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Mathematics K–6 continuum of key ideas

Number and Algebra
Early Stage 1
hole Numbers Count forwards to 30 from a given number Count backwards from a given number in the range 0 to 20 Compare, order, read and represent numbers to at least 20 Read and use the ordinal names to at least ‘tenth’ Subitise small collections of ob ects !se the term ‘is the same as’ to e"press e#ualit$ of groups !se the language of mone$

Stage 1
hole Numbers Count forwards and backwards b$ ones from a two%digit number &artition two%digit numbers using place value Read, write and order two%digit numbers Read and use ordinal names to at least ‘thirt$%first’ Recognise, describe and order 'ustralian coins according to their value Count forwards and backwards b$ twos, threes, fives and tens from an$ starting point &artition numbers of up to three digits using place value Read, write and order three%digit numbers Recognise, count and order 'ustralian coins and notes according to their value Addition and Subtraction +odel addition and subtraction using concrete materials Recognise and recall combinations of numbers that add to numbers up to 20 +odel and appl$ the commutative propert$ for addition Record number sentences using drawings, words, numerals and the s$mbols -, . and / !se and record a range of mental strategies for addition and subtraction of one% and two%digit numbers !se the e#uals sign to record e#uivalent number sentences +ake connections between addition and subtraction !se and record a range of mental strategies for addition and subtraction of two%digit numbers Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction Multi!lication and "i#ision Rh$thmic and skip count b$ twos, fives and tens from (ero +odel and use e#ual ‘groups of’ ob ects as a strateg$ for multiplication +odel division b$ sharing a collection e#uall$ into a given number of groups to determine the number in each group +odel division b$ sharing a collection e#uall$ into groups of a given si(e to determine the number of groups +odel and use repeated addition as a strateg$ for multiplication +odel and use arra$s described in terms of ‘rows’ and ‘columns’ as a strateg$ for multiplication +odel and use groups, arra$s and repeated subtraction as strategies for division Record using drawings, words and numerals

Stage 2
hole Numbers Count forwards and backwards b$ tens and hundreds from an$ starting point State the place value of digits in numbers of up to four digits Read, write and order numbers of up to four digits State the place value of digits in numbers of up to five digits Read, write and order numbers of up to five digits Record numbers of up to five digits using e"panded notation

Stage 3
hole Numbers Read, write and order numbers of an$ si(e State the place value of digits in numbers of an$ si(e Record numbers of an$ si(e using e"panded notation )etermine factors and multiples of whole numbers Recognise the location of negative numbers in relation to (ero on a number line *dentif$ and describe prime and composite numbers +odel and describe s#uare and triangular numbers

Addition and Subtraction Combine two or more groups of ob ects to model addition ,ake part of a group awa$ to model subtraction Compare two groups to determine ‘how man$ more’ Record addition and subtraction informall$

Addition and Subtraction +odel and appl$ the associative propert$ for addition !se and record a range of mental strategies for addition and subtraction of two%, three% and four%digit numbers &erform calculations with mone$, including calculating e#uivalent amounts using different denominations !se the e#uals sign to record e#uivalent number sentences !se the inverse operation to check addition and subtraction calculations !se and record a range of mental strategies for addition and subtraction of two%, three%, four% and five%digit numbers !se the formal written algorithm for addition and subtraction Solve word problems, including those involving mone$

Addition and Subtraction Select and appl$ efficient mental, written and calculator strategies for addition and subtraction of numbers of an$ si(e !se estimation to check answers to calculations Solve word problems and record the strateg$ used, including problems involving mone$ Create a simple budget Select and appl$ efficient mental, written and calculator strategies to solve word problems and record the strateg$ used

Multi!lication and "i#ision *nvestigate and model e#ual groups Record grouping and sharing using informal methods

Multi!lication and "i#ision Recall multiplication facts for twos, threes, fives and tens Recognise and use the s$mbols 0 and 1 2ink multiplication and division using arra$s +odel and appl$ to commutative propert$ for multiplication !se mental strategies to multipl$ one%digit numbers b$ multiples of 30 !se and record a range of mental strategies for multiplication of two single%digit numbers Recall and use multiplication facts up to 30 0 30 with automaticit$ Relate multiplication facts to their inverse division facts )etermine multiples and factors of whole numbers !se the e#uals sign to record e#uivalent number relationships involving multiplication !se and record a range of mental and informal written strategies for multiplication and division of two%digit numbers b$ a one%digit operator !se mental strategies and informal recording methods for division with remainders

Multi!lication and "i#ision !se and record a range of mental and written strategies to multipl$ b$ one% and two%digit operators !se the formal algorithm for multiplication b$ one% and two%digit operators !se and record a range of mental and written strategies to divide numbers with three or more digits b$ a one%digit operator, including problems that result in a remainder Solve word problems and record the strateg$ used *nterpret remainders in division problems !se estimation to check answers to calculations Select and appl$ efficient mental, written and calculator strategies to solve word problems and record the strateg$ used Recognise and use grouping s$mbols 'ppl$ the order of operations in calculations

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Early Stage 1
$ractions and "ecimals 4stablish the concept of one%half Record halves of ob ects using drawings

Stage 1
$ractions and "ecimals Recognise, describe and represent one%half as one of two e#ual parts of whole ob ects, shapes and collections !se fraction notation
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Stage 2
$ractions and "ecimals +odel and represent fractions with denominators 2, 3, 5, 7 and 6 Count b$ halves, #uarters and thirds, including with mi"ed numerals Represent fractions on number lines, including number lines that e"tend be$ond 3 +odel and find e#uivalence between fractions with denominators 2, 5 and 68 3 and 98 7, 30 and 300 'ppl$ the place value s$stem to represent tenths and hundredths as decimals +ake connections between fraction and decimal notation +odel, compare and represent decimals with one and two decimal places Represent decimals on number lines

Stage 3
$ractions and "ecimals Compare and order unit fractions with denominators 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 6, 30, 32 and 300 4"press mi"ed numerals as improper fractions and vice versa +odel and represent strategies to add and subtract fractions with the same denominator 'ppl$ the place value s$stem to represent thousandths as decimals Compare, order and represent decimals with up to three decimal places Represent, compare and order fractions with denominators 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 6, 30, 32 and 300 )etermine, generate and record e#uivalent fractions :rite fractions in their ‘simplest form’ 'dd and subtract fractions, included mi"ed numerals, with the same or related denominators +ultipl$ fractions b$ whole numbers ;ind a simple fraction of a #uantit$ !se mental, written and calculator strategies to add and subtract decimals with up to three decimal places !se mental, written and calculator strategies to multipl$ decimals b$ one% and two%digit whole numbers !se mental, written and calculator strategies to divide decimals b$ one%digit whole numbers +ultipl$ and divide decimals b$ 30, 300 and 3000 Solve word problems involving fractions and decimals, including mone$ problems +ake connections between e#uivalent percentages, fractions and decimals !se mental, written and calculator strategies to calculate 30<, 27< and 70< of #uantities, including as discounts %atterns and Algebra *dentif$, continue create and describe increasing and decreasing number patterns with fractions, decimals and whole numbers ;ind missing numbers in number sentences involving multiplication or division on one or both sides of the e#uals sign Continue, create, record and describe geometric and number patterns in words )etermine the rule for geometric and number patterns in words and use the rule to calculate values 2ocate and record the coordinates of points in all four #uadrants of the Cartesian plane

Recognise, describe and represent halves, #uarters and eighths of whole ob ects, shapes and collections !se fraction notation
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%atterns and Algebra Sort and classif$ ob ects into groups Recognise, cop$, continue, create and describe repeating patterns of ob ects and drawings

%atterns and Algebra Recognise, cop$, continue, create and describe increasing and decreasing number patterns Recognise, cop$, create, continue and describe repeating patterns of ob ects or s$mbols +odel and describe odd and even numbers )escribe patterns with numbers and identif$ missing elements ;ind missing numbers in number sentences involving one operation of addition or subtraction

%atterns and Algebra *dentif$, continue, create, describe and record increasing and decreasing number patterns *dentif$ odd and even numbers of up to four digits ;ind missing numbers in number sentences involving addition or subtraction on one or both sides of the e#uals sign *nvestigate and use the properties of odd and even numbers Recognise, continue and describe number patterns resulting from performing multiplication ;ind missing numbers in number sentences involving one operation of multiplication or division

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Measurement and &eometry
Early Stage 1
'ength *dentif$ the attribute of ‘length’ as a measure of an ob ect from end to end )escribe length and distance using ever$da$ language, including comparatives Compare lengths using direct comparison Record comparisons of length informall$

Stage 1
'ength !se uniform informal units to measure, compare and estimate lengths Record lengths b$ referring to the number and t$pe of uniform informal unit used Compare and order shapes=ob ects based on length measured using uniform informal units Recognise the need for formal units to measure length !se metres and centimetres to measure and estimate lengths and distances Record lengths using the abbreviations m and cm

Stage 2
'ength !se metres, centimetres and millimetres to measure, compare, order and estimate lengths Record lengths using the abbreviations m, cm and mm Select and use appropriate scaled instruments and units to measure and compare lengths 4stimate and measure perimeters of two%dimensional shapes Convert between metres, centimetres and millimetres Record lengths and distances using decimal notation to two decimal places !se a scaled instrument to measure and compare temperatures Record temperatures using the s$mbol for degrees >?@ Area Recognise the need for formal units to measure area !se s#uare centimetres and s#uare metres to measure and estimate rectangular >and s#uare@ areas Record lengths using the abbreviations cm2 and m2 +easure and compare the areas of regular and irregular shapes using a s#uare%centimetre grid Compare areas measured in s#uare centimetres and s#uare metres (olume and )a!acity Recognise the need for formal units to measure capacit$ and volume !se litres to measure, compare and estimate capacities and volumes !se cubic centimetres to measure and compare volumes Record capacities and volumes using the abbreviations 2 and cm3 !se litres and millilitres to measure, compare and estimate capacities and volumes Record capacities and volumes using the abbreviations 2 and m2 Convert between litres and millilitres Compare volumes of ob ects b$ submerging each in water Mass Recognise the need for formal units to measure mass !se kilograms to measure, compare, order and estimate masses Record masses using the abbreviation kg !se kilograms and grams to measure and compare masses using a scaled instrument Record masses using the abbreviations kg and g

Stage 3
'ength !se the kilometre to measure lengths and distances Select and use appropriate instruments and units to measure lengths Record lengths and distances using the abbreviations km, m, cm and mm ;ind perimeters of common two%dimensional shapes and record the strateg$ Record lengths and distances using decimal notation to three decimal places Convert between kilometres, metres, centimetres and millimetres Solve problems involving length and perimeter Area Recognise the need for s#uare kilometres and hectares to measure area Record areas using the abbreviations km2 and ha )evelop a strateg$ to find areas of rectangles >including s#uares@ and record the strateg$ in words )evelop a strateg$ to find areas of triangles and record the strateg$ in words Solve problems involving areas of rectangles >including s#uares@ and triangles (olume and )a!acity !se cubic centimetres and cubic metres to measure and estimate volumes Select and use appropriate units to measure volume Record volumes using the abbreviations cm3 and m3 Connect volume and capacit$ and their units of measurement Record volumes and capacities using decimal notation to three decimal places Convert between millilitres and litres )evelop a strateg$ to find volumes of rectangular prisms and record the strateg$ in words

Area *dentif$ the attribute of ‘area’ as a measure of the amount of surface )escribe area using ever$da$ language, including comparatives Compare areas using direct comparison Record comparisons of area informall$

Area !se uniform informal units to measure and estimate areas Record areas b$ referring to the number and t$pe of uniform informal unit used Compare and order surfaces based on area measured using uniform informal units

(olume and )a!acity *dentif$ the attribute of ‘capacit$’ as a measure of the amount of substance a container can hold *dentif$ the attribute of ‘volume’ as a measure of the amount of space an ob ect occupies )escribe capacit$ and volume using ever$da$ language, including comparatives Compare volumes and capacities using direct comparison Record comparisons of capacit$ and volume informall$

(olume and )a!acity !se uniform informal units to measure, compare and estimate capacities !se uniform informal units to measure and estimate volumes Record capacities and volumes b$ referring to the number and t$pe of uniform informal unit used Compare and order ob ects based on capacit$ and volume measured using uniform informal units

Mass *dentif$ the attribute of ‘mass’ as a measure of the amount of matter in an ob ect )escribe mass using ever$da$ language, including comparatives Compare masses directl$ b$ hefting Record comparisons of mass informall$

Mass &lace ob ects on either side of a pan balance to obtain a level balance !se a pan balance to compare two ob ects based on mass !se uniform informal units to measure, compare and estimate the masses of ob ects Record masses b$ referring to the number and t$pe of uniform informal unit used

Mass Recognise the need for tonnes to measure mass Record masses using the abbreviations t, kg and g Select and use appropriate instruments and units to measure mass )istinguish between ‘gross mass’ and ‘net mass’ Solve problems involving mass Record mass using decimal notation to three decimal places Convert between tonnes, kilograms and grams *ime Convert between 32% and 25%hour time )etermine and compare the duration of events *nterpret and use timetables )raw and interpret timelines using a given scale

*ime Compare and order the duration of events using ever$da$ language Se#uence events in time Connect da$s of the week to familiar events and actions ,ell time on the hour on digital and analog clocks

*ime Aame and order months and seasons !se a calendar to identif$ the date and determine the number of da$s in each month ,ell time to the half%hour !se a calendar to determine duration in months, weeks and da$s !se informal units to measure and compare the durations of events 4"perience activities with duration of one hour, half=#uarter of an hour, one minute and a few seconds ,ell time to the #uarter%hour, using the language of ‘past’ and ‘to’

*ime Recognise the coordinated movements of the hands on a clock Read and record time to the minute, using digital notation and the terms ‘past’ and ‘to’ Convert between seconds, minutes, hours and da$s !se and interpret am and pm notation Read and interpret simple timetables, timelines and calendars

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Early Stage 1
*hree+"imensional S!ace )escribe features of common three%dimensional ob ects using ever$da$ language Sort and manipulate three%dimensional ob ects found in the environment

Stage 1
*hree+"imensional S!ace )istinguish between flat and curved surfaces !se the term ‘faces’ to describe flat surfaces with straight edges *dentif$ cones, cubes, c$linders, spheres and prisms presented in different orientations, in pictures and the environment Recognise that three%dimensional ob ects look different from different vantage%points !se the terms ‘flat surface’, ‘curved surface’, ‘face’, ‘edge’ and ‘verte"’ appropriatel$ to describe three%dimensional ob ects Recognise faces of three%dimensional ob ects as two%dimensional shapes )istinguish between three%dimensional ob ects and two% dimensional shapes Represent three%dimensional ob ects in models and drawings *,o+"imensional S!ace *dentif$ hori(ontal, vertical and parallel lines *dentif$ and name triangles, #uadrilaterals, pentagons, he"agons and octagons presented in different orientations, in pictures and the environment !se the terms ‘side’ and ‘verte"’ to describe and compare two% dimensional shapes +ake and draw two%dimensional shapes in different orientations *dentif$, perform and record the result of one%step ‘slides’ and ‘flips’ +ake s$mmetrical designs with a variet$ of materials *dentif$, perform, describe and record the result of full, half and #uarter ‘turns’

Stage 2
*hree+"imensional S!ace *dentif$, describe and compare features of prisms, p$ramids, c$linders, cones and spheres +ake models of three%dimensional ob ects Create nets from ever$da$ packages Represent three%dimensional ob ects in drawings showing depth Sketch three%dimensional ob ects from different views *nterpret and make drawings of ob ects on isometric grid paper

Stage 3
*hree+"imensional S!ace Aame prisms and p$ramids according to the shape of their ‘base’ Recognise that prisms have a uniform cross%section and p$ramids do not )escribe and compare properties of prisms and p$ramids in terms of their faces, edges and vertices Connect three%dimensional ob ects with their nets Construct prisms and p$ramids using a variet$ of materials, and given drawings from different views

*,o+"imensional S!ace *dentif$, name and describe circles, s#uares, triangles and rectangles presented in different orientations, in pictures and the environment Sort, manipulate, make and draw circles, s#uares, triangles and rectangles

*,o+"imensional S!ace *dentif$ and name the special #uadrilaterals presented in different orientations *dentif$ and describe shapes as ‘regular’ or ‘irregular’ )escribe and compare features of shapes, including the special #uadrilaterals *dentif$ and draw lines of s$mmetr$ on shapes Combine common shapes to form other shapes and record the arrangement Split common shapes into other shapes and record the result !se transformations to create and describe s$mmetrical designs Create and record tessellating designs

*,o+"imensional S!ace *dentif$, name and draw right%angled, e#uilateral, isosceles and scalene triangles Compare and describe side properties of the special #uadrilaterals and special triangles 4"plore angle properties of the special #uadrilaterals and special triangles Classif$ and draw regular and irregular two%dimensional shapes from descriptions of their features !se the terms ‘translate’, ‘reflect’ and ‘rotate’ to describe transformations of shapes *dentif$ line and rotational s$mmetries +ake and compare enlargements of shapes=pictures *dentif$, describe, compare and draw diagonals of two%dimensional shapes *dentif$ and name parts of circles *dentif$, use and describe combinations of translations, reflections and rotations

Angles *dentif$ and describe angles as measures of turn Compare angle si(es in ever$da$ situations *dentif$ ‘perpendicular’ lines and ‘right angles’ )raw and classif$ angles as acute, obtuse, straight, refle" or a revolution

Angles Recognise the need for formal units to measure angles +easure, compare and estimate angles in degrees >up to 390?@ Record angle measurements using the s$mbol for degrees >?@ Construct angles using a protractor >up to 390?@ )escribe angle si(e in degrees for each angle classification *dentif$ and name angle t$pes formed b$ the intersection of straight lines, including ‘angles on a straight line’, ‘angles at a point’ and ‘verticall$ opposite angles’ !se known angle results to find unknown angles in diagrams

%osition Bive and follow simple directions )escribe position using ever$da$ language !se the terms ‘left’ and ‘right’ to describe position in relation to self

%osition Bive and follow directions to move to familiar locations and to position ob ects !se the terms ‘left’ and ‘right’ to describe position in relation to self and from the perspective of a person facing in the opposite direction )escribe a path from one location to another *nterpret simple maps of familiar locations Represent the position of ob ects in models, photographs and drawings

%osition !se grid%referenced maps to locate and describe positions and pathwa$s )raw simple maps, with and without a grid )etermine directions A, 4, S, : and A4, S4, S:, A:, given one of the directions *nterpret legends and directions on maps !se the scale to calculate the distance between two points on maps

%osition !se grid%referenced maps to locate and describe positions ;ollow a se#uence of directions, including compass directions, to find a particular location on a map )escribe routes using landmarks and directional language Note: There is only one part in the Position substrand in Stage 3.

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Statistics and %robability
Early Stage 1
"ata Collect information about themselves and their environment Crganise actual ob ects into data displa$s *nterpret data displa$s made from ob ects

Stage 1
"ata Collect data and track what has been counted Create data displa$s using ob ects and pictures >one%to%one correspondence@ and interpret them &ose #uestions and collect categorical data Create data displa$s using lists, tables and picture graphs >one% to%one correspondence@ and interpret them

Stage 2
"ata &lan methods for data collection Collect data, organise into categories and create displa$s using lists, tables, picture graphs and simple column graphs >one%to%one correspondence@ *nterpret and compare data displa$s Select, trial and refine methods for data collection, including surve$ #uestions and recording sheets Construct data displa$s, including tables, and column graphs and picture graphs of man$%to%one correspondence 4valuate the effectiveness of different displa$s

Stage 3
"ata Collect categorical and numerical data b$ observation and b$ surve$ Construct data displa$s, including tables, column graphs, dot plots and line graphs, appropriate for the data t$pe )escribe and interpret data presented in tables, column graphs, dot plots and line graphs *nterpret and create two%wa$ tables *nterpret side%b$%side column graphs Compare a range of data displa$s to determine the most appropriate displa$ for particular sets of data *nterpret and criticall$ evaluate data presented in digital media and elsewhere

)hance Recognise the element of chance in familiar situations )escribe chance events using ever$da$ language *dentif$ practical activities and ever$da$ events that involve chance )escribe events as ‘likel$’ or ‘unlikel$’ )istinguish between ‘possible’ and ‘impossible’ events *dentif$ some events as ‘certain’ or ‘impossible’

)hance *dentif$ and describe possible ‘outcomes’ of chance e"periments &redict and record all possible combinations in a chance situation Conduct chance e"periments and compare predicted with actual results )escribe possible ever$da$ events and order their chances of occurring *dentif$ ever$da$ events where one occurring cannot happen if the other happens *dentif$ events where the chance of one occurring will not be affected b$ the occurrence of the other

)hance 2ist outcomes of chance e"periments involving e#uall$ likel$ outcomes Represent probabilities using fractions Recognise that probabilities range from 0 to 3 Compare observed fre#uencies in chance e"periments with e"pected fre#uencies Represent probabilities using fractions, decimals and percentages Conduct chance e"periments with both small and large numbers of trials

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