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AP Human Geography Exam Vocabulary Definitions Unit 6: Urban Geography ( h!

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Early urbani&ation: emerging from the First Agricultural Revolution 'Egalitarian society: civilization in which all people are equal; typical of most hunter-gatherer societies. '(tratifie) society: civilization in which people exist in different classes; the development of farming and early cities began this process. '*ormati+e era: time where the ma or urban hearths came into exist stance !e.g." for the Fertile #rescent this occurred between $"%%% & '"%%% (#) !(efore #ommon )ra & same as (# !(efore #hrist**. 'Urban elite: group of socially" politically" or economically dominant figures in a society. ',heocratic center: focus of religious activity or importance. Early examples+ ,esopotamia" -reece" Rome !see reading guide* -e)ie+al .ptimum !,edieval .arm /eriod*+ a time of warm weather around #) 0%%-12%% !#ommon )ra & same as A3 !Anno 3omini* during the )uropean ,edieval period. 4he effect may largely have been focused in the 5orthern Atlantic. 6ittle 7ce Age !18th - 19th c.*+ period of global cooling after the ,edieval .arm /eriod !:9 th c. to 1;th c.*; greatly affected the northern empires of Rome and #hina !e.g." encouraged the migration of people to the cities in )ngland due to shrin<ing farmlands providing factories with an abundant supply of cheap labor. (ocietal lassification & -ideon = oberg; cities changed over time+ -*ol/'preliterate+ earliest cities" predating written languages. -*eu)al+ arose during the ,iddle Ages which actually stagnated urban growth in )urope; fostered a dependent relationship between wealthy landowners and peasants & provided few alternative economic alternatives. -Prein)ustrial+ found in societies without sophisticated machine technology" where human and animal labor form the basis for economic production !no city moved past this stage until the 7ndustrial Revolution*. -Urban'in)ustrial+ predominate in the modernized nations of .estern )urope" America" >apan !and to a lesser extent where their cultures have globalized* where productivity through machines" and energy sources from fossil fuels and atomic power phenomenally expand economic productivity. Urban banana !crescent-shaped zone*+ urbanized zone that spread from 7ndia and the Far )ast !#hina ? >apan* across the 7slamic )mpires" and into )urope; followed mostly along the silk and spice trade routes. -e)ie+al city+ )uropean-style city with high density of development" narrow buildings" and an ornate church at the city center" with high walls for defense !walls proved futile when gunpowder made its way into )urope by the 12%%s*. -ercantile city+ Atlantic maritime trade disrupted old trade routes ? centers of power starting in the 1'%%s !from interior to coastal ports*; central square became focus !@downtownA*" these cities became nodes of a networ< of trade; brought huge riches to )urope !e.g. 6isbon" Amsterdam" 6ondon" B*. -anufacturing city+ grew out of the 7ndustrial Revolution and the @6ittle 7ce AgeA; associated wC mushrooming population" factories" tenement buildings" railroads" B; poor living ? health conditions; cities improved wC government intervention" city planning" and zoning" B -o)ern city+ !modern architecture* little attention is spent on building aesthetics or ornate designs; improved transportation ? road systems has allowed greater complexity" multiple #(3s" and dispersal into the suburbs; the hallmar< of American life.

.3#s.77. Urban hierarchy+ ran<ing of settlements according to their size and economic functions. generally many goods and services are available. -7nner city+ urban area around the #(3. characterized by organized urban planning" suburban infill !filling in unused space*" and are designed to be wal<able. entral place theory (2alter hristaller% + explains how services are distributed and why there are distinct patterns in this distribution. -(uburb+ residential communities" located outside of city centers. --etropolis+ usually contains several urbanized areas and suburbs that act together as a coherent economic whole.entral city+ urban area that is not suburban. -1o)e+ geographical centers of activity. may range from a few to thousands of inhabitants !even hundreds of thousands*. city spaces become more people-friendly.Postmo)ernism+ !postmodern architecture* architecture ? design developed for loo< ? commerce !may connect to historical roots*.o0n+ clustered human settlement larger than a village. a reaction to feeling of sterile alienation some had to modern architecture. cities were the primary push factors. -Village+ clustered human settlement larger than a hamlet and generally offering several services. typically more rich upscale in less-developed states. typically poorer and more run down in the D= and other long-developed states. -Hamlet+ lowest level of settlements !often not urban*.ity+ clustered conglomeration of people and buildings together serving as a center of politics" culture" and economics. conurbation such as (osnywash" =an=an" #hi/itts"B* occur predominantly in . . a town may have outs<irts" but virtually all cities have suburbs !hinterlands*. -Exurb+ ring of prosperous communities beyond the suburbs that are commuter towns for an urban area.* in D. more recently since house prices have s<yroc<eted" middle-class people who want a large yard or farm are pushed beyond suburban counties and into @exurbsA. generally the older or original city surrounded by the newer suburbs. high population growth and migration cause these cities to attract massive amounts of population since . Hinterlan)+ literally @country behindA. -egacity+ occur predominantly in 63#s. organized by hexagons to eliminate unserved or overlapping mar<et areas. -. usually homogeneous in terms of population and ethnicity. Deglomeration+ process of industrial deconcentration in response to technological advances andCor increasing costs due to congestion and competition. tend to be plagued by chaotic and unplanned sprawling growth" pollution" and widespread poverty. Urban spra0l: process of expansive suburban development over large areas. 1e0 Urbanism: urban design originating in the D= during the 190%s to wor< against sprawl. offers few if any services.. large cities have numerous nodes. refers to the surrounding area served by an urban center !the heartland*. -egalopolis+ !e.due to deindustrialization" depopulation" high unemployment" . Agglomeration+ !nucleation* clustering of people or businesses for mutual benefits of close proximity. . Urban components' #D !central business district*+ location of s<yscrapers and companies !would always be the center of the 2 urban models" many people commute" few actually live there* . large coalescing supercities that were originally separate but have expanded and oined together.=. the automobile provides the primary source of transportation. can share labor pools" technological and financial amenities" and ancillary industries !support large-scale industries*. -Ghetto+ inner cities that become dilapidated centers of poverty" as affluent whites move out of the suburbs !white flight* and immigrants and poorer people vie for scarce obs and resources..g. began to emerge in the 19$%s when rampant crime and urban )ecay !when part of a city falls into disrepair .

Economic base (basic +s! nonbasic sectors@ a!/!a! employment structure% ratio of basic to nonbasic wor<ers !nonbasic is always larger*.exico #ity" .' entral goo)s an) ser+ices: provided only at a central place" or city !available to consumers in a surrounding region*.g. 3ha<a" (angladesh" B*. '-ultiple nuclei: (56<=8 hauncy Harris > E)0ar) Ullman% claimed the #(3 was losing its dominant position as the nucleus of the urban area. . full impact of 7nd. 3an/'si&e rule: states without a true primate city may follow this rule !many ." if J1 K 1F million" then JF K 8 million" J2 K . '3ange of sale (brea/ing point%: maximum distance people will travel for a good or service !economic reach*. '. 'Urban realms: parts of giant conurbations.* .adison" or Raleigh-3urham*. an exclusive hinterland wC a monopoly on a certain good or service. the same is true wC high-rent" transportation" and industry.% for most large cities% for every wor<er in the basic sector" there are typically F-2 wor<ers in the nonbasic sector for most modern cities. #asic sector: activities and services that generate income for a city !e.g. cities tend to lose their functional specialization as they grow. 1onbasic sector: wor< responsible for the functioning of the city itself !e. steam-powered locomotive ? spreading rails E 2* =teel-Rail )poch !10$%-19F%*. the population of any given city should be inversely proportional to its ran< in the urban hierarchy !e. low-income areas could extend from the #(3 to the outer edge !2**. E)ge city: characterized by extensive office and retail space" few residential areas" and modern buildings !built since the 198%s*. !steel*" hinterlands expand E .* Auto-Air-Amenity )poch !19F%-$%*.agon )poch !1$9%-102%* & associated with low technology E F* 7ron Gorse )poch !102%-$%*. most expressive of the national culture and usually the capital city as well !e.g. Rev.iddle-class" '* outer suburban ring." government" street cleaning" B*. Primate city+ a countryHs largest city. *unctional speciali&ation: some cities are characterized by one specific activity !e." /aris" France. signifies a newer worldwide trend of the movement of the loci of economic activity to the urban fringe !unli<e the loci of activity around the #(3 & which had dominated the industrial world*. separate nuclei become specialized and differentiated" not located in relation to any distance attribute !urban regions have their subsidiary" yet competing" @nucleiA*.68 Homer Hoyt% urban growth creates a pie-shaped urban structure due" in part" to the advancement of transportation li<e the electric trolley !e.g.hreshol): the minimum number of customers needed to <eep the business running ' omplementary region: the mar<et area. the model is dynamic !as the city grows" the inner rings encroach on the outer ones*. (?uatter settlement: (shantyto0n% residential development characterized by extreme poverty. . 4ypically specialize in management" research and development of a specific industry !motor vehicles in 3etroit*" or are centers of government and education" notably state capitals that also have a ma or university !Albany" 6ansing" .g. gas-powered internal combustion engine E Gigh 4echnology )poch !19$%-today *.3#s lac< primate cities bCc technology and wealth has diffused throughout their countries*. Urban mo)els' '4ohn #orchert$s mo)el: (5667%8 recognized four epochs in the evolution of the American metropolis based on the impact of transportation ? communication+ E 1* =ail-. million" J. '(ector: (56. usually exists on land ust outside of cities that is neither owned nor rented.exico.g. -ultiplier effect (5:9 (or 5:. 6agos" 5igeria." manufacturing" retail" B*. K 2 million" B*." Lrlando & tourism" 6as Megas & gambling" B*. expansion of service ? information industries !not part of (orchertHs model* ' oncentric &one (569:s8 Ernest #urgess%: based on his studies of #hicago+ 1* #(3" F* Ione of transition !residential deterioration ? light industry*" 2* (lue-collar wor<ers" . self-sufficient suburban sectors !focused on their own independent #(3*.

sector development radiates out from the #(3 !which often contain a central plaza*" where most industrial and financial activity occurs. '3e+itali&ation: city planners have redesigned their central cities to ma<e them more amenable to people moving in" especially higher income residents. bCc of this their inner cities tends to be much less dilapidated due to fewer wealthy people leaving them. European city: older ones were mostly developed during the . ' ommerciali&ation: transforming of an area of a city into spaces of consumption .edieval period.. '(ub'(aharan African: consist of sectors and zones" but possess a great deal of centrality around the #(3 !may contain multiple #(3s*. -o)ern city mo)els (foreign%' most residences tend to decrease in quality and value as the distance from the #(3 increases+ 'Aatin'American: owe much of their structure to colonialism" industrialization" and massive population growth. into the central city !opposite of suburban sprawl" happened to cities before .. ensus tract: these are govt." 3etroit and #leveland*" and the growth of suburbs* Coning la0s: legal restrictions on land use. also" some cities have greenbelts !undeveloped area neighboring an urban area" often protected from development by planning law* which confine urban sprawl. owe their structure to their religious beliefs. li<e gentrification in the city" it increases housing values and tax revenues" and average income. also contain barrios !ethnic neighborhoods* which can often be associated with poorer sectors of the city. typically have strong ethnic neighborhoods and squatter settlements on the outs< (ociocultural influences' '3acial steering: the practice in which real estate bro<ers guide prospective home buyers towards or away from certain neighborhoods based on their race. 'Gentrification: trend of mid to high-income Americans moving into city centers and rehabilitating much of the architecture" but also replacing low-income population & changing the social character of certain neighborhoods. Eastern European city: typically less affluent than . residential" commercial" or industrial. '(outheast Asian: consist of sectors and zones radiating from the port zone. .areas attractive to residents and tourists ali<e in terms of economic activity. however" unli<e gentrification" the houses are destroyed !not preserved*" and this occurs in the wealthy suburbs !li<e -reenwich #onnecticut" or the intercoastal in =outh Florida* not the central city.77 !D= is the only country in the world in which the ma ority of the population resides in the suburbs*" however" more people have started the process of centralization since the 199%s !moving bac< into the central cities*. times more than in the D=. influenced by colonialism and are often still focused on exporting goods. '3e)lining: illegal discriminatory practice in the D= where minorities are prevented from obtaining loans to buy homes or property in predominantly white or affluent areas. contain mosques" open-air mar<ets" courtyards surrounded by walls" limiting foot traffic in residential neighborhoods. display less sprawl than D= cities" in part since gasoline my cost up to 2-. entrali&ation & the movement of people" capital" services" and govt.ear')o0ns: houses that new owners bought with the intention of tearing them down and building a larger home !sometimes called -c-ansions due to their super size and similar loo<*.77 and is happening now*. '#loc/busting: the process of white families selling their homes because of fears that blac<s would move in and lower the property value !explains the white flight of the 19'%Hs from almost every ma or D= city !e. designated areas in cities that each have :'"%%% people" they often times correspond to neighborhoods !data in census tracts is used to analyze urban patterns such as gentrification or white flight* oncerns of urbani&ation' 1* =prawl & outlying areas more susceptible to landslides" floods" storms" earthqua<es" B . Bslamic city: found in the . ana)ian city: tend to be more centralized and less suburbanized that D= cities.American city: suburbanization began largely in the D= after .estern )uropean cities due to the communist urban planning by the D==R during the #old .uslim regions. most residential spaces were organized into microdistricts !designed to minimize cost by reducing roads and maximizing living space*.

g. Gate0ay city: because of their geographic location" they act as ports of entry and distribution centers for large geographic areas !e." 5O#" =an Francisco" B*.g." Gong Qong" 3ubai" =ingapore" B*. #hina K 2x as much* 6and use & natural landscape becomes cultural !pavement" buildings"B*. ..* /ollution & growing volumes of contaminants !in air" water" and soil*." port* where merchandise can be imported and exported without paying import duties" often at a profit !e.g. burning garbage heaps 8* #onsumption habits & urban dwellers use more energy" change diets !meat*" dress" and recreation habits 2orl) city: (global city% centers of economic" culture" and political activity that are strongly interconnected and together control the global systems of finance and commerce !e. 5O#" 6ondon" 4o<yo" (uenos Aires" =ydney" .* EntrepDt: !French for PwarehouseP* a trading post !e.exico #ity*.. F* 2* .. less rainfall" more pollutants .exico #ity" 3elhi" (ang<o< are most smog-ridden.6oss of soil & farmland lost !D= K 1 million acresCyr. riverfront cities create pollution as well '* .g.aste & many lac< of sewer facilities !N2 million wCo in .