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(ES) Elements from the Sea A study of the extraction of halogens from minerals in the sea together with a study

of the properties and uses of Group 7 elements and their compounds. The chemical ideas in this teaching module are:
• • • • • •

halogen chemistry redox chemistry !eriodic Ta"le # electron configurations and periodicity of ionisation enthalpy intermolecular dipole "onds halogenoal$ane chemistry industrial chemistry.

Topic Formulae, equations and amount of substance Atomic structure Bonding and structure Assessable learning outcomes %andidates should "e a"le to:
(a) (") (c) (d) (e)

use the concept of amount of su"stance to perform calculations in&ol&ing: molecular formulae' percentage yield' masses of reagents' &olumes of gases and concentrations of solutions write and interpret any "alanced chemical e(uations re(uired' including ionic e(uations recall and explain the procedure for carrying out an acid# al$ali titration and "e a"le to wor$ out the results use con&entions for representing the distri"ution of electrons in atomic or"itals (no treatment of the shapes of atomic

-' .-4) with up to six outer pairs of electrons (any com"ination of "onding pairs and lone pairs) (no treatment of hy"ridisation or molecular or"itals is expected) recall the typical physical properties (melting point' solu"ility in water' a"ility to conduct electricity) characteristic of giant lattice (metallic' ionic' co&alent networ$) and simple molecular structure types explain the term electronegativity recall (ualitati&ely the electronegati&ity trends in the !eriodic Ta"le use relati&e electronegati&ity &alues to predict "ond polarity in a co&alent "ond decide whether a molecule is polar or non)polar from its shape and the polarity of its "onds explain' gi&e examples of' and recognise in gi&en examples the following types of intermolecular "onds: instantaneous dipole–induced dipole bonds (including dependence on "ranching and chain length of organic molecules)' permanent dipole–permanent dipole bonds descri"e the structure of an ionic lattice and "e a"le to draw the structure of compounds that ha&e the sodium chloride lattice (f) (g) (h) ..01 and S23) and ions (such as ./' .or"itals is expected) wor$ out the electronic configuration of atoms from hydrogen to $rypton' and the outer su")shell structures of other main group elements' in terms of main energy le&els and s)' p) and d)atomic or"itals and the elements* positions in the !eriodic Ta"le draw and interpret simple electron +dot-and-cross* diagrams to show how atoms "ond through ionic' co&alent and dati&e co&alent "onds and "e a"le to descri"e a simple model of metallic "onding use the electron pair repulsion principle to predict and explain the shapes of simple molecules (such as %..

%1/# write formulae for compounds formed "etween these ions and other gi&en anions and cations . (i) recall and explain the relationship "etween the position of an element in the !eriodic Ta"le and the charge on its ion' recall the names and formulae of .#' . (ii) recall the meaning of the term ionisation enthalpy' write e(uations for the successi&e ionisations of an element' and explain periodic and group trends in the properties of elements in terms of ionisation enthalpy .14 © OCR 2013 GCE Chemistry B (Salters) v3 Redox Inorganic chemistry and the Periodic Table (i) calculate the oxidation state of specified atoms in formulae (including ions) and explain which species ha&e "een oxidised and which reduced in a redox reaction use systematic nomenclature to name inorganic compounds (5) descri"e redox reactions of s) and p)"loc$ elements and their compounds in terms of electron transfer' using half) e(uations to represent the oxidation and reduction reactions' and defining oxidation and reduction as loss and gain of electrons ($) recall that the !eriodic Ta"le lists elements in order of atomic (proton) num"er and groups elements together according to their common properties recall the classification of elements into s)' p) and d)"loc$s: (l) .1/#' S1-0#' %1/0#' 1.-4' . (m) recall the following physical properties of the halogens: appearance and physical state at room temperature' &olatility' solu"ility in water and organic sol&ents explain physical state and &olatility of the halogens in terms of ..

(r) © OCR 2013GCE Chemistry B (Salters) v3 15 Organic functional groups Organic reactions iodine # medicines' human nutrient (s) recognise and write formulae for examples of mem"ers of the following homologous series: halogenoal$anes and those .intermolecular "onds .%2%s' in toothpaste' chlorine # ma$ing !7%' "leach' "romine # medicines' flame retardants' . (o) . (() . (ii) . (n) use gi&en information to compare different methods of manufacturing chemicals industrially' in terms of atom economy' percentage yield' "atch versus continuous process' siting the plant' cost of process and raw materials' waste disposal' safety explain and compare the relati&e reacti&ity of the halogens in terms of their oxidising a"ility descri"e and write half)e(uations for the redox changes which ta$e place: when chlorine' "romine and iodine react with other halide ions' at the electrodes on electrolysis of a(ueous halide solutions recall the reactions "etween halide ions (6#) and sil&er ions (Ag4) and write ionic e(uations to represent these precipitation reactions explain the ris$s associated with the storage and transport of the halogens (fluorine to iodine) recall and descri"e some uses of halogen compounds which must "e weighed against these ris$s' including: fluorine # ma$ing !T2E' . (p) . (i) .

(i&) (w) descri"e and explain the characteristic properties of halogenoal$anes' comparing fluoro)' chloro)' "romo) and iodo) compounds the following aspects are to "e considered: (i) "oiling points' (depend on intermolecular "onds)' (ii) nucleophilic su"stitution with water and hydroxide ions to form alcohols' and with ammonia to form amines (x) explain and use the terms: hydrolysis' substitution' nucleophile (y) usetheS. (ii) .%l (&) descri"eandexplaintheprincipalstagesinthe purification of an organic li(uid product: . (i) sha$ing with sodium hydrogencar"onate solution to remo&e acidic impurities' separating from other immisci"le li(uids using a separating funnel' drying with anhydrous sodium sulfate' simple distillation to allow collection of the pure product .0 nomenclature is not re(uired) (9) explainhoweither"ondenthalpyor"ondpolaritymight affect the relati&e reacti&ities of the halogenoal$anes and explain how experimental e&idence determines that the "ond enthalpy is more important . (iii) .met in unit 2//8 (t) use systematic nomenclature to name and interpret the names of halogenoal$anes and compounds for which naming was re(uired in unit 2//8 (u) descri"e in outline the preparation of a chloroal$ane from an alcohol using .0mechanismasamodeltoexplain nucleophilic su"stitution in halogenoal$anes using +curly arrows* ($nowledge of the S.8 mechanism or of the S.8 or S.

(aa)draw and interpret s$eletal' structural and full structural formulae use the concept of repulsion of areas of electron density to deduce the "ond angles in organic molecules (including dou"le "onds) (no treatment of small de&iation of angle due to lone pair repulsion re(uired) relate molecular shape to structural formulae and use wedges and dotted lines to represent /: shape. .