ Recapitulation Coda Takes thematic material and breaks it down. Brings thematic material reworks it.

Sonata form |:A:| Exposition B Development A’ Recapitulation Coda .

Exposition |:Primary Theme:| Tonic Bridge ’ Secondary Theme Dominant Cadence theme Closing Modulation .

40.Exposition: Mozart Symphony No. I (1788) First theme: stable theme in tonic key (Theme repeats with instruments added) Bridge: modulates to new key (Medial caesura [pause] leads to second group] .

Exposition: Mozart Symphony No. 40. in new key (Second theme repeats. expands) Cadence theme . I Second theme: stable.

Exposition: Mozart Symphony No. I First theme: stable theme in tonic key (Theme repeats with instruments added and varied ending) Bridge: modulates to new key (Medial caesura [pause] leads to second group) . 40.

I Second theme: stable. expands) Cadence theme . in new key (Second theme repeats.Exposition: Mozart Symphony No. 40.

Development: Mozart Symphony No. 40. I Develops themes from exposition (First theme with nuances and shades) ! Heightens tension ! Contrast and motivic variation ! Modulates frequently ! Retransition returns to first key .

. leads to .Recapitulation: Mozart Symphony No. . Coda (all the themes return for last appearance) . . I First theme—Sounds familiar. 40. . we’re back to where we started (Theme repeats with instruments added and varied ending) The bridge is longer and more varied Second theme in the first key Closing theme .

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 1756–1791 Born in Salzburg to musical family Child prodigy After court position. moved to Vienna Made living from teaching and concerts Died with Requiem Mass unfinished .

church. and over 20 operas. numerous divertimentos. trios. 83 string quartets. . and opera Gained international fame with public concerts Turned to choral music late in life 104 symphonies.Franz Joseph ! Hadyn 1732–1809 30-year career with Esterhazys Kapellmeister—wrote for court. and sonatas.

the string quartet was often a four-movement work. Also like the symphony. the form of each movement echoes the forms of symphonic works.String quartet Like the Symphony. the String Quartet emerged in the enlightenment. .

2.String Quartet Op. 33 No. IV Finale: Presto! (1781) Rondo form A B Transition A B’ Transition A ? ??? .