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Indian Journal of Economics and Business June 1, 2006

Competitive strategies adopted by vegetable retailers in Mumbai cityof India--an insight.
BYLINE: Goel, Veena; Bhaskaran, Suku SECTION: Pg. 107(13) Vol. 5 No. 1 ISSN: 0972-5784 LENGTH: 7431 words

Abstract Study indicated the emergence of a more modern retail sector in the midst of traditional wet markets. To cope up with the resource constraints, small and medium sized retailers target the medium and low-price market segments, design merchandise mixes with the fast moving product lines and negotiate for the prices. Large sized retailers target the upper and medium price segments due to better asset positions,offer broader product choices of better qualities maintain prices higher, emphasize customer retention and market development. A handful of these retailers, has started depicting the developed country stylemodern selling patterns.

Keywords: Competitive Strategy, Vegetable Retailers, Competitive Advantage, Indian economy INTRODUCTION Retailing involves purchasing, distributing, displaying and marketing, selling and distributing a carefully composed assortment of goods and services to end consumers using stores and other ways (street trading, internet, direct selling, etc.) of distribution Hertog and Brouwer (2000). Traditionally, best retailers could generate pedestriantraffic, had well merchandised stores offering fresh displays and good service; presently, they are finding new ways to expand the markets, attract and retain customers by tailoring products and services totheir needs and restructuring the business processes for delivering products and services efficiently and effectively Shin (2001). With the coming up of informational technology leading retailers are leveraging customers to focus their merchandising, marketing and customer service offerings into a powerful integrated brand offering to build up two way relationship with them [Peppers and Rogers (2002), Shin (2001)]. Marketing of vegetables is more dynamic as it is directly affected by consumption and food distribution trends and its year-round availability is necessity for both foodservice and retail buyers Uva (2000). Differences in natural climatic and growing conditions between regions can provide a competitive advantage for products such as cabbage, onions, potatoes, carrots, green peas, etc. that have to main-

Since vegetable retailing is highly flexible that can be handled from a highly miniature scale involving abysmally low initial investment with quick returns. It focuses on a sustained increase in productivity in the agribusiness sector as a resultof better business strategies and improved micro. 1985). Firm can derive a competitive advantage from tangible or intangible resources that enable it to produce more efficiently and/or more effectively a market offering that has value for a market segment or segments Hunt and Morgan (1995). professional knowledge. Since agricultural production must be responsive to changing urban market demand for which poor farmers need access to specialized information. A firm develops its marketing strategies by identifying the target market for its products or services. An urban economic system integrates them in the informal sector. technology. it offers immense opportunities toseek self employment. Porter and Millar (1985)].Page 2 Competitive strategies adopted by vegetable retailers in Mumbai cityof India--an insight. But they are constrained by the lack of information about markets. institutions. developing countries due to the predominanceof agricultural sector are engulfed by rural poverty. increased volume and variety of locally produced products. strengthening trade associations and cooperatives and encouraging strategic alliances and collaboration Uva (2000). A company in a given industry assesses these forces and tries to develop the market at those points where these are weak Porter (1979). (4) bargaining powerof suppliers. that either lack a volume produced or are uncompetitive or the large volume products produced by small farms and marketed directly to consumers face a challenge to achieve differentiation andrealize higher prices to offset its high costs of producing and marketing. and there can be an extensive chain between final retailers and actual producers yet the key value-added functions of marketing rest with the retailers Cook (2003a). Compan- . This study reviews the competitive strategies adopted by the vegetable retailers. infrastructure. those undertake own production. using a unique marketing mix to compete effectively to enhance sales ensuring profitability and sustainability [McCarthy (1960). andcredit to participate in growing global markets [Hulse (1999). through a great variety of means at variable pacesHulse (1999). collective organization to acquire power to interact on equal terms with the larger and stronger. expanding market access and increasing market penetration. firm develops its business strategies by responding to five primary forces: (1) threat of new entrants. To earn for livelihoods and overcome resource constraints the migrants intensify competition at the market place tocapture a sizeable market share. existing and emerging international market opportunities. Indian Journal of Economics and Business June 1. However. or through traders. and (5) bargaining power of buyers [Porter (1980. Perreault and McCarthy (1999). IFPRI(2001)]. business and negotiating experience. (2) rivalry among existing firms within an industry. Shin (2001)]. assets. 2006 tain competitiveness by improving production efficiency and developing marketing systems. An easier access to information along with a multitude of sources for the livelihoods advantages them to migrate from rural to the urbanareas Griffon (2002). For food industry five potential marketing strategies include product differentiation and diversification. etc. Niche products such as organic / exotic / specialtyproducts. sourcing either directly. (3) threat of substitute products/services. Competitive strategy is an integrated set of actions taken by a firm that produce a sustainable advantage over competitors Vlosky (1996). REVIEW OF LITERATURE "Competitiveness" has been defined as "the ability of a nation to meet the test of free international markets while expanding real incomes at home" Kirsten. Hassan and Abdalla (2004). 1998). Retailers include independent retailers.and macro-economicconditions Porter (1990. market intermediaries that refrain them from markets IFAD (2001). To obtain a competitive advantage.

2006 ies canadopt competitive strategies such as product bundling that promotes the benefit of the whole package. have made it a relevant weaponin times of increased competition. superior services. Viehland (2000)]. new entrants and competition among existing firms. managerial or technical expertise. convenience. encourages downstream channel members to share their market knowledge with upstream members. speed of effect. Several of its partsare also identified with the predominant ethnic groups such as Parsis. price or other productconsiderations and roadside stands have the advantage of offering "fresher produce" than supermarket chains Wolfe. customer-centric strategy to customize products and offer promotions tailored for specific customer groups to build up loyalty. Vavra (1995). et. Long-termtrends such as rising household incomes (per capita income at current prices is Rs. Typical characteristics of prices such as its flexibility. change attitudes towards consumers while emphasize customer retention in mature markets as firms realize that it is more cost effective than customer creation [Bakos and Brynjolfsson (1997). innovation or the introduction of niche products to counteract the threat of product substitutes. Christians. These developments have been acting as a "driving" force for structural changes in the retail markets such as emergence of small sized supermarkets in the developed suburban areas during the 1990s (there is only one large sized supermarket that has come up recently) with extended wet sections while the non conventional grocery / snacks retailers have extended the general mer- . Punjabis. changing consumer demographics have led to the emergence of developed country modern style buying patterns.7%). Sinha (2000)]. STUDY CONTEXT This study his been carried out for the Mumbai city (with a population of 11.1% of the 3. Hoffman and Novak(2000)]. 2001) in India. increased workforce participation (68. force andmagnitude of the reaction it entails. and knowledge Porter (1987). of India.9 million. fast technological progress and proliferation of new products and changing economic and legal condition Gijsbrechts and Campo (2000). Etgar (1976). Dempsey (1978). Being a major commercial centre. HealthFocus Trend survey (1997) indicated that product "freshness" has become more important than less fat. al. Indian Journal of Economics and Business June 1. 48. Vertical co-operation/integration changes the informational structure in the channel. While dietary concerns for balanced diets and body weight have increased per capita consumption of green vegetables. This study adds to the extant literature by examining how resource poor vegetable retailers develop their strategies to maintain a competitive edge in a dynamic business environment. Gujaratis. busy lifestyles. Marathis. Traditional mass marketing is no longer successful since consumers can easily acquire information on the price and characteristics of products [Sealey (1999. Sealey (2000). establish barriers to deter new entrants. Phillips and Peterson (20000.954 a little more than three times of India).43 lakh main workers are employed in the service sector). lower costs by achieving economies of scale and effectively utilizes company resources such as market information. etc. cultivate unique or capital-intensive resources. that facilitates the transfer of information by mechanisms like establishment of common frames of reference. Muslims. Sellers can employ price discrimination strategies such as price lining and smart pricing strategy that make it difficult for buyers to compare the prices of alternative product offerings [Bakos (1998). An expansion into related product lines can exploit transfer of skills or sharing of activities such as promotion and distribution..Page 3 Competitive strategies adopted by vegetable retailers in Mumbai cityof India--an insight. it has witnessed fast growth due to natural growth and in migration of the poverty stricken rural population and the middle classes from various regions of the country. Govt. etc. higher female literacy rates (82. increase bargaining power by increasing customers' switching costs and decreasing their own for switching suppliers.

Interviews lasted from 15 minutes to about one hour that were completed during December 2002 and March 2003. reputation. Despitethe lack of ownership rights on their business premises police harassment remains .Page 4 Competitive strategies adopted by vegetable retailers in Mumbai cityof India--an insight.e. been classified into A (18).27% of the medium sized retailers are semi wholesalers. Govandi. on the basis of business potential of a local area and the availability of infrastructural facilities. They use several low cost display structures such as old jute sacks spread on roadsides (60. a random sample of ten markets i. Both the organized and unorganized retailers of all the sizes have been randomly selected.35 years.e. On the basis of the value of the merchandise handled allretailers have been clustered into three groups: small (below $10). Borivali (West) operate as semi-wholesale markets from about 6.85% and 20. DATA BASE AND METHODOLOGY Municipal corporation (MC) retail markets 99 in number housing allcategories of food retail stores have.. officials from the Marketing Department of the Agricultural Produce Marketing Corporation (APMC).43 years and schooling 0. face-to-face interviews with the proprietors. B (43) and C (37) categories. structured questionnaire and the observation technique.39%) while a few of them also use old cots / wooden structure. medium (between $10 and $ 35) and large (between $ 35 and $100) that constitute 43. To capture maximum diversity of the market structure. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION All the unorganized vegetable markets present an attractive mix ofthe store number. Retailers also operate in alliance with commission agents from acouple of blocks in the wholesale market located in new Mumbai on a regular basis but they are not the license holders. ASSET BASE OF RETAILERS An organization's asset base includes its physical assets. patents. two from A.7% from closer but isolated spots. two grocers'. four from B and four from C has been selected. one snacks retailer and two supermarkets one each of the medium and large sizes. local population dominates the organized while mainly migrants handle the unorganized market segments. gender composition. mainly self manage businesses from fixed points in the unorganizedmarkets while only 8. merchandise mixes and. B grade markets (Matunga. Santakruz West and Kalina) about four while the C grade markets (Jogeshwari East. 43.. Sion Koliwada andGhatkopar East) have one or two vegetable retail stores. regular roadside markets have developed on the footpaths or feeder roads in the main retail markets and hawkers operate from these markets.75% of the sample size.their knowledge and attitudes. So closer to all these markets except for Crowford. licenses and so on (Blois 2000). in-depth. MC and consumers. Total sample comprises of 53 retailers--45 sole vegetable retailers (42 from the retail and 3 from the wholesale markets). Semi structured interviews were also completed with commission agents/traders/ importers. brand name. In ownership patterns. one A grade i. 27. Small sized retailers(table 1) have an average age of 40. Among the other markets.00 AM and later as retail markets but the business is sluggish in thenoon. Surveys have been completed through semi-structured. 3 semi wholesalers/retailers.00 AM to 10. Dadar and one B grade i. 2006 chandise along a selective fresh product lines. with personal learning experiences. All the markets were visited at least twice during the different business hours.48% of the small sized retailers are females while only males manage the medium and large sized enterprises. But the local administration does not issue them licenses to discourage illegal business expansion. business links. A grade market (Crowford) has about ten.87%) and baskets (17. layout patterns. Indian Journal of Economics and Business June 1.. Of these. 35.e.40%. its staff. display sizes.

90. sprouted . operate for suitable business hours. PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION Product differentiation along a single/multiple attributes takes acomparatively longer time to change than price that could be changedat a very short notice and plays merely a tactical role (Mathur 2000).91% of them have concrete shops / stalls while othersuse wooden boards. Conklin and Thompson 1993.68 years. They operate from fixed points both from theunorganized (63.e. wooden boards. advertise product promotion. They oblige the area specific police and the municipality staff by giving regular bribes for a smooth business conduct. fix prices. and manage for logistic. A large majority of them hires manpower for physical handlingof the products such as washing. they design the merchandise mixes--depth and breadth of product lines. Wolfe et.16%) and organized (36. business links customers loyalty and market goodwills that reduces trade risks. All vegetable products are produced domestically while garlic has also recently been imported from China. pre-cut and packaging.27%) but mainly personal learning experiences. etc. purchase. brand and additional services have been identified as most important for product differentiation (Baker and Crosbie 1994. Both salespersons (36. concrete stalls and jute sack spread on floors. value added products i. cut products for salad (an extended product line of a snack retailer). They also self-manage the businesseswith heavy reliance upon personal learning experiences. coriander / mint leaves. packaging.Though remains negligible yet it is also practiced along the ethnic products. Indian Journal of Economics and Business June 1. Competitive strategies of the retailers have been presented below. add services. production system. capacity and taste preferences of the target markets.55 years and schooling is 5. place of origin. They operate from fixed points in the organized sector and a large majority of them own the telephone connections.Page 5 Competitive strategies adopted by vegetable retailers in Mumbai cityof India--an insight. 2006 low and trade credit worthiness is high. displaying etc. al. Lack of storage and refrigeration facilities necessitates a regular daily stock replenishment. Among the various attributes of vegetable products quality. Due to hereditary business character rely partly upon cumulative (27. Average age of large sized retailers' is 44. have concrete stalls and telephone facilities and rely partly upon cumulative learning experience due to hereditary business characters. Product specialization is low and is restricted along the low value fast moving product lines for example potatoes and onions.43 products. products having very thin demand but a broader base such as lemon / green chillies. Retailers from all the three groups have been staying in their respective business lines due to cumulative trade specific knowledge. loading / unloading. use display structures such as four wheeled hand operated rehris. and also use these structures for product storage at night that reduces lot sizes of the regular product purchase.84%) markets that increases theirs' credit worthiness.64%) manage the businesses.). Butthe central cooling and computer facilities are available only with the supermarkets. Medium sized retailers have an average age of 43years and schooling 1. lot sizes. spinach and radish. grocery/snack retailers operate from the organized markets.. Within this group. COMPETITIVE STRATEGIES Retailers tailor competitive strategies to the demographics features.36%) and they them self (63. Small sized retailers' focus (table 2) on single varieties of the seasonal products mainly of medium qualities with an average size of 2. Accordingly. presentation.64 years. product quality. Large sized supermarket is located at an isolated location from the main markets and two retailers from the Crowford market handle its wet sections on a fixed commission basis of 10%. Steenkamp 1995.

smelling the products is common but freshness is very important in consumers' purchase decisions. offseason products (63. MARKET DEVELOPMENT Small sized retailers' focus is high (table 3) on the low and medium and low on the high price segments. 2006 pulses and peeled products such as husked baby corn. feeling.32 varieties. kand. etc.37% of them specialize along the low to medium value fast moving product lines such as tomatoes. Satisfied customers like to make repeat visits and recommend the business to a family and friends while those less satisfied with quality. But it remains low along the ethnic product lines such as tapioca. All groups build up and strengthen it by offering hidden price discounts and focusing on customer centric strategies such as replacing occasional defective merchandise. medium sized retailers' is high on the medium and moderate on the low and high price segments whileof the. Retailers maintain friendly and open communication with customers that builds up mutual loyalty and reliability for customer retention for repeat transactions. beans. Within each market segment. 30% for medium and 80% for the large sized retailers. large sized arbi and the value added product lines such as sprouted pulses-black and green grams.Page 6 Competitive strategies adopted by vegetable retailers in Mumbai cityof India--an insight. price. 47. mainly medium (94. Complete product selection choices are offered to both. bamboo shoot. to grab customers' attention retailers make theirs' product displays eyecatching. and the. regular and floating. pluckedgreen gram pods. However.55 varieties mainly of the medium qualities.64%). From this group a retailer is himself grower of the exotic products and supplies come fresh from the farm. sorting regularly for defective items. To do so they keeping the products neatly arrange after washing. For the small sized retailers customer loyalty is moderate and customer reliability is low for the medium sized both are moderate while for the large sized both are high. All the three sized retailers have customer retention but its share is about 20% for small. onions and ethnic products that have a longer shelf life. Extended product lines of these retailers include the exotic products (54. mushrooms. celery leaves. For large sized retailers average size of the merchandise mix is of the 11. or any other aspect hurt business by generating negative word-of-mouth advertising. with floating customers it is largely business oriented since they shift quickly to the competitors depending upon product choices and relative price competitiveness. Depending upon the sizes and characteristics of the target markets they adapt the marketing mixes. Grocers' extended vegetable product lines include potatoes.55%) such as yellow / red capsicums. touching. Quite often all sized retailers influence customer purchase decisions through salesmanship. So. customers comprise of two groups.91 seasonal and exotic product lines and. large sized retailers' is high on the medium and high and low on low price segments. In these markets. soup corn. 1. handled several times before presenting in the retail markets.89 seasonal products of 1. green peas. Indian Journal of Economics and Business June 1. broccoli. It remains low along the ethnic and sprouted pulses product lines but is almost negligible along the peeled products and the low value products such as potatoes and onions. cherry tomatoes. Added services such as consumer packs are available only at the medium sized supermarket. selling on credit while the large sized retailers also arrange on demand selective products in desired . remain packed for long hours under varying temperatures.74%) qualities. filling and using materials such as lush green banana leaves for a farm fresh look to products. sprinkling several times. service. different verities of garlic okra. potatoes and onion. This is because most of the large volume products are shipped over long distances. For the medium sized retailers merchandise mix comprises of an average 3.

transaction costs of searching suppliers and markets and retailers' own asset positions impact purchase source choices. They remain on the countryside and arrange for its supplies direct from farmers. etc. times and places.. Small and the medium sized retailers quite often themselves invite the floating customers to their businesses and greet them with courteous. origin. All the three groups of retailers also cater to the needs of several 'ready to eat food' outlets.55%) and low from semi wholesalers and farmers. In contrast.74%) and semi wholesalers (68. Product lines. 2006 lots. Increased firmlevel integration helps retailers to position themselves as consistent year-round suppliers of differentiated products from multiple locations. risk sharing. sister. These are sold to the small sized retailers particularly in the slum areas at low prices. i. previous experiences. Presently the production of exotic products is on a small scale due to higher risks and lower yields. importance of good services etc that brought them to the business. Medium sized retailers' purchases are high from commission agents(94. Indian Journal of Economics and Business June 1. and brief words such as brother. hotels. Agents themselves deliver to retailers' at the business premises products such as sprouted pulses. pleasant. While of the large sized retailers it is moderate (54. Other retailers purchase these products from the retailer-grower in the crowford market. roadsidedhabas and institutions. and mushrooms in the requisite lot sizes. moderate from traders/agents (54. by complying to word of mouth commitments of product quality.One large sized retailer purchases these products through the agents. and seek out varieties with superior flavor and other attributes (Cook 2003a). All sized retailers maintain a regular flow of the selected product lines.e. etc.55%) and is on the medium to high price food outlets such as restaurants and. Knowledge approach is also combined and they volunteer for additional information about a product such as its quality. distribution and marketing processes by which a consumer is supplied with a desired product (Woods 1999). requisite varieties in appropriate lot sizes with a continuous replenishment of stocks at the competitive prices and minimal risks. A medium sized retailer-semi wholesaler has built up direct links with farmers to obtain the supplies of seasonal products.72%).Page 7 Competitive strategies adopted by vegetable retailers in Mumbai cityof India--an insight. prices. Large sized retailers' purchases are high from commission agents (72.91%) and traders/ agents (60. Dadar and Matunga markets at below the cost prices. retailers build up upstream networks by developing mutual trusts. or new ways to utilize. customers themselves get attracted to the businesses of the large sized retailers for better quality and the impulsive products. sister in law eta and pay them personal attention.87%) but low from semi-wholesalers. Large sized retailers' main objective during the first contact is to welcome and make mere reel at home and understand the factors such as first impressions. Small sized retailers' purchase choices are high (table 4) from the commission agents/wholesalers (73. and also occasionally offer free trial samples of the impulsive product lines. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT Supply chain management (SCM) refers to the management of entire set of production. This helps them to focus on the items that a customer was examining and find out more about the needs by opening a door for an exchange of information. Recognition of customers' hidden expectations makes it easy to match the product choices and handle the objections courteously. ethnic products. Due to lose bindings between the market agents. Small traders /agents directly purchase discarded products from the large sized retailers in the Crowford. taste. But focus of the small and medium sized retailers is low and meets largely tothe requirements of low price food outlets such as vendors. low from traders /agents andalmost negligible from farmers. timely payments. Women retailers also . lot sizes.42%). specialty. interior and exterior environment.

to minimize losses of carrying stocks for the following day and limited product choices prices are reduced further even below the cost levels. Medium sized retailers adduced that finance accounts for 20%.and inter seasonality. PRODUCT PRICING Difficulty of controlling the product quality and volume. proper temperature throughout the distribution system limits the evolution of true consumer franchises for specific brands that makes the dynamics of fresh produce markets largely commodity like and most firms act as price-takers Cook (2003a). intra. However. cash needs. etc. They use the principle of "cost plus" and "competitive" pricing for pricing products. i. markup as a return for profit is added. Small sized retailers adduced that finance accounts for 45%. Large sized retailers maintain price rigidity throughout the day by a regular discarding of the partially damaged products. Since wholesale markets operate on a daily basis. lack of storage and refrigeration for 25%. and social environment about 5% of the purchase behaviour of their customers. A vast majority of the households (over 90%) do not engage in comparison-shopping by visiting several stores to seek out the best deal on a particular product Slade (1995). To attract customers to the businesses and win confidence multi product retailers at times also quote a price below the purchase price for the product he/she was examining. retailers' purchase choices. to push off stocks. However. lack of storage and refrigeration for 30%..e. but it is not possible for each and every product line. Even if it is easier for consumers to do comparison-shopping for the former and they easily switch over to the competitors due to 'weak brand' market. and indicate (b) how significant (in percentage terms) each of these reasons account for purchase behaviour. its shelf life and scarcity/plentiness of supplies relative to demand. To the cost price i. Towards the closing of a day. availability of safe storage facilities. product prices at any point of time are neither strictly fixed nor uniform for all. Such losses are made up from the sale of other products as they recognize that consumers in a cluster-marketshop for a bundle of goods. In the evening. small and medium sized retailers reduce mark ups and hence prices to tempt customers for impulsive purchases. Retailers handling large volumes of the mixed lots of singleproduct lines also encash on differential and premium pricing to compensate for the losses incurred on low . purchase price plus incidental charges plus a margin of about 10 per cent for wastage. 2006 purchase partially damaged products from the wholesale markets during lean business hoursand sell after removing the damaged portions. retailers replenish stocks in the morning for the whole day that offer better selection choices so prices are maintained comparatively higher. Such periodic price discounts are highly sensitive to the shelf life of a product. The responses are probed through asking retailers to (a) rank from "1"= Most Important Reason to "4"= Least Important Reason. and concern about freshness and hygiene about 50% of the purchase behaviour.Page 8 Competitive strategies adopted by vegetable retailers in Mumbai cityof India--an insight. lot sizes and the product supply positions at any point of time impact theirs' offer prices for the seasonal products in the wholesale markets. Prices are adjusted to take an account of the differentials in product quality.e. concern about freshness about 20%. Costs set the price floor while customers' and competitors' characteristics impact the actual price fixation. This enables them to rely upon complementary pricing to encash on the transaction costs of consumers. Large sized retailers adduced that finance accounts for 5%. stock range and variety about 25%. Indian Journal of Economics and Business June 1. It depends upon the product nature. concern about freshness and hygiene about 30% of their purchase behaviour. These comprise of two groups: products purchased on every shopping trip and the impulse and infrequent purchase items. lack of storage and refrigeration for 5%. stock range and variety about 40%.

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of Economics.91 ---6 31.75 63.31 15.aciar.35 13.G. No.rnr." Working Paper 12.09 K. "Supply Chains: What are they and Why be Interested?" Aciar Postharvest Technology.58 --No 23 23 1 1 21 %age 43.78 --10.lsu. Australia Table 1 Resource Base of Vegetable Retailers Small Resource/ Retailer category No.91 27. / publication/papers/ /~caed/roadside2.81 -5 5 3 --2 11 -26. and J. www.91 Medium Large .nsf/att/ACIA5MD9UE/$file/postharvest54-supplychains The study was undertaken during the principal author's visit as a Visiting Fellow of the U. Punjab Agricultural University.85 100. (1-2 December).agecon.00 15. Ludhiana SUKU BHASKARAN Director.39 8. Mumbai.00 No 11 7 10 3 10 %age -17. Internal Workshop. "Sources of Competitive Advantage for Wood Products Distribution Suppliers to Home Center Retailers.53 57.C at the Dept.26 100.H.40 100.35 4.R.82 1.R. Victoria University. 2006 Vlosky. www.64 90.30 No 19 19 3 1 19 %age 35.00 4. University ofMumbai.89 -1 10 ---9 9 2 -81.31 26. VEENA GOEL Sr. Canberra.uga.78 5.35 91. Self Management Manpower Availability Hereditary Business Location at the Market Structures Used Rehri (four wheeled & hand operated) Wooden Boards Concrete shops/stalls Jute bags Cots 1 Baskets Telephone Facilities Storage Facilities Central Cooling Facilities 1 3 14 4. Melbourne.04 60.pdf Woods.P (1996). Indian Journal of Economics and Business June 1. 20.70 23.Aaron "Roadside Stand Marketing of Fruits and Vegetables".Page 12 Competitive strategies adopted by vegetable retailers in Mumbai cityof India--an insight. Economist (Marketing).35 4 2 5 -4.27 90. Wolfe.82 9.82 81. (1999). E.

Exotic Impulsive.1 Tomato-4.35 -1 --4.00 -- Table 2 Product Mixes of Vegetable Retailers Small Product Lines Seasonal Products Product Quality Product Specialty No 23 %age 100. L to M.00 Medium No 19 %age 100.91 4.36 4 6 7 36.09 -36. Garlic-1 Okra-1.00 M-17.70 4.64 . 1 --1 ---5.26 13. Value Added Products Sprouted Pulses Peeled Products Cut Products Consumer Packs 1 2 1 -Large Product Lines Seasonal Products Product Quality Product Specialty No 10 %age 91. L-6 Onion and Potato-2. Spinach and radish-1 M-18.27 9.79 11 -- 100. Lemon/chillies-1. 2006 Safety at Market Place Harassment 18 3 78.55 63. S-2 Onion and Potato-1 Extended Product Lines Ethnic.35 --- M-9. Indian Journal of Economics and Business June 1.35 8.47 15.Page 13 Competitive strategies adopted by vegetable retailers in Mumbai cityof India--an insight.36 54.26 --5.26 ---- Extended Product Lines Ethnic. Onion and Potato-2. Value Added Products Sprouted Pulses Peeled Products Cut Products Consumer Packs 3 1 -4 27. Exotic Impulsive.04 17 3 89.

27 No %age No Medium %age No Large %age . M-Medium.00 100. Indian Journal of Economics and Business June 1.26 No 3 Large %age 27.48 100.00 42.11 11 11 8 8 100.00 20 23 10 8 86.72 21 23 23 1 90.00 43.00 100.89 100.00 100.00 100.27 2 -8.78 19 19 8 8 100.72 72.00 -8 11 11 2 72.73 No -%age -No 1 Medium %age 5.91 18 94.Page 14 Competitive strategies adopted by vegetable retailers in Mumbai cityof India--an insight.00 4.74 8 72.73 100.18 6 16 18 26.00 18.11 42.70 -5 3 26.00 100.00 27.00 72.00 100.32 15.73 100. S-Superior. 2006 L-Low.00 100.79 -6 -54. Table 3 Market Development of Retailers Small Category Market Segment High price Medium price Low price Product Choices Freshness Consumer Satisfaction Product Sorting Product Replacement Customer Category I Regular Friendly Attitude Customer loyalty Customer reliability Customer Category II Floating Business Attitude Food Service Outlets Vendors/Roadside dhabas Restaurants/Hotels Table 4 Product Purchase Choices of Retailers Small Purchase Source Direct from Farmers Commission Agents / wholesalers 17 73.00 100.76 19 19 19 -100.57 78.55 23 23 100.00 100.48 34.89 8 11 3 72.96 100.00 19 19 100.00 57.08 69.00 11 11 100.26 11 19 11 57.

All Rights Reserved ASAP Copyright 2006 Indian Journal of Economics and Business . Indian Journal of Economics and Business June 1.36 54. Inc.79 4 6 36.42 15. 2006 Semi wholesalers Traders / Agents 4 14 17.Page 15 Competitive strategies adopted by vegetable retailers in Mumbai cityof India--an insight.87 13 3 68.39 60. 2008 LANGUAGE: ENGLISH ACC-NO: 169308032 PUBLICATION-TYPE: Magazine JOURNAL-CODE: 1TSD ASAP Copyright 2006 Gale Group.55 LOAD-DATE: October 15.