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Women’s Experiences of Micro-Enterprise: Contexts and Meanings

SEX ROLES
Volume 61, Numbers 7-8

(2009), 566-579, DOI: 10.1007/s11199-009-9642-4

Abstract
The article confronts global claims of micro-enterprise to promote poverty reduction and gender
equality. The article examines 60 in-depth interviews with low-income Palestinian and Israeli
Jewish women (aged 25–45 years) who engaged in micro-enterprises. The research particularly
focused on women’s motivations, personal qualities required for success, systemic barriers and
opportunities, and women’s constructions of micro-enterprise as a means to overcome poverty and
achieve gender equality. The article indicates that in the frame of gender and economic exclusionary
context, without comprehensive institutional support, micro-enterprise and self employment may not
promise more than a partial solution to poverty and gender discrimination. The article questions the
tendency to globalize policies without taking into account the local contexts in which these policies
are implemented.

Keywords Micro-enterprise - Gender - Poverty - Anti-poverty
programs - Diversity - Israel - Palestine

Women on corporate boards: key influencers or tokens?
JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT AND GOVERNANCE

2010, DOI: 10.1007/s10997-010-9165-y

Abstract
This paper investigates how the increasing ratio of women directors on corporate boards is associated
with decision-making dynamics, specifically the perceived participation and influence of the women
on the board. We test hypotheses using a sample of 458 women on Norwegian corporate boards
where the ratio of women directors among board members ranges from 11 to 100%. Overall, we find
that women perceive that they have a high level of information sharing, a low level of selfcensorship, and a high level of influence across the different ratios of board membership held by
women directors. These results support the notion of women directors as significant influencers.
However, the results also show that women directors perceive that they do receive more information
and engage in more informal social interaction when the ratio increases, and perceived influence
does also increase when the ratio increases.

Keywords Corporate governance - Women on corporate boards - Gender
diversity - Tokenism - Board dynamics

Woman Entrepreneurship and Gender Accountability
Marta Peris-Ortiz, Daniel Palacios-Marqués

and Carlos Rueda-Armengot

WOMEN’S ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND ECONOMICS
International Studies in Entrepreneurship,
9_12

2012, Volume 1000, Part 4, 181-189, DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4614-1293-

Abstract
The controversial issue examined here, about woman entrepreneurship and gender accountability , is
whether society should provide the means for reconciling work and family life so that women can
make their business activity compatible with their family “obligations” (Konrad and Mangel, Strateg
Manage R 21, 1225–1237, 2000; Konrad, Handbook on women in business and management. Edward
Elgar, Northampton, MA, 2007; Eagly and Johannesen-Schmidt, Handbook on women in business and
management. Edward Elgar, Northampton, MA, 2007), or whether a more profound, far-reaching

3. Cooper and Ellen Ernst Kossek. graduate degrees. This article details both the myths and realities associated with women’s entrepreneurship in their quest for growth. Numbers 1-2 (2012). 2010. Further. 2009). Gatewood.Venture capital A Review of Key Readings in the Study of Women and Management Women and Management. ISBN: 978-1-84844-326-6 Diana Bilimoria and Chantal van Esch SEX ROLES Volume 67. we examine the strategies that women entrepreneurs use to position their firms for growth. Edward Elgar. 129-144.Growth resources . Cheltenham. Carter. changing current male success models in the Western world so that men and women can share their child-care and general domestic obligations (Calás et al. The conclusions about these two ways are that a balance is needed: changing the forms of female work and transforming the society in a more deep sense. Women’s participation in the VC industry has not kept pace with industry growth.1007/s11199-012-0129-3 BOOK REVIEW (nu are abstract) . DOI: 10. Acad Manage Rev. and the rewards of entrepreneurship Elizabeth J. UK. 2007. and experience that should not preclude them from obtaining financing. Northampton. we also examined the participation and role of women as decision-makers in industry.1007/s11187-008-9152-8 Abstract This article discusses the questions and issues that prompted the founding of the Diana Project. and women have exited the industry at a faster rate than men. Candida G. MA. Despite the fact that women business owners comprise a significant portion of the economy. especially those strategies related to growth capital. Edward Elgar. Cary L. Keywords Equity funding . a multi-university research program aimed at identifying factors that support and enable high growth in women-led ventures. Handbook on women in business and management.. Our results show that women seeking venture capital (VC) have degrees. Hart SMALL BUSINESS ECONOMICS Volume 32. In particular.Female entrepreneurship . DOI: 10. 1095 pp. women face challenges in acquiring the resources needed to expand their businesses. Because of the importance of the VC industry as a provider of growth capital and its reliance on its network for investment referrals. Brush. thus creating a significant barrier for women entrepreneurs in that it is less likely that their networks will overlap with the financial supplier networks. Volumes 1 & 2. women seeking equity funding are in the appropriate industries. We also found that even though women-led businesses are frequently clustered in industries less attractive to financiers. Nancy M. Edited by Caroline Gatrell. MA. women spend a considerable amount of time using both formal and informal networks in their search for capital and in seeking capital. 34. 552–569. Northampton. Greene and Myra M.transformation is required. Diana: a symbol of women entrepreneurs’ hunt for knowledge. Patricia G. 127-130. Number 2 (2009). $560 (hardcover). despite any effort they may expend networking and seeking capital. money.

The results imply that increasing the proportion of female managersis an effective way to overcome managerial stereotyping. We however include this perspective here because we want to trace the various possible responses to the changing situation of women within organizations. and the management gender ratio in an organization are related to employees’ managerial stereotypes. the gender of the manager. 19-29.1007/978-90-481-9014-0_3 Abstract While Mary Hartman helped us see the importance of continually rethinking our response to the issues that women face. have a stronger preference for feminine characteristics of managers and for female managers. in turn. 2011. As the book progresses. particularly in large organizations. and consider its costs and benefits before offering new perspectives. This study examines if the gender of an employee. and employees working in an organization with a high percentage of female managers. DOI: 10. Volume 27. 31-42.1007/s10869-011-9210-0 Abstract Purpose Several studies have shown that the traditional stereotype of a “good” manager being masculine and male still exists. Part 1. Her response is one that emphasizes the unique contributions that women leaders make within organizations. GENDER. Although Rosener barely touches on it. although the general stereotype of a manager is masculine and although most prefer a man as a manager. Factors Relating to Managerial Stereotypes: The Role of Gender of the Employee and the Manager and Management Gender Ratio Janka I. we shall see that the strategy of emphasizing women leaders’ “unique” leadership style also has its dangers. female employees.Ways Women Lead Judy B. AND ORGANIZATION Issues in Business Ethics. Mandy Van der Velde and Joris Lammers JOURNAL OF BUSINESS AND PSYCHOLOGY Volume 27. DOI: 10. Number 1 (2012). Stoker. employees with a female manager. a transformational leader is more comfortable in a complex environment of a large multinational corporation. Rosener LEADERSHIP. as it tends to strengthen gender stereotypes. . The recent changes in the proportion of women and female managers in organizations could affect these two managerial stereotypes. Rosener’s article does offer us some crucial insights into alternative leadership models that may be more appropriate responses to contemporary organizational dynamics. leading to a stronger preference for feminine characteristics and female leaders. Design/Methodology/Approach 3229 respondents working in various organizations completed an electronic questionnaire. In her now classic article on women leaders we find a demonstration that a transformative collaborative model of leading is both more typical of women leaders and actually very effective. and that style of leadership. Judy Rosener frames the problems and opportunities that women encounter in organizations in a very specific way. Findings The results confirm our hypotheses that. Implications Our study suggests that managerial stereotypes could change as a result of personal experiences and changes in the organizational context. we find that proximal variables are much stronger predictors of these preferences than more distal variables. Moreover. is more conducive to leadership success in global companies.

1337-1357. it may seem appropriate. We develop a multi-case study which allows us to (i) analyze the opinion of a group of women and men who work in high and intermediate management positions. in general. Eugenia López-Pérez and Edgar Centeno QUALITY & QUANTITY Volume 46. was a setback for most women. their strong and weak management capabilities and possible setbacks to their promotion and consolidation in positions of responsibility. concluding that not much had changed in terms of the challenges faced by women. Keywords Woman – Management – Responsibility – Work-family conciliation – Multi-case study . describing the context for interaction between women and entrepreneurial activity. Number 5 (2012). By the beginning of 21st century the work of Leonard (Women’s Stud Int Forum 24:67–78. facilitating reconciliation of work and family life and examining the view of authors who consider the negative effects of these measures. Therefore.Originality/Value This study examines the influence on managerial stereotypes of various proximal and distal factors derived from theory among a large group of employees (in contrast to students). firms may take several advantages stemming from both gender and personal characteristics. In such cases. This paper takes as a reference the context of an occidental and developed country such as Spain. 2001) analyzed the state-of-the-art. ethics and efficiency Marta Peris-Ortiz. DOI: 10.1007/s11365-011-0177-0 Abstract This article begins by reviewing some of the main theoretical approaches to entrepreneurship. DOI: 10. Finally. Almost 20 years ago research on WIB was very rich. Some discussions surrounding women in business included. We then discuss the measures proposed in the literature to benefit women. In any case. (ii) defend the suitability to overcome the differences between men and women and (iii) admit the consideration of different female profiles. the role of women in business responsibility jobs has provided extensive and much discussed issues. Keywords Leadership – Gender – Managerial stereotypes – Management gender ratio Women in business: entrepreneurship. we contemplate situations where the measures benefiting women are based on economic or ethical reasons. Ma. 343-354. This last section qualifies the universalist approach underlying workfamily life reconciliation. Carlos Rueda-Armengot and Diana Benito Osorio INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND MANAGEMENT JOURNAL Volume 8. for instance: learning about their situation at work. it did seem that conciliation between family and work lives. Keywords Women – Entrepreneurship – Universalist approach – Ethics A qualitative approach to the challenges for women in management: are they really starting in the 21st century? Rosario Vázquez-Carrasco. Number 3 (2012).1007/s11135-011-9449-6 Abstract Traditionally. to readdress the situation for women in management as this new century reaches its first decade.

In so doing. Number 6 (2009). feminism and Indigenous rights to inform their leadership practices. Research assumes that women in academe have the qualifications. nor the most important in guiding the practices they produce. a greater number of administrative managers received relevant preparatory training. 2005). Bolton. 2004) and sustainable. Canberra University 2001). pending mass retirements (Chesterman in Not doable jobs?’ Exploring senior women’s attitudes to leadership roles in universities. diversity policies are not the sole texts that inform the ways in which many women leaders operate. Drawing on a larger study of representations of women’s leadership in the media and academia. Age is a particularly notable demographic with the majority of academics within 5–10 years of retirement.Women’s Higher Education Network Conference. with a sample of 342 women (46% response rate). Is this the case? The paper provides the first national demographic and development profile of women middlemanagers in academic and the research-neglected administrative streams in Australian universities. Number 2 (2009).Learning A preliminary analysis of this research was presented at ATN/WEXDEV International Conference. . the skills shortage.1007/s10734-009-9225-x Abstract Universities should be developing female middle-managers for reasons of gender balance (Aitkin in The Last Boilerhouse Address. Nearly 60% of academics experienced few current development opportunities and their discipline-based qualifications did not prepare them for management. there has been a movement from the implementation of equity policies to that of diversity in relation to the employment of academic staff. Keywords Gender . If higher education institutions are learning organizations. 39-54. 2008). experience and skills for management. DOI: 10. the women contested the emergent logic of practice underpinning the contemporary Australian academic field. postbureaucratic organizations (Kira and Forslin in J Organ Change Manage 21(1): 76–91. Developing female middle-managers in Australian universities Michelle Wallace and Teresa Marchant HIGHER EDUCATION Volume 58. Once in their current management roles women experienced markedly fewer development opportunities.A tale of two women leaders: Diversity policies and practices in enterprise universities Jane Wilkinson THE AUSTRALIAN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCHER Volume 36. However. DOI: 10. Such contestation can be considered one of the “subaltern” consequences of policy regimes and forms an integral part of policy fields. Adelaide. Investigating the learning and development of women managers is timely. However. this paper examines how two leading female academics drew upon a range of logics of practices within the different fields of academia.1007/BF03216898 Abstract This paper explores the ways in which senior female academics’ leadership practices are informed and negotiated in relation to a multiplicity of fields.Middle-managers . 11-13 April 2006. Our research shows this is far from the case. Change in climate? Prospects for gender equity in Universities. South Australia. As part of the shift in the logics of practice underpinning the Australian academic terrain. continuous learning should be evident (Watkins in Adv Dev Hum Res 7(3): 414. characterised by neoliberal discourses of new public management which favour the production of the individualistic.Skills shortage . entrepreneurial academic identity as opposed to notions of collectivity and the public good. 781-797.

However. This article addresses the following question: does an increased number of women corporate boards result in a build up of critical mass that substantially contributes to firm innovation? The aim is to test if ‘at least three women’ could constitute the desired critical mass by identifying different minorities of women directors (one woman. and future research directions are discussed. two women and at least three women). The results suggest that attaining critical mass – going from one or two women (a few tokens) to at least three women (consistent minority) – makes it possible to enhance the level of firm innovation. Implications for both theory and practice. Moreover. Number 2 (2011). the results show that the relationship between the critical mass of women directors and the level of firm innovation is mediated by board strategic tasks. Tests are conducted on a sample of 317 Norwegian firms. DOI: 10. Therefore they can still be considered as tokens.1007/s10551-011-0815-z Abstract Academic debate on the strategic importance of women corporate directors is widely recognized and still open. 299-317.Women Directors on Corporate Boards: From Tokenism to Critical Mass Mariateresa Torchia. Keywords corporate governance – critical mass theory – board strategic tasks – organizational innovation – tokenism – women directors . most corporate boards have only one woman director or a small minority of women directors. Andrea Calabrò and Morten Huse JOURNAL OF BUSINESS ETHICS Volume 102.