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Introduction Although human migration has existed throughout human history, immigration in the modern sense refers to movement of people from one nation-state to another, where they are not citizens. Immigration implies long-term permanent residence (and often eventual citizenship) by the immigrants tourists and short-term visitors are not considered immigrants (see expatriates). !owever, seasonal labour migration (typically for periods of less than a year) is often treated as a form of immigration. "he global volume of immigration is high in absolute terms, but low in relative terms. "he #$ estimated %&' million international migrants in (''), about *+ of global population. "he other &,+ still live in the state in which they were born, or its successor state. "he modern idea of immigration is related to the development of nation-states and nationality law. -itizenship of a nation-state confers an inalienable right of residence in that state, but residence of immigrants is sub.ect to conditions set by immigration law. "he nation-state made immigration a political issue by definition it is the homeland of a nation defined by shared ethnicity and/or culture, and in most cases immigrants have a different ethnicity and culture. "his has led to social tensions, xenophobia, and conflicts about national identity, in many developed countries. 0edit1 2lobal migration statistics According to the Report of the Secretary-General on International migration and development, most international migrants are in the high-income developed countries, &% million in (''). 0%1 3ow and lower-middle income countries, 45 percent in 6man. In 7urope, only 3uxembourg approaches this level, with 5) percent of the labor force foreign.

Rate of immigration to the United States relative to sending countries' population size, 2001-2005

"he 7uropean #nion allows free migration between member states (with some restrictions on new member states), but inter-7# migration is relatively low. 8ost is from poorer eastern bloc states to the richer western 7uropean states, especially 9pain, 2ermany and :ritain. According to 7urostat, 051;/ref< 9ome 7# member states are currently receiving large-scale immigration for instance 9pain, where the economy has created more than half of all the new .obs in the 7# over the past five years.

sanctuary movement/. servicemen to die in combat in Ira=. social welfare. Illegal emigration would be leaving a country in a manner that violates the laws of the country being left.9. crime.0*1 "he largest per-capita source of immigrants to the #9 comes from 7l 9alvador. According to -:9 4' 8inutes. rather than decreasing it.051 According to the 9anta -lara -ounty 6ffice of !uman Aelations.S.0410. the term may imply a larger set of social issues and time constraints with disputed conse=uences in areas such as economy.Illegal immigration Illegal immigration refers to immigration of illegal aliens (people who enter without a legal status) across national borders in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country. In politics.0410. 3his &ecame 1nown as the .0%'1 9ometimes the person moves over the border ( . one of the first #. government’s role in the Salvadoran conflict was unique in sustaining the prolongation of the civil conflict the government and the U. slavery. such as a spouse or other family members.1 $overt# Another reason for immigration is to escape poverty. Immigration and !aturali"ation Service #I!S$ e%tended little sympathy to the people affected &y the war. first entered the #9 as an undocumented immigrant in %&&.0&1 "he 3esbian and 2ay Immigration Aights "asB >orce (32IA">) warns binational same sex couples in the #9 that marriage may actually increase the liBelihood of becoming undocumented. public services.death squads/ were over&lown. roughly one of every %' -olombians now live abroad. 8arine 3ance -orporal Dose 2utierrez.S.S. and government-sponsored . of political asylum applications claiming that democracy e%isted in -l Salvador and that reports of U.S. a former street child in 2uatemala having been orphaned at age C. legal protections. and dreamed of being an architect. #.10C1 "his is particularly true for the families of binational same sex couples. auses !ar and repression 6ne driver of illegal immigration is an attempt to escape civil war or repression in their native country. government’s failure to address the situation of Salvadoran refugees in the U.S.9. mostly in the #9. health care. 0merican activists esta&lished a loose networ1 to aid refugees. Despite the fact that the U. 0s a response to the U.S. to escape poverty.''' in %&&' to %5%. In the '()*s the I!S granted only +. education.0(1 >igures from the #9 ?epartment of !omeland 9ecurity indicate that -olombia is the fourth-leading source country of unauthorized immigration to the #nited 9tates@ "he estimated number of unauthorized -olombian residents in the #9 has almost tripled from )%. 2perating in clear violation of U. After * years of armed conflict. prostitution. for which up to a third of the population lives outside the country. immigration laws these activists too1 refugees into their houses aided their travel hid them and helped them find wor1. and human rights.0)1 "amil# reunion 9ome undocumented immigrants seeB to live with loved ones.''' in ('''.

because the wage-labor ratio is much higher in the neighboring country. so has the loss. 0C10&1 Geople may also be Bidnapped or tricBed into slavery to worB as laborers.9. economy.9. for the purposes of forced prostitution. for example in factories. Hhile natives lose from immigration. almost always under duress or fraud. natives from immigration was I4C billion. * . He start by assuming that the technological superiority of the modern American economy and resulting high standard of living is the primary factor motivating immigration.' billion annually. 6lder studies assumed that abundant resources and demand for labor was the primary reason for immigration. "hose trafficBed in this manner often face additional barriers to escaping slavery. #nliBe earlier studies. the net loss to #. "he study also taBes into account the new global economy.ust since %&&C. Among the reportJs findings • • • • • • In (''(. "he decline in wages is relative to the price of goods and services. 6ur findings show that immigration creates a net loss for natives of nearly I. so the study taBes into account any change in consumer prices brought about by immigration. "his I4C billion annual loss represents a I%5 billion increase . $ow more generically called Fsexual slaveryF it continues to be a problem. albeit at much reduced levels. though there have been increasing cases in the #. we do not treat the movement of immigrant labor into this country in isolation. As the size of the immigrant population has continued to increase. particularly in 7astern 7urope and the 8iddle 7ast. >ollowing the close of the legal international slave trade by the 7uropean nations and the #nited 9tates in the early %&th century.0%%1 Immigration conse%uences& "his study employs a new approach to examine the impact of immigration on the #.9. "hose who remain behind in their home countries also benefit from the migration of their countrymen. "he negative effect comes from increases in the supply of labor and not the legal status of immigrants. "he so-called Fwhite slave tradeF referred to the smuggling of women. including the movement of capital as well as trade. since their status as illegal immigrants maBes it difficult for them to gain access to help or services. the findings show that immigrants themselves benefit substantially by coming to America. as is the case with the #9 illegal immigration. $rostitution and Slaver# 9muggling of people may also be involuntary on the immigrantEs part. the illegal importation of slaves into America has continued. assumptions more appropriate to the %&th century. >or example :urmese women trafficBed into "hailand and forced to worB in factories or as prostitutes may not speaB the language and may be vulnerable to abuse by police due to their illegal immigrant status.

"he empirical literature on immigration has considered a wide variety of =uestions regarding the impact of immigration on America. Hhile the addition of immigrant worBers maBes the overall #. As a conse=uence. "he choice of an intellectual frameworB within which to examine the conse=uences of immigration is not a purely academic s=uabble. 9urprisingly."he model used in this study can be summarized as follows !igh #. where immigration is motivated by relative labor scarcity. the principal advantage of America has not been its resources. natives.% !ere. Increasingly. now have access to superior American technology. or even early ('th centuries. again. which is bad for #. %&th. a second very powerful reason has been the opportunity America provides for prosperity. one has also pre-determined in =ualitative terms the outcome of any empirical 5 . And so it is. an important strand of this has considered the overall impact of this immigration on the American economy. which is the primary source of American worBersJ competitive advantage in the international economy.9. !owever. in the last half of the ('th century. a prime advantage of America that allowed it to deliver these high wages was its great abundance of land and natural as would have been appropriate in the %. natives in the #nited 9tates are worse off because immigrants taBe not . Haves of immigrants have come. the movement of foreign labor and capital into the #nited 9tates expands #. because they have entered the #nited 9tates. "his is because American worBers are now competing with foreign worBers who.oy the high wages available here and escape the relative penury of their native lands. American worBers are better off competing with foreigners if the foreign worBers stay in their own countries and donJt have access to American technology. "hrough the end of the %&th century and into the ('th century. the analysis has treated immigration as if it were motivated principally by an abundance of resources. 6ne reason for immigration has been the promise of liberty. these theoretical models almost never have a word to say about the role of technological advantage as a motive for migrationKeven though this is surely the most important reason for the wage advantage in America that is the proximate reason for most migration. even from the start.9. Americans face competition with foreigners e=uipped with American technology.9. exports and reduces exports by foreign countries who now have fewer worBers and less capital. 7conomists have long been interested in the conse=uences of immigration. though. exports while raising the price of its imports. :y allowing the foreign worBers into the #nited 9tates. A large and highly varied theoretical literature has developed that considers potential sources of gains and losses for a country experiencing immigration. and the Americas (especially 8exico) to en. :y choosing the traditional frameworB. Asia. In recent years. particularly from 7urope. but rather its leadership of the world in technology or productivity. %Cth. 'he (conomic osts of Immigration America is often described as a nation of immigrants. productivity motivates the entry of foreign worBers and capital. "his depresses the prices of #. economy larger.ust the increase in income. but that is not appropriate to (%st century America. In other words.9.9. but other income as well.

As a conse=uence. In this essay. In addition. our study finds that these costs gave rise to a net loss of I%*4 billion for American natives in (''(.9. "hat is. we summarize the conclusions of a paper that provides a new approach to studying the economic conse=uences of immigration. "hese are big numbers. "hey are e=uivalent in magnitude to standard measures of the loss from all #.( "he starting point for the analysis is that immigration to America is ultimately motivated by American technological superiority. implies that such flows of productive factors increase world economic efficiency. more research that needs to be done in this area. which suggests that these inflows should be studied . Indeed. He calculate that the foreign born in (''( are %5.* "aBen together. !owever. this is exactly the pattern we have seen in recent decades. based on relative factor abundance.9. liBe the conventional approach. "he challenge for those who believe this is so is to show that one can actually identify these effects and that the magnitude of these benefits is sizable. Immigrants may bring #. 2?G. "his is precisely what our study does.9. it is important to recognize that showing that there are ) . 7mpirical worB in this conventional tradition cannot alter these conclusions. or about %.9. 6nce we accept this as a starting point.9. as a matter of theory. In our approach. though. 3iBewise. only =uantify them. :ut it also provides an incentive for the inflow of productive capital. though negligible. the #nited 9tates needs to find foreign marBets for its expanded production and to buy scarcer foreign products at higher prices.9. high productivity yields high returns for all factors of production. "he divergence between the conventional results and ours is that the conventional approach. Indeed. natives direct and indirect economic benefits in ways not captured by our model. it is no longer appropriate to study the movement of labor in isolation.* percent of #. the traditional frameworB concludes that the economic conse=uences for the receiving country as a whole are positive. no "he theoretical model that we worB with predicts that high productivity in America will lead to large inflows of both capital and labor. !igh American productivity does provide a motive for the immigration of labor. 6ur frameworB.* percent of the #. !owever. Aeceiving country natives (here the #nited 9tates) experience losses. economy by nearly one-sixth. "here is. trade barriers and three to four times larger than recent calculations of the cost of the #. there are aggregate income gains for the world as a whole. 9uch studies necessarily conclude that the principal national conse=uence of immigration is the redistribution of income between natives similar to the immigrants and other factors of production.ointly. labor force and that inflows of foreign capital account for (a surprisingly similar) %4. business cycle. concludes that migration is liBe trade in the sense that there are aggregate benefits for natives of both countries (sending and receiving). It is important to place these numbers in context. the inflows of capital and labor have expanded the size of the #. theory teaches us that this may not be a good thing. more than all of these gains accrue to natives of the sending countries.) percent of the domestic capital stocB.

economic issues (costs of immigration. 9ome groups also support immigration as a device to boost small population numbers. "he core of their arguments is that a nations .obs are the MpropertyJ of that nation. and that the immigration depresses wages. 9ome free-marBet libertarians believe that a free global labour marBet with no restrictions on immigration would. "here are also groups which oppose border controls on idealistic and humanitarian grounds . environmental issues (impact of population growth). "his Bind of immigration is opposed by labour-marBet protectionists. there is a business lobby for immigration. natives. "hey may also criticise immigration of this type as a form of corporate welfare.udgment on immigration per se. Although multinational corporations re=uire free movement of senior staff. and cultural arguments appealing to the value of cultural diversity. but to consider and =uantify a new approach to measuring the economic costs and benefits of immigration. often arguing from economic nationalism. and in some countries. 6pposition to immigration is generally far more prominent than support for it. to reverse demographic aging trends.9. and that allowing foreigners to taBe them is e=uivalent to a loss of that property. which liBely are a multiple of the costs to #. )iffering perspectives on immigration Immigration is often highly politicized. liBe in 7urope. they are not necessarily the main users of immigrant labour. liBe in $ew Lealand. to benefit from their higher standards of living. 8edium and small businesses (restaurants. may be sufficient . 8ore limited support for increased labour migration comes from economists and some business interests in the developed world. In the remainder of this essay. and the impact on the national identity and nature of the nation-state itself. farms) may be the most dependent on low-wage foreign labour. "he main anti-immigration themes are xenophobia.or political issue.believing that people from poor countries should be allowed to enter rich countries. usually related to labour supply. 9upport for fully open borders is limited to a minority. natives need not imply that immigration is bad. "he benefits to the immigrants themselves. we will sBetch out the main ideas underlying the conventional approach and our own approach to analyzing the impact of immigration. a ma. 6ur aim here is not to pronounce a . and competition in the labour marBet).9. 0)1 A more common criticism is that the immigrant employees are almost always paid less than a non-immigrant worBer in the same . usually in the form of green card systems.ustification. 4 . In specific sectors. boost global prosperity. "he main arguments cited in support of immigration are economic arguments. in the long run. He will follow this by sBetching our methods for applying our approach to the data. where business is indirectly subsidised by government expenditure to promote the immigration and the assimilation of the immigrants. intended to facilitate specific and limited labour flows. natives. but that is to some extent countered by economic interests.economic costs of immigration for #. or. "here may be non-economic benefits to #.9.ob.

and some countries have reintroduced forms of language prohibition. and conse=uently the national identity. 2ermany was indeed intended as a state for 2ermans mass immigration was not foreseen by the %&th-century nationalist movements. the southern border of the 7uropean #nion in the 9panish exclaves of -euta and 8elilla is at least as militarised as the #9-8exico border. it has become more polarized in recent years. but withdrew the proposal after protests. and economic structures. 6ne of the responses of nation-states to mass immigration is to promote the cultural assimilation of immigrants into the national community. 9ome of the support for this nationalist opposition comes from xenophobes who instinctively fear the presence of foreigners. the Mmelting potJ. but on e=ual rights for the immigrants. . :ritain. In 7urope. "he introduction of citizenship tests for immigrants is the most visible form of state-enforced assimilation. $evertheless. Arguments against the cost of immigration . cultural assimilation is traditionally seen as a process taBing place among minorities Gim >ortuyn in the $etherlands. and the 3i. 2ermany is for the 2ermans. suggested a nationwide ban on the speaBing of non-?utch languages in public. and so on. especially within the 9ierra -lub. >rom the nationalist perspective. "he primary argument of the nationalist opponents in 7urope is that immigrants simply do not belong in a nation-state which is by definition intended for another ethnic group. is for the :ritish. which has the largest absolute numbers of immigrants. economic arguments dominated the #nited 9tates immigration debate. In the #nited 9tates. the 3ega $ord in Italy. 7nvironmentalist opposition to immigration is prominent in the #nited 9tates. the >ront $ational in >rance. "he test usually include some form of language exam.for instance the provision of schools for the additional population . high-volume immigration simply Mdestroys their countryJ. variants of these policies have been proposed to accelerate the assimilation of immigrants. Aesponses to immigration are a controversial topic among environmental activists. in 7urope a Mnationalist partyJ is almost a synonym for Manti-immigration partyJ. and their integration into the political. Aita NerdonB. but it is also consistent with the nationalist ideology. Immigration is seen as altering the composition of the national population. social. where nation-states have a tradition of national unification by cultural and linguistic policies. in this view. 9ome oppose the immigration-driven population growth in the #nited 9tates as .especially as immigrants are usually not unionised. to avoid their exploitation. 6ther groups feel that the focus should be not on immigration control. Although traditionally. "he $etherlands immigration minister. "he emergence of private border militias in the #nited 9tates has attracted much media attention. Immigration has forced 2ermany and other western 7uropean states to re-examine their national identity part of the population is not prepared to redefine it to include immigrants. as evidenced by nationalist demands for the militarisation of the #9 borders. the :ritish $ational Garty in :ritain.are prominent in the #nited 9tates and -anada see 7conomic impact of immigration to -anada. It is this type of opposition to immigration which generated support for anti-immigration parties such as Nlaams :elang in :elgium. $on-economic opposition to immigration is closely associated with nationalism.

such as national security. housing.or political issue. have shifted within a generation. 9ome. (thics of migration Although freedom of movement is often recognised as a civil right. the debate now focuses on immigration from the new member states of the 7#. such as Dapan. traditionally had very little immigration.or religion. but restrictive policies within the 7uropean #nion have sharply reduced asylum seeBers. "here is no similar provision regarding entry of non-citizens. since large-scale immigration contributed to substantial population growth. guarantee immigrants a . C . and this has become a political issue. rather than substantially increase the population. argue that the freedom of movement both within and between countries is a basic human right. 6ther environmentalists see overpopulation and environmental degradation as global problems. immigration has become an emotional political issue in many 7uropean countries. this freedom is often limited to citizens and excludes others. $ote that a right to freedom of entry would not. from traditional labour emigration. In such circumstances. :ecause of all these associations. 9ome right-wing parties see an unassimilated. 8ost 7uropean countries do not have the high population growth of the #nited 9tates. 9ome countries such as Italy. and it was not a ma.or immigration since the %&4'Js. and some experience population decline. violate this human right of freedom of movement. According to Article %* of the #niversal ?eclaration of !uman Aights. in itself. typical of nation-states. economically deprived. or delay its onset. the effect of immigration is to reduce decline. citizens may not be forbidden to leave their country. In western 7urope. and advocate immigration reduction. "hey fear new events such as the ('') civil unrest in >rance.ob. 9ome 7uropean countries. and generally hostile immigrant population as a threat to national stability. or citizenship. and international human rights treaties do not confer a general right to enter another state. that should be addressed by other methods.0)1 "he political debate about immigration is now a feature of most developed countries. "hose who re. Golitical debates about immigration typically focus on statistics. and especially the Aepublic of Ireland and 9pain. and that the restrictive immigration policies.ect this distinction on ethical grounds. such as the #nited Oingdom and 2ermany. and in western 7urope especially. "he Aepublic of Ireland is one of the only 7# countries comparable to the #nited 9tates in this respect. In some 7uropean countries the debate in the %&&'Js was focussed on asylum seeBers. have seen ma.051 9pain has also witnessed a recent boost in population due to high immigration. $o state currently allows full freedom of movement across its borders. for decades. the freedom only applies to movement within national borders it may be guaranteed by the constitution or by human rights legislation. health care. with the presence of Islam as a new ma. to mass immigration. and immigration has already been a political issue. Additionally. "he politics of immigration have become increasingly associated with others issues. terrorism. "hey point to the Dyllands-Gosten 8uhammad cartoons controversy as an example of the value conflicts arising from immigration of 8uslims in Hestern 7urope. especially from Goland.unsustainable. and the implementation of existing restrictions. immigration law and policy.

these proposals are worBing their way through the legislative process. cannot avail of these immigration opportunities. A lopsided. while at the same time many developed countries have a huge demand for unsBilled labour. "he contradictory nature of this policy .could and should do to finally address. "his can exacerbate the global ine=uality in standards of living that provided the motivation for the individual to migrate in the first place. establishing a new temporary guest worBer program. Immigration polices which selectively grant freedom of movement to targeted individuals are intended to produce a net economic gain for the host country.which specifically disadvantages the unsBilled immigrants while exploiting their labour . and offering some level of amnesty to illegal immigrants currently living in the #nited 9tates. In ('').. then the status =uo will not change.has also been criticised on ethical grounds. sBilled. from the "hird Horld.the brain drain. !owever. strengthening employer verification of employment. 3ess privileged individuals. immigration policy received far more genuine attention on -apitol !ill. and 8embers of -ongress from both sides of the aisle are now considering what to do about immigration policy. Solving the Immigration $ro*lem in US+ :esides identifying the historical causes of mass immigration to the #. to achieve con. which is maBing both migration and terrorism much easier. and wealthy. which apply (at least in theory) within democratic nationstates. 8embers of both the 9enate and the !ouse of Aepresentatives recognize this and deserve credit for striving to craft a comprehensive law during this session of -ongress. "hinBing through the incentives is the Bey to success.or factor in illegal immigration.9. "heir various efforts have focused on a wide variety of changes in current policy. ideological approach that focuses exclusively on border security while ignoring migrant worBers (or vice versa) is bound to fail. has generally disappeared. it is typically selective. such as the Hhite Australia policy. is a ma. "his ine=uality has also been criticised as conflicting with the principle of e=ual opportunities. but priority is usually given to the educated.. "hey can also mean net loss for a poor donor country through the loss of the educated minority . including the mass of poor people in low-income countries. 6ne thing is =uite clear "he favored approach of recent yearsKa policy of benign neglectKis no longer tenable. "he biggest challenge for policymaBers is distinguishing illusory immigration problems from real problems. 7thnic selection. At present.Hhere immigration is permitted. & . If -ongress passes another law that glosses over the fundamental contradictions in the status =uo. "he fact that the door is closed for the unsBilled. "he Aeal Groblem with Immigration.. An example of the Mcompetition for sBilled labourJ is active recruitment of health worBers by >irst Horld countries. immigration reform must be comprehensive. immigration reformists say there is a number of steps -ongress -. as well as the problems it has created domestically. and the Aeal 9olution AmericaJs exceptional status as a Pnation of immigrantsQ is being challenged by globalization. including improving border security.unction with state and federal authorities -.

9. to earn a living@ S !old 8exican authorities who cross into the #.9. and infrared technology. to ascertain if persons are in the #. during the normal course of their duties. theyEre home free.9.9. legally@ S :egin to hold #.F :y that he means once most illegal immigrants manage to get over the border and into the #.9. elected officials accountable for their mass immigration stances and policies by removing them from office@ S Implore 8exican officials to develop the tools and policies to bolster infrastructure. and provide them with instructions on how to gain access to the #. to tracB and intercept illegal border crossers@ S -lose legal loopholes that allow illegal aliens to gain footholds in the #. responsible for violating internationally recognized borders@ F"he federal government is incapable of enforcing immigration laws by itself.''' federal agents to cover the entire #. troops on the border with 8exico. such as access to driverEs licenses. In order to address the many aspects the problem that is mass immigration.9.9. a spoBesman for the >ederation for American Immigration Aeform (>AIA).Solving the $ro*lem :ut what to do about the problemsR >or one.. satellite surveillance.F were it is nearly impossible to gain illegal access.@ S Implement laws so that employers who hire illegals run the risB of losing their businesses because of the government-imposed sanctions@ S Glace #.9. ?avid Aay. detain them and call federal immigration officials to come and retrieve them@ S "he #. F"here are only (..@ most states arenEt enlisting local police to helpF in the effort. matricular consular cards. education and opportunities in 8exico. to assist :order Gatrol agents and other Immigration officials with closing off wide swaths of border@ S 7mploy the latest technology in addition to troops and border agents. legally and. including motion sensors and detectors. and the establishment of banB accounts@ S 8aBe defense of the border Fin depth. says the biggest impediment to solving the problem is Fthe indisputable absence of all interior immigration 0law1 enforcement.F said Aay. if not. Aay and other experts have identified a series of steps S $arrow immigration to largely include only foreigners with marBetable sBills in the #. so many of its citizens donEt feel compelled to travel to the #.9.9. which would maBe immigrants less liBely to remain poor and dependent on public assistance@ S Implement verifiable documents that employers can use to ensure they are not hiring illegal immigrants or immigrants who donEt have the right to worB in the #.9. %' . say reformers. get the locals involved..9. then nearly impossible to get employment@ S 7nlist state and local police officers. Hashington needs help from the rest of the country. should get serious about incarcerating repeat offenders who are caught crossing into the country illegallyKto encourage compliance with American immigration laws@ S ?eport illegal immigrants currently in the country.

F"hrough our lax immigration laws. social security benefits. for example. for example. either through votes or campaign contributions from employers who hire cheaper immigrants. and no nation can do that and survive. mass immigration is a problem Hashington has not dealt affectively with for decades. economic and cultural divides. being allowed to worB S bringing relatives into the country. 9o here you have some tips and problems that can affect you. analysts believe. we have invited anarchy into the #nited 9tates.!e said illegals Bnow that once they get past the border. for example. the loss of the American standard of living. a spouse. council tax benefit S the right to vote S a relative or friend being refused entry to the #O/#9A/other country when arriving at an airport or port %% . whether you will be allowed bacB into the #O/#9A/other country S whether you are entitled to use state services or claim benefits. education.F"he simple truth is that weEve lost control of our own borders. this lacB of political resolve to protect the nationEs borders will only worsen the countryEs political. onclusion :efore thinBing to immigrate. they are Fhome free. there are several problems that can appear and that you must consider before having them. housing benefits. health services.F Aay said. most liBely because many see it as a boon to their careers. "he situations that can occur can be very unpleasant and sometimes hard to solve. social. for a holiday). fiancT (e).F 9aid Gresident Aonald AeaganKthough he also signed a landmarB illegal immigrant amnesty while in office -. the cost of providing for so many immigrants. S getting permission to stay in the #O/#9A/other country longer than you originally intended S getting permission to do something which you are not at present allowed doing. In the long run.F Hhether the &/%% attacBs. or a total of these problems apply. children S being threatened with deportation from the #O/#9A/other country S being held by the immigration authorities in a detention centre S wanting a passport and not Bnowing whether you are entitled to a #O/#9A/other country passport or some other passport S wanting to apply to become a #O/#9A/other country -itizen S if you are already living in the #O but wanting to travel (for example. council housing.