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In Philosophy, the term “good” comes in the context of ethics thus, in order to define this term and ask

the questions why and when, let us define what ethics is. It is said to be a practical and normative science, based on reason, which studies human acts and provides norms for their goodness and badness. It is also known as moral philosophy wherein it deals with morality, moral rectitude, or the rightness and wrongness of human acts. It establishes norms or standards for the regulation and direction of human actions. One may think that there can be no morality without God but according to Ethicians, one can determine the goodness or badness of his or her behavior even if he or she does not believe in God. The different kinds of ethical theories assume different kinds of definition on when or why something is good. According to Ethical Relativism, which claims that there are no universal or absolute moral principles, the standards of what is right or wrong are usually relative to a particular culture or society. The moral opinion of an individual is as good as any other, as there is no objective basis for saying that a particular action is right or wrong. On the other hand, we have Hedonism, which is an ethical doctrine, which claims that pleasure is the norm of morality, pleasure is the one and only good therefore, it should be the basis for moral judgment. Hence, whatever action is deemed to be pleasant is known to be good and an unpleasant act or a painful one is bad and should be avoided as much as possible. In order to appreciate this pleasure principle, one should understand that a hedonist‟s philosophy in life is happiness, which in fact, is the highest good and the ultimate goal in life. To realize and attain this highest good, we should be able to satisfy our desires and pleasures in order to live and survive. Another ethical theory is Epicureanism wherein it professes moderate pleasure as the moral norm. This is one that is consonant with reason wherein which is neither too much nor too little. Anything that is taken in excess is bad, thus when extremes are avoided and life is lived in a moderate manner, it is deemed to be good. For the ethical theory of Utilitarianism, this doctrine states that rightness or wrongness of actions is determined by the goodness and badness of their consequences. There is a principle of utility wherein actions are good insofar as they tend to promote happiness, bad as they tend to promote unhappiness. Hence, we should consider the effects of each action or moral decision and choose the action, which yields the most benefits at the least cost of pain or unhappiness. In Situationism, it states that the moral norm depends on the given situation, but whatever the situation is, one must always act in the name of Christian love. Hence, a situation refers to a human condition or state of moral affairs and issues that demand judgment or action. Thus, if one decides on situations such as abortion or drugs in the name of Christian love, where he or she was to judge the situation in this

name. Hence. which directs us towards the good as the goal of our action and this good can be discovered within our nature. Hence. However. And why it . which simply claims that might such as fore. on the other hand. which is practical. when we are practical wherein we can practice and produce results. Another theory is Mightism. beneficial and useful. It is interested in questions such as what makes an act moral as distinguished from a non-moral one? Immanuel Kant. it is something that is good. not violating someone else‟s rights. This is because reason recognizes the basic principle “do good and not evil”. can be worked out and works. which in fact. what is good is something that can benefit oneself but at the same time. and full development of all functions of an individual. strength. For the however. the advocate of this theory says that one acts morally if and only is one does whatever one is obliged to do and this obligation is one the that is performed from a sense of duty/ Hence. In the Natural Law of Ethics. weakness and feebleness. Hence. it is something that is good. Thus. it teaches that there exists a natural moral law. For example. Any act that promotes self-realization is good and all acts that hinder it are evil. For Humanistic Ethics. Self. what is good relies on the fact that it mitigates peace and order in society but at the same time satisfies an individual. beneficial wherein it generally benefits people and useful which can be used to attain good results. whenever an act enhances one‟s strength or capacity to rule or control others. Lastly. Hence. an evil means does not always nullify a good end as the end does not justify the means. it is wrong or bad. it claims that self realization is the true ultimate standard of morality. however. it is good or morally legitimate and if it causes one‟s ineffectiveness. I believe that what makes something good is if it is something that doer does in order to create something that is beneficial but at the same time. Deontologism. what is good is what is right. which is manifested by the natural light of human reason. Hence. we have pragmatism. and the capacity to rule. Seeing all these ethical theories give rise to several definitions on when or why something is good. it is said to be good as a person who does such an act is a person of good will. this food is a property of someone else and taking what is someone else‟s is definitely a violation of some right. demands the preservation of the natural order.realization is understood as a self-fulfillment of life. one steals food from another because he knows that it can satisfy his stomach. known as duty ethics stresses that duty is the norm of moral actions. the greatest good is the full realization of an individual. Hence. is right. when an moral act is done out of duty. which is more of a theory of knowledge rather than of morality. on a personal note. workable. workable when we can put to work. does not impede on the rights of others. the source of moral law is reason itself. It holds that the true and valid form of knowledge is one.

let us look at art as an imitation. art is a representation of reality. we must look at art in different perspectives that makes use of the five senses. was seen as having a primarily aesthetic opposing the utilitarian or logical value making Aesthetics a separate discipline in philosophy. which concerns over questions on art and beauty. art . 1. “beauty”. Why or when is something a work of art? Or why or when is something beautiful? In venturing upon the world of art. in this type of judgment. In the ancient to medieval eras from 600 BC up until the 1600s wherein the key thinkers were Plato and Aristotle. we must first take a look at the field of aesthetics. what is the right thing to do not just for us but for others as well. touch. Artistic objects. with regards to aesthetics. we are reliant upon this cognitive mode of judgment in order to make arguments. the definition of art was viewed differently throughout the different periods in time. with vases and urns. or a certain view. rejected modern theories such as there exists aesthetic universals. Immanuel Kant proclaims that we rely on a special human facility. and of morality. For example. in the Contemporary period. taste. of knowledge. Now. the images on these depicted mythological and human figures since art primarily served an imitative purpose on reality. Lastly. or looking through the definition of the word. Hence. which started from the mid 1900s up until the present. a novel can depict real life situations or a landscape painting can show the viewers a certain scenery. However. smell and hearing. which can logically be proven. art.the youngest area or branch of philosophy. Before moving on to what makes something a work of art. subscribed to an idea of artistic genius such as Beethoven and Mozart. as per the Romantic notion of art for it‟s sake. First. For Aristotle. As an example. a film presents characters who are acting with realistic good is because our conscience tells us rationally. History wise. In the modern area from 1700s to mid1900s. it is evident that we use our five senses. science and arts were separated in the Age of Enlightenment. in order to determine what makes art.our sight. such as a group of characters. which is our aesthetic judgment. A pool of key thinkers such as Immanuel Kant and Alexander Baumgarteen. Many people believe that a work of art should be viewed like a picture or it should present a reproduction of something to us. we rely on intuitive or feelings in order to identify whether something has taste or something looks good. that there is an ingrained or natural genius and that the aesthetic attitude is the only way to appreciate art. the Greeks viewed art as a skilled craft. In asking questions on the nature of reality. a set of happenings. Hence.

and according to him. as Aristotle says. thus. shape and color that is put together in a certain way. seen as a work of art. Bell has also related art with beauty. listen or see it and not posses it. which possesses a significant form. brightness or clarity explaining why things that are beautiful have a clear color. either a living creature or any structure made of part should have an orderly arrangement of those parts. by means of certain external signs. it does not express any emotion nor does it represent anything. art is expressed as a form. As an example. According to Leo Tolstoy. A beautiful thing. consists of all those people who are engaged in making art and deciding whether or not the art is good or bad. which rises in a climax or a problem and is solved in the end thus. Clive Bell. thinking of a „break. people go to Paris in order to see the famous “Eiffel Tower” However. A work of art is also said to give pleasure since it is beautiful. the artist expresses his or her feelings in the work of art and second. a thing has beauty when its form has integrity or perfection. Art can also be expressed as an emotion. Lastly. as we learned. For him. The beauty of a work of art lies in its unity. a soap opera starts with a beginning. Unlike art in music expressed in imitation. the work of art arouses or expresses the same feelings in the audience. this agitates our aesthetic emotions. For example. Art is a human activity wherein man consciously. He suggests that something is beautiful when it arouses a special feeling in us. First. combined to ultimately become different forms. Certain philosophers believe that art should be defined as whatever people in the art world say is art. it all naturally flows together. there still should be a common aspect of all works of art. this can be difficult to tell but it is easier to understand when we use it in the context of feelings.up‟ song can just lead to emotions of sorrow and heartache. which can eventually lead to tears. ultimately. art expresses feelings in two ways. art is manifested as what the art world says it is. For example. The art world. When something is beautiful. Examples of an art world are those that consist of painters who create . says that a work of art is an artifact. But. hands on to others the feelings that he is living through and that these people are affected by these feelings and in effect. experience them as well. you want to contemplate. Thomas Aquinas. all works of art have some common quality and this quality is having a significant form. Furthermore. Wherein in each line. it is seen as something beautiful. a critic. He says that art should not just be defined in terms of its relationship to something outside of the work of art like reality or emotion. But given this. because it is made in such a delicate and awe-strikingly natural since imitation comes naturally to us and it is also pleasurable since we take pleasure in seeing something imitated. According to St. due proportion or harmony and lastly.

Hence. almost anything can be counted as art. the Enlightenment. one of the major proponents of this new approach to art. gave modernity a secular outlook. meaning just now. for me is a craft manifested through ones imagination and creativity using different kinds of medium in order to portray a feeling. There are also art worlds of music such as rock music wherein these musicians create rock songs and record in companies who choose which songs to put on the CDs and Albums. modern comes from the root word from the Latin word.paintings. the art world is the totality of all art world systems and an art world system is a framework for the presentation of a work of art by an artist to an art world in public. However.event. is a historical period after the medieval era spanning through more than 7 centuries. Art is something that I grew up with and a hobby that I will always venture on and I find that all kinds of art are beautiful. It is the critic who writes a Rolling Stones article saying which songs are good and bad and audiences who decide if the CD is good enough to be bought. According to George Dickie. all in all. according to Demeterio (2013). The Scientific Revolution came afterwards which contributed a technological outlook. A number of events gave rise to this period. On a personal level. in order to fully determine the differences between both. and a tendency to demystify or objectify the world. or a situation. galleries and museums who decide whether which painting to put up in the exhibit. an artist is someone who participates with understanding in the making of a work of art. as what is beautiful for them. we must first differentiate the term modern from the term postmodern. art really is something that is subjective and can be seen differently when it comes to different kinds of people. 2. Why or when is something postmodern? In order to tell whether something is postmodern. Hence. culture and philosophy. including these first four significant happenings. the public is a set of people prepared to understand the work of art presented. a faith in human reason. modernity. we look at three different aspects that both have shed different lights on. in conclusion. I have presented to you four different kinds of ways on how to view what is a work of art. the belief that the future will . the Reformation and secularization. which. art. regardless of who made it and what has been made since it speaks the artist‟s mind. a work of art is an artifact created to be presented to an art world public. starting off with “The Modern”. Thus. It started in the 13th century up until the present times.the Renaissance. But before looking at the etymology of the two. the period. It is the critics who write articles that these paintings or sculptures are good enough to spend money to see or buy them. Hence. modo.

Vincent van Gogh. gave modernity his work on the grand evolution of culture and consciousness. Lastly. It was visible in the arts. as well as fervent nationalism. postmodernity and postmodernism differs from this. on the other hand.always be better than the present.conscious cultural movement occurring in the 19th century. Aside from the events that gave modernity a distinctive outlook and way of life. a frugal way of life. also the compulsion for power and control and lastly. Georg Willhelm Friedrich Hegel.S. which aimed towards a more humane society. who worked on class struggle. it portrayed a reaction against elaborate and ornate neoclassical aesthetics. the belief that the future will also be better than the present but economically. This gave rise to prominent writes such as Virginia Wolf.being the French revolution and a rational systematization of bureaucracy and judiciary provided modernity with a belief and faith in bureaucracy and the judiciary. Realist Narrative were abandoned in favor of impressionism.angular. And lastly. One of which was Rene Descartes who had the idea of the self as fully self. The was also the rise of capitalism and the industrial revolution which gave modernity faith in constant material progress. Now that we have ventured on the text of modern. steel and glass. the last two. Lastly. in the likes of architecture. let us now look at how postmodern. the classicism and neo-classicism of the Renaissance attempted to mimic reality. there was Karl Marx. arches. the belief in constant scientific and technological progress and the compulsion for power and control to modernity. In terms of literature. a fervent nationalism and the belief and faith in the nation-state. Edvard Munch and Pablo Picasso. subjectivism and sensationalism and the well structured plot were transformed into a branching complex. Colonnades. fallible but capable of obtaining the truth through methodic reasons which ultimately become the paradigm of the modern self. James Joyce. Etymology wise. the abstract world of philosophy also gave modernity its distinctive is characterized by the modernism movement while the other by the postmodernism movement. Another is the work of Johann Gottlieb Fichte who contributed faith and belief in the nation-state. and T. modernity and modernism. which led to faith in constant progress. postmodern. and domes were banished and what emerged are austere right. literature and architecture. It brought about the leading painters such as Auguste Renoir. . particularly in painting. In the likes of painting. Eliot to name a few. box type structure of concrete. some theorists have exclaimed that the 20th century can be divided into two distinct period. Modernism is a self.conscious. it reacted against dominant aesthetics of realism. To round the set of events.

Lastly. science and technology. Robert . Next is the proliferation of mass media. and other forms of totalitarianism. not like modernism. However. yielded the collapse of cultural and national multiculturalism that aided a reinforcement of the global village phenomenon. Vladimir Nabokov. communication and technology. a tremendous energy source to sustain an extravagant way of life and lastly. the transcontinental air transit or multiculturalism then. in architecture. This generic term can be used to refer either to postmodernism or postmodernity. art. It celebrated over provisionality and incoherence as well as fragmentation of existence. the sobriety and restraint of modernist art were challenged by playfulness and everydayness of postmodernism painting. neoeclectism and the use of non-orthogonal angles and unusual surface. the emergence and proliferation of advocacy movements such as feminism. Italo Calvino and Gabriel Garcia Marquez were among the leading figures. In terms of painting. and Andy Warhol. In the likes of literature. which contrasted with modernity‟s belief in the nation state. film and philosophy which began to take shape a quarter of a century after postmodernity. who was famous in visual or pop art through the use of screaming colors. Similar to modernity. One of it was the transformation of the original capitalism into multinational and consumer capitalism which provided postmodernity with an even more wealth and material welfare. Postmodernism refers to a self-conscious cultural movement that reacted against the principles and ideals of the modernist movements in literature. business. and marketing to name a few. knowledge and culture that created postmodernity‟s global village phenomenon wherein the globe has been contracted into a village by electric technology and the instantaneous movement of information. marked the reaction of postmodernity against hegemonies of patriarchy. where in modern was an austere and restrained structure. it contrast with the frugality and restraint of the way of life of modernity. resulted in a rapid interchange of information. impressionism. the development of electronic technology and the establishment of global network of the World Wide Web which in effect. it was replaced by wit ornamentation and references. It started from the second half of the 20th century up to the present. Lastly. anthropology. subjectivity and sensationalism of modernism were explored further. it was not confined to just arts but also in advertising. a number of events also gave this period a particular outlook. in postmodern. environmentalism. Another event. Example of postmodern painters were Marcel Duchamp. architecture. who expounded on the collage of found items in his Dada movement.deconstructed from the words “post” and “modern” is after now. on the other hand refers to the historical period after modernity spanning less than a century. gay rights and anti-war activism had been significant occurrences which in effect. Postmodernity.

Lastly. He also exposed the frail foundations of modernity‟s systems of knowledge saying that since knowledge and power are never separate. gave a push on other cultural fields and to pursue the postmodern way of life. Helmut Jahn and Frank Gehry were among those who contributed to postmodern architecture. Thus. This has stemmed from observation of how ruling classes‟ values and cultures have restrained ways of life of the marginalized people. this brings us to an endless wants . has defined our society as we aim to wait for what is “new” and an “improvement” from the past. Michael Graves. as the postmodern person has become an insatiable consumer hence. normalizatio n and standardization of the human subject. He also pointed out the technologies of surveillance wherein authorities observe and evaluate subjects whether or not they meet the standard and the norms. postmodernity and even postmodernism. It also theorized and articulated both postmodernity and post modernism. reliable and neutral but generated to the desires of the powerful. consumption has become the main organizing principle of society. And last. We see that technology has become the movement of a postmodern culture wherein every thing in this century is filled with new gadgets and gizmos. as we know that it is better than what we have. He was also famous for his critical methodology of deconstruction saying that any text built on twisting signs ends up as an unsteady structure. Jean. which in effect. we take a look at postmodern philosophy wherein it thoroughly critiqued the likes of modernity. basically the culture and philosophy that has been reused and recycled from the past and brought to the present in order to create a more improved and progressive result. As an example. we wait and wait for the newest iphone to be manufactured and released. This ultimately. the postmodern world has become tolerant to the proliferation of competing knowledges and the postmodern world has become suspicious of knowledges claiming the status of a meta-narrative. this is sustained and intensified by advertising and mass media such as photoshop wherein it sparks a hyperreality as a postmodern person has considered an image to be more real than the real. modernism.Francois Lyotard investigated on the status of knowledge in postmodern society saying that knowledge is not anymore a human value but a pursuit of other ends such as power. Jean Baudrillard introduced postmodernity‟s darker side saying that there is an obsession for consumption. Also. it is never objective. Jacques Derrida was famous for his theory of language saying that a word or a sign does not connect us to the secure and solid ground of the thing being referred to as he proclaims that a word or a sign is made up of a signifier linked to more chains of signifiers. concluding why or when is something postmodern. Michel Foucault was famous for his critique of modernity‟s compulsion for control. Hence.Venturi.

So why can laws be found rather than made? This is answered by schools of thought. which also answers our question. problems. socially and even spiritually. human positive laws allowing abortion shouldn‟t be obeyed as it goes against the natural law principle of preserving human life. It is concerned with the relation of law to concepts such as justice. Meaning natural law is something built in our system and something that is innate. we must first look into the philosophy of law. At least one of these laws are said to be encountered from the moment we wake up from the moment we end our day.if laws are found or if they are made. arts. Thomas Aquinas.for consumption due to the technological movement introduced by the postmodern culture. In the Historical School. The philosophy of law is defined as the inquiry into the fundamental questions. if they are made or found. any law that is not in accordance with the natural law is not a true law but a derogation of the law. For example. Hence. on the other hand. The study of philosophy of law can either be by topic or by going into the different schools or perspectives of law. which is that laws are not made but they are found. to college students following the DLSU dress code. hence. which is a set of manufacturer‟s directions written into our nature so that we can discover through reason how we ought to act. to fully digest the idea of having laws. and equality. politically. or a strict 8 am start of work. Now that we have defined the philosophy of law. Hence. longings. It could be ranging from kids who are not allowed to use their Iphones before they do schoolwork. Charles Rice gives a definition of Natural Law. Ultimately. laws are found and not made. there are two sides to things. in our context. Positive law should also be a reflection of the common consciousness and spirit of the people. These are now shaped by newly formed creations that we think can make life better and easier. for them. a German jurisprudent.what they are and more importantly. legal systems and legal institutions. culture and superstition. beliefs. It believes that law will be more stable and can stand society‟s pressures since . Are laws made or found? Laws are something that is inevitable as it can be found in every aspect of our lives. all human positive law must conform to natural law. fairness. and concerns about law. 3. According to St. tradition. postmodern is present due to the major changes underlying the ways people think. The Philosophy of Law can be taken to encompass all philosophical speculation on matters of law or related to law. He says that a true law should be based on the OBLUTIACS of the people or their opinion. Friedrich Karl von Savigny. idiosyncrasies.being morally. usages. especially their views on reality and the truth. First is the Natural Law Perspective.

And the duties of the legislators and jurists are just to embody their popular will. John Austin. says that the ground of authority for the common law is its status as longstanding and accepted custom. are the authors of all constitutions and limitations and they are the final judges of their meaning and effect. proclaims that there is a complete separation between law and morality as there is a distinction between law and what is moral. has willed this. customs corresponds to modern social notion of the evolution of law. Laws are only established because it is for the people and the people are the ones to determine generally what violation of rights are there and which actions are punishable by law. According to these historical schools of law. was deemed to be too authoritarian. His formula for the foundation of law is the spontaneous evolution plus natural spirit plus social pressure. The people themselves. The principles of law are in fact. which should be obeyed regardless if it is immoral or moral. he says that the judge is not delegated to pronounce a new law but to maintain the old one. precedents and legislation is the source of law. law is law since the States. absolute. On the other argument. Hence. laws are made and not found wherein the Positivist School advocates this. Sovereign and supreme legislature is the author of all laws and the courts of law constitute a source of law as far as their decisions have binding character. I agree with the statement that laws are found and not made. right or wrong. For him.changing practical needs of the people. the law is the command of the sovereign. Unlike Natural Law Perspective or the Historical School. eternal and of universal validity hence. To the people. . Lastly. which is a Darwinian concept of law. The people have a theory that law is simply a conscious produce of the human will. which tends to produce satisfactory solutions. He established the Volkgiest theory. reflecting their desires. For him. I believe. it believes that laws are made and not found and that law is a conscious formulation of the political superior. law has to support the ever. law is found. a main proponent. Hence. Another evidence to this statement is that customs is a source of law. in a personal note. In Blackstone‟s declaratory theory. This school states that the law is the command of the superiors to guide the actions of the inferiors or those below them and those who act contrary to these rules are to be punished. Judges shouldn‟t decide according to their own private judgment but according to the known laws and customs of the land. Customs being established patterns of behavior that can be objectively verified within a setting. saying that the reality of law has its existence in common consciousness of the people.they come from the people. This however. the sources of law meant the material from which law derives its content.