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CHAPTER 2: MATTER 1. To determine melting point



Water bath To ensure uniform heating.


)oiling point Time, s

to t1 t t"

Example: Graph shows the heating curve of element X. Describe the graph in terms of states o matter, particle arrangements and changes in energ!. "tage to t1
t1 - t

"tate o matter Liquid Liquid gaseous Gaseous

t t"

Particles arrangement The particles are close to each other. The particles arrangement is not orderly. !ome of particles are close to each other and some far apart. The particles arrangement is not orderly. The particles are far away from each other. The particles arrangement is not orderly.

Changes in energ! The kinetic energy increases The kinetic energy is constant The kinetic energy increases

". Di usion the mo#ement of particles $atom%ions%molecule& of su'stance in 'etween the particles of another su'stance % from highly concentrated area to less concentrated area. Gas ( liquid ( solid ). #sotope are atoms of the same element $same num'er of proton& with different num'er of neutrons%nucleon num'er. *+ample, -ompare atom $2% and atom $&'
( (

.tom 0p 0n /roton num'er % 1o. of electron 2alence electron 1um'er of neutron % nucleon num'er -hemical properties /hysical properties 1o. of occupied shell

% 0 0 ) 0% 1
0p 3n

' 0 0 ) 3 %1) similar ' different similar 1

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CHAPTER *: CHEM#CA+ ,-RM.+A 1/ Empirical ormula, chemical formula that shows the simplest whole num'er ratio of atoms of each element in a compound, CH2 . Molecular ormula, a chemical formula that shows the actual num'er of atoms of each element that is present in a molecule of the compound, C2H& a& 4nreacti#e metal reaction o+ide metal with hydrogen gas, $-u5, /'5 ,!n5 & b0 Diagram 9ydrogen 6eacti#e metal $ 7g, 8n 'urn in e+cess o+ygen % air & more reacti#e than 9

c0 Proce1ure - :eigh and record the mass of com'ustion tu'e with porcelain dish - .dd a spatula of copper $;;& o+ide on the porcelain dish. :eigh the tu'e again. - .llow hydrogen gas flow into the tu'e for < 1= minutes. - >urn the e+cess hydrogen. - Heat copper $;;& o+ide strongl!/ - Turn off the flame when blac2 soli1 turns bro3n completely. - -ontinue the flow of hydrogen until the set of apparatus cool down to room temperature. - :eigh the com'ustion tu'e with its content. - -Repeat the process heating, cooling and weighing until a constant mass is o'tained and record.
Result : - com'ustion tu'e with porcelain dish ? a g - com'ustion tu'e with porcelain dish @ copper $;;& o+ide ? ' g -com'ustion tu'e with porcelain dish @ copper ? c g - mass of copper ? 6 c4 a0 g 7 7ass of o+ygen ? 6 b4 c 0 g

- Weigh and record a cruci'le with its lid - Clean 7g ri''on with sand paper then coil the 7g ri''on and place into the cruci'le. Weigh and record. - Heat strongl! 4 :hen 7g ri''on start to 'urn, co#er the cruci'le with lid. - +i t 5 raise the lid at intervals. - :hen the 'urning is complete, remo#e the lid and heat strongly. -.llow the cruci'le to cool 1o3n. -Weigh and record the cruci'le with content and lid. -Repeat the process heating, cooling and weighing until a constant mass is o'tained and record. - -bservation , :hite fume % solid formed
- mass of cruci'le @ lid ? a g - mass of cruci'le @ lid @ 7g ? b g - mass of cruci'le @ lid @ magnesium o+ide ? c g - mass of 7g ? $ b 8 a 0 g 4 mass of o+ygen ? $ c 8 b0 g

*lement % atom 7ass $g& 1um'er of mole !implest ratio of mole -u + + % 0) 5 y y % 10 *lement % atom 7ass $g& 1um'er of mole !implest ratio of mole 7g + +% ) 5 y y % 10

Precaution : $/ The lo3 o H2 must be continuous 1uring cooling 8 to prevent hot copper metal rom oxi1i9e1/ 2/ Allo3 h!1rogen gas lo3 into the tube or : 8 $; minutes to unsure air totall! remove1. The

Precaution : 1. Clean 7g ri''on with sand paper to remo#e the layer of o+ide on its surface. . +i t 5 raise the lid at intervals to allo3 air in */ :hen 7g ri''on start to 'urn, co#er the cruci'le with lid to a#oid the white fume produced from

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mixture H2 an1 air ma! cause an explosion/ ". To determine all air totally remo#ed, collect the air and place lighted splinter, the gas 'urn <uietl!. =To prepare H2> ). 8n @ 9-l 8n-l @ 9 <. .nhydrous calcium chloride to dry the 9 gas. 0. -u5 @ 9 -u @ 9 5

'eing escape to the air. ). Repeat the process heating, cooling and weighing to ma2e sure all magnesium is completel! reacte1 3ith ox!gen/ :/ 2Mg ? -2 2Mg-

". >ased on the two formulae 1a 5, -u; $a& !tate the oxi1ation number for sodium, and copper. $'& 1ame 'oth the compound 'ased on ;4/.- nomenclature system. $c& *+plain the difference 'etween the names of the two compounds 'ased on #.PAC nomenclature s!stem/ "ample ans3er: 5+idation num'er for sodium and copper ;4/.- 1omenclature 6eason @a2@1 !odium o+ide Aoes not ha#e roman number 'ecause sodium has onl! one o+idation num'er Cu# @1 -opper $;& iodide 9as roman num'er 'ecause copper has more than one o+idation num'er

CHAPTER &: PER#-D#C TA)+E 1. The reacti#ity of Aroup # elements increases down the group, whereas the reacti#ity of Aroup $B elements 1ecreases down the group. . Explanation Aroup # Aroup $B -hange in proton num'er ;ncreases ;ncreases -hange in num'er of electrons and electron filled shells ;ncreases ;ncreases -hange in atomic siBe%radius%diameter ;ncreases ;ncreases !trength of electrostatic attraction 'etween nucleus and Aecreases %weaker Aecreases %weaker #alence electron Tendency to 6eleases electron .ttract t% accept increases electron decreases To 'ecome /ositi#e ion 1egati#e ion 6eacti#ity ;ncreases Aecreases

1 " ) < 0 C

$ & *+plain how the melting point of Aroup $ elements change 1o3n the group $) marks& 1ecreases gradually 6eason atomic siBe increases metallic bon1ing 'etween the atoms 'ecome weaker Less energy is required % needed to o#ercome this metallic 'onding. "

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$"& Chemical properties o element in group $B ; ;; ;;; 6eaction with water 6eaction with sodium hydro+ide 6eaction with iron -l @ 9 5 9-l @ 95-l -l @ 1a59 1a-l @ 1a5-l @ 9 5 "-l @ De De-l" $'rown solid&

-hlorine gas
To produce -l


"o1a lime 9ot iron wool 9-l $cons& @ ## G7n5)$s&

"o1ium h!1roxi1e solution

Compare the reacti#ity of reactions 'etween chlorine and 'romine with iron. EDiagram ###F Reaction Reactants . ;ron @ chlorine gas > ;ron @ 'romine gas -bservation The hot iron wool ignites rapidly with a 'right flame. . 'rown solid is formed. The hot iron wool glows moderately with fast. . 'rown solid is formed.

"ample ans3er: a& -hemical equation, "-l @ De De-l" '& The reactivit! of reaction . is higher than reaction >. c& The atomic si9e of chlorine is smaller than 'romine. d& The orces o attraction o the nucleus to3ar1 the electrons are stronger. e& ;t is easier for chlorine atom to attract5receive electron. $)& Across perio1 *, atomic radius $atomic siBe& decreases % electronegativit! increases. Explain/ a& /roton num'er increases 'y one unit. '& The num'er of #alence electrons in each atom increases. c& /ositi#e charge of the nucleus increases, thus d& 1uclei attraction on #alence electron increases. e& .tomic radius $atomic siBe& decreases f& Tendency to recei#e electron increases $to form negati#e ion& thus electronegativit! increases. $<& -hemical properties of the oxi1e o element across /eriod " changes rom basic oxi1e to amphoteric oxi1e to aci1ic oxi1e/ >asic o+ide sodium o+ide $1a 5& .mphoteric o+ide .luminium o+ide $.l 5"& .cidic o+ide sulphur dio+ide, !5

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CHEPTER :: CHEM#CA+ )-@D $a& Group 1 elements react with Group 1C elements to produce compounds that ha#e high melting points/ The points are: #onic compoun1 produced >ecause in#ol#e trans er o electrons 'etween metal atom and non metal atom. 7etal atom donates #alence electron to form positi#e ion, non metal atom accepts electron to negati#e ion. The oppositel! charged ions are held together 'y strong electrostatic orce/ More heat energ! is needed to overcome the strong force of attraction. ,ormation o ionic compoun1 metal =Aroup $72 C $*> an1 non metal =Aroup $&7 $:7 $(C $B> "ample ans3er: 1. *lectron arrangement of atoms 6 @a 7 2D/$ E Cl 2/D/B 0 55 valence electrons . To achie#e sta'le % octet electron arrangement ". Atom 6 @a& releases one % valence electron to form sodium ion, 1a@ ). Hal e<uation 6 @a @a? ? e0 <. Atom 6Cl0 gain % accept electron to form chloride ion, -l0. Hal e<uation 6 Cl ? e Cl4 0 C. -ppositel! charge1 ion, @a? H Cl4 are attracted to one another b! strong electrostatic orce o attraction to form ionic compound, 1a-l 3. Aiagram ,ormation o covalent compoun1 6nonmetal0 1. electron arrangement of the atom %valence electrons . to achie#e duplet %octet electron arrangement ". .tom $-ar'on& contributes ) electrons while $9& atom contri'utes 1 electron 6 or sharing&. ). one $ -ar'on & atom share & pairs of electrons with ) $9& atoms to form co#alent compound , -9) % ratio <. diagram Compare the ph!sical properties o covalent an1 ionic compoun1 Properties Covalent compoun1 6 naphthalene0 7elting and - Low 'oiling - -onsist of molecules - :eak inter molecular orces bet3een molecules - Less energy needed to o#ercome the weak forces *lectrical - -onsist of molecules conducti#ity - Aoes not conduct electricity in any state $molten or aqueous&. #onic compoun1 6 so1ium chlori1e0 - 9igh - -onsist of oppositely charged ions - The ions are held together 'y strong electrostatic orces / - 7ore heat energy needed to o#ercome the strong forces - -onsist of oppositely charged ions - -onduct electricity in molten or a<ueous solution/ - *+ist in molten or a<ueous solution, ions can mo#e freely. <

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CHAPTER (: E+ECTR-CHEM#"TR' 1. Dactor that affect the electrolysis of an a<ueous solution $a& position of ions in the electrochemical series 6catho1e0 $'& concentration of ions in the electrolyte - halide $ -hloride, 'romide and iodide& $c& type of electrodes used in the electrolysis $ anode metal & Application $i& Electroplating anode electroplating metal $ less electropositi#e metal % Cu7 Ag7 @i & cathode metal %o'Iect to 'e electroplated electrolyte - solution that contains the metal ions o electroplating metal $ii& Puri ication anode impure metal $ -u -u @ @ e & cathode pure metal $ -u @ @ e -u & electrolyte - solution that contains the metal ions $ -u @& $iii& Extraction of metal 6reactive metal7 so1ium7 aluminium0 AownJs /rocess e+traction of sodium from molten sodium chloride. *+traction of aluminium from molten aluminium o+ide $ 'au+ite&

. To construct the electrochemistr! 'ased on ten1enc! to release electron %potential differences - voltaic cell5 Electrochemical cell/

". To construct the electrochemistry 'ased on a'ility % tendency of metal to 1isplace another metal from it salts solution. Displacement reaction: a metal which is higher in the electrochemical series is a'le to displace a metal 'elow it in a series from its salt solution. 0

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8n @ -u!5) 8n!5) @ -u %% 8n 8n @ @ e % -u @ @ e -u

copper -opper$;;& sulphate solution


Cell P Cell F ). -ompare and contrast cell P and F. ;nclude in your answer the o'ser#ation and half equation for the reaction of the electrodes in 'oth cells. Cell P *lectrical chemical @#e % anode, copper $5X;A.T;51& -#e % cathode, copper -u @ , 9@ 59- , !5) .node ,-u -u @ @ e $type of electrode& -athode, -u @ e -u

Characteristics Cell F *nergy change -hemical electrical *lectrode @#e%cathode, copper -#e% anode, lead $5X;A.T;51& ;ons present in -u @ , 9@ the electrolyte 59- , !5) .node, /' /' @ @ e 9alf equation -athode, -u @ @ e -u $*-!&

$ *-!&

Ano1e, copper electrode 'ecome thinner Catho1e, 'rown solid formed% 'ecomes thicker. Electrol!te, intensity blue solution % concentration of -u @ solution remain. 6ate of ioniBed of copper atom to form copper $;;& ion at the anode same as rate of discharged copper $;;& ion at the cathode. CHAPTER B: AC#D A@D )A"E


Ano1e, 'ecomes thinner Catho1e, 'ecomes thicker % 'rown solid formed Electrol!te: intensity blue solution decrease % 'lue 'ecomes paler

An aci1 is chemical su'stance which ioniBes in water to produce hydrogen ion, H? . 'ase is a chemical su'stance which ioniBes in water to produce hydro+ide ions, -H4 .lkali is a solu'le 'ase. )asicit! is the num'er of ionisa'le hydrogen atoms per molecule of an acid. The p9 #alue of 1.= mol dm-" hydrochloric acid is 1 The p9 #alue of 1.= mol dm-" methanoic acid is )

1. *+plain why these two solutions ha#e different p9 #alues identify strong acid , weak acid definition strong acid definition weak acid C

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concentration of 9@ relationship 'etween p9 #alue and concentration of hydrogen ions, H? "ample ans3er: 1. 9ydrochloric acid is a strong aci1 while methanoic acid is a 3ea2 aci1. . 9ydrochloric acid completely ioniBes in 3ater to form higher concentration of hydrogen ions. 9-l @ 9 5 9"5@ @ -l- %% 9-l 9@ @ -l- , 9"5@ , hydro+onium ion ". 7ethanoic acid ioniBes partially in 3ater to form lo3er concentration hydrogen ions -9"-559 -9"-55- @ 9@ ). The higher the concentration of hydrogen ions the lo3er the p9 #alue. . .im, To 1etermine the en1 point 1uring the neutrali9ation o potassium h!1roxi1e an1 h!1rochloric aci1 .pparatus, < cm" pipette, 'urette , <= cm" conical flask, retort stand, white tile 7aterial, potassium hydro+ide and hydrochloric acid =.1 mol dm-", phenolphthalein. Proce1ure: 1. 6inse a 'urette with a small amount hydrochloric acid =.1 mol dm-" . . -lamp the 'urette on retort stand. ". Dill the 'urette with hydrochloric acid =.1 mol dm-" ..dIust the meniscus le#el of acid to a reading at =. ). 6ecord the initial 'urette reading. <. /ipette <.= cm" of potassium hydro+ide =.1 mol dm-" into conical flask. 0. .dd two drop of phenolphathalein. C. .dd hydrochloric acid =.1 mol dm-" carefully. !wirl the conical flask during the process. 3. :hen the colour of the mi+ture turn paler, add hydrochloric acid drop 'y drop. K. !top adding the hydrochloric acid as soon as the solution turns colourless. 1=. 6ecord the final 'urette reading. 11. 6epeat steps 1-1= twice. Ta'ulate your reading. 7.2. ? 7>2> Result : Titration Dinal 'urette reading, cm" ;nitial 'urette reading, cm" 2olume of hydrochloric acid =.1 mol dm-" , cm" 1 " a '

*/ Preparation "tan1ar1 solution 6 ;/$ mol 1m4* @a-H7 $;; cm*0 1. . ". ). <. 0. C. calculate the mass of solute $ mole ? =.1 + 1==%1=== , =.=1 ? mass% )=& weigh =.)g of 1a59 in weighing 'ottle using digital 'alance % electronic 'alance pour into a 'eaker, rinse the 'ottle with distilled water. dissol#e 1a59 with a little $ 1= = cm" &distilled water. transfer the mi+ture into #olumetric flask 1== cm" rinse the 'eaker with distilled water. pour the washings into #olumetric flask 1== cm" add distilled water, shake well 3

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3. add distilled water drop 'y drop to finally 'ring the #olume of solution to the 1== cm" mark % cali'ration mark. Preparation o a stan1ar1 solution b! 1ilution metho1 M$G$ H M2G2 M$ 8 initial molarit! G$ 4 initial volume M2 8 inal molarit! G2 8 inal volume @-TE : C-@CE@TRAT#-@ 8 $/ M-+AR#T' 4 mol 1m4* 2/ g 1m4* @eutrali9ation in our 1ail! lives .griculture ;ndustries /owdered lime $-a5& , limestone $-a-5"&, ashes of 'urnt wood -4sed to treat acidic soil. 1. /owdered lime $-a5& -4sed to treat acidic effluent from factories, acidic gas !5 emitted 'y power station and industries. . .mmonia pre#ents the coagulation of late+ 'y neutraliBing the acid produced 'y 'acteria in the late+. 1. .nti-acids contain 'ases such as aluminium hydro+ide and magnesium hydro+ide to neutraliBe the e+cess acid in the stomach. . 2inegar $citric acid& is used to cure wasp stings that are alkaline in nature. ". >aking powder $1a9-5"& is used to cure 'ee stings and ant 'ites that are acidic in nature. ). Toothpaste contains 'ases that neutraliBe the acid produces 'y 'acteria in our mouth.


CHAPTER D "A+T A salt is a compound formed when the h!1rogen ion7 H@ from an acid is replaced 'y a metal ion or an ammonium ion7 @H&? Preparation of soluble salt acid @ reacti#e metal $8n % 7g& salt @ 9 % 2H? ? Mg Mg2? ? H2 aci1 ? base 6 metal oxi1e0 salt ? 3ater acid @ alkali salt @ water % H? ? -H4 H2- 6 @a-H7 I-H7 @H&-H0 aci1 ? carbonate metal salt ? C-2 ? H2- 5 2H? ? C-*2? C-2 ? H2Proce1ure: 1. pour $ < 1==cm"& acid $ =.< .= mol dm-"& into a 'eaker . heat slowly ". add solid 6metal 5 base5 carbonate 0 a little until e+cess % no more dissol#e &/ stir <. ilter the mi+ture into evaporating 1ish 0. heat $slowly& the iltrate until 1%" from original #olume % saturated solution formed K

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C. cool 1o3n the saturated solution $until crystalliBed & 3. ilter $to separate the crystals& K. 1r! % transfer onto filter paper % dry 'etween sheets of filter paper Preparation of insoluble salt precipitation reaction % dou'le decomposition reaction /' @ @ !5) - /'!5) Example : Preparation o lea16##0sulphate/ Proce1ure 1. pour $ < <=cm"& of solu'le salt /'$15"& into a 'eaker . a11 $ < <=cm"& of solu'le salt $1a !5)& ". stir ). ilter the mi+ture <. rinse resi1ue % solid % precipitate 0. 1r! 'etween sheets of filter paper C. .ction of heat on salt Carbonate o+ide metal $'ase& @ -5 except 1a, G and 19)@ *+ample, -u-5" -u5 @ -5 @itrate o+ide metal @ nitrogen o+ide @ o+ygen except 1a, G7 6 1a15" *+ample , 7g$15"& 7g5 @ )15 @ 5 6)ro3n gas0 1a15 @5 &

Ammonium chlori1e ammonia gas @ hydrogen chloride gas, $19)-l 19" @ 9-l & Con irmator! test or cation an1 anion 1. !tate the material % chemical % reagent . procedure ". o'ser#ation ). conclusion Example: Lou are gi#en a 'ottle of ammonium chloride solution. Aescri'e chemical test to #erify the cation and anion. $a& Test or cation $19)@& 1. pour 2 cm* the solutions into a test tu'e . add 1 cm" copper $;;& sulphate solution ". 'lue precipitate solu'le in e+cess to form 1ar2 blue solution/ -R ). add 2 to * 1rops o @essler reagent into the test tu'e <. 'rown precipitate. (/ Ammonium ions 6@H&?0 present/ 6b0 test or anion 6Cl40 1. pour 2 cm* the solution into a test tu'e . add 1 cm" of 1ilute nitric acid and sil#er nitrate solution. ". white precipitate formed ). confirm the presence of chlori1e ions 1=

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Example: Lou are gi#en lead $;;& nitrate and aluminium nitrate solution. Aescri'e chemical test to #erify the cation and anion. 6c0 test or cation 1. pour cm" the solutions into different test tu'es . add 1 cm" potassium io1i1e solution into the test tu'es ". !ello3 precipitate formed ). lea1 6##0 ion present 610 test or anion 1. pour cm" of lead $;;& nitrate solution into a test tu'e . add 1 cm" of dilute sulphuric acid ". add 1 cm" of iron $;;& sulphate solution ). shake the mi+ure <. tilt the test tu'e, add concentrate1 sulphuric acid care ull! %% 1rop b! 1rop down the side of the test tu'e 0. the 'rown ring formed C. nitrate ion7 @-*4 present.

Aim : To construct the ionic equation for the formation of lead $;;& chromate$2;& Apparatus Material : Test tu'es of the same siBe, test tu'e rack, 'urette, retort stand with clamp, ruler, glass rod, dropper.

: =.< mol dm-" potassium chromate $2;& solution, =.< mol dm-" lead $;;& nitrate solution. Proce1ure : 1. !e#en test tu'es of the same siBe were la'elled from num'er 1 to C. They were placed in a test tu'e rack. . . 'urette was filled ;/: mol 1m4* lea1 6##0 nitrate solution7 :/;; cm* o the lea1 6##0 nitrate solution was run into each the se#en tu'es. ". .nother 'urette was filled with =.< mol dm-" potassium chromate $2;& solution. ). /otassium chromate $2;& solution from the 'urette was added into each of the se#en test tu'es according to the #olumes specified in the ta'le. <. The mi+ture in each test tu'e was stirred with a clean glass rod. 0. The test tu'es were left aside for a'out an hour. C. The height of the precipitate in each test tu'e was measured. The colour of the solution a'o#e the precipitate in each test tu'e was o'ser#ed and recorded.


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Test tube 2olume of =.< mol dm-" /'$15"& %cm" 2olume of =.< mol dm-" G -r 5) %cm" 9eight of precipitate $cm& -olour of solution a'o#e the precipitate

<.== 1.== =.0=

<.== .== 1. =

<.== ".== 1.3=

<.== ).== .)=

<.== <.== ".==

<.== 0.== ".==

<.== C.== ".==

Discussions: 1. . yellow precipitate of lead $;;& chromate $2;& is formed in each of the se#en test tu'es. . The height of the precipitate increases gradually from test tu'es 1 to < 'ecause more and more lead $;;& chromate $2;& is formed due to the increasing amount of potassium chromate $2;& added to the test tu'es. ". The colour of solution a'o#e the precipitate in test tu'es 1 to ) are colourless due to the e+cess lead $;;& nitrate. ). The colour of solution a'o#e the precipitate in test tu'es 0 to C is yellow due to the e+cess potassium chromate $2;&. <. ;onic equation, /' @ @ -r 5C - /'-r 5C Conclusion: .s the #olume of potassium chromate $2;& solution used increases, the height of the precipitate increases until it achie#es a ma+imum height. CHAPTER J : MA@.,ACT.RED ".)"TA@CE" #@ #@D."TR' $/ Contact process: 7anufactured sulphuric acid !tage 1 *quation !5 @ 5 !5" *+planation !ulphur is 'urned in the e+cess of o+ygen gas to produce sulphur dio+ide gas. !5 is then heated in e+cess o+ygen gas, catalyst 2anadium $2& o+ide, 1 atm and )<= <<= o - , to produce sulphur trio+ide gas. Gas sulfur trio+ide dissol#e in sulphuric acid to produce oleum 5leum is added to water to produce sulfuric acid

!@5 !5

" )

!5" @ 9 !5) 9 ! 5C 9 ! 5C @ 9 5 9 !5)

Aas "-* is not 1issolve in 3ater to pro1uce H2"-& straight a3a! because the reaction 3ill pro1uce a lot o heat 3hich is 1angerous 6cause the orming o aci1 umes0 4sage of sulphuric acid, To manufacture fertiliBer, soap and detergent To make e+plosi#e material, paint % pigment, polymer .s metal cleaner and electrolyte in car 'attery. 1

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2/ Haber Process 1 @ "9 19" Con1ition: -atalyst, iron, temperature, )<= <<= o-, /ressure == <== atm 4sage, to manufacture fertiliBer 19" @ 9 !5) $19) & !5) "19" @ 9"/5) $19) &" /5) 19" @ 915" 19)15" ". 9igh percentage of nitrogen is a good fertilser for plants. 9ow to calculate M1 in fertiliBer N urea -5$19 & and ammonium nitrate $19)15"&, which one is a 'etter fertiliBer N M 1 in 4rea ? mass of nitrogen % 677 urea + 1== ? +1) % 0= + 1== ? )0.0CM M 1 in 19)15" ? +1) % 3= + 1== ? "<.== M .rea is a goo1 ertili9er than ammonium nitrate, 'ecause the percentage of nitrogen in urea higher than ammonium nitrate. ). Aescri'e how toxic 3aste product from factory affects the quality of the en#ironment. Lour description should include the following aspects. 1. E"ource> sulphur dio+ide gas produced 'y factory or 'urning of fossil fuels . EProcess F sulphur dio+ide gas dissol#es in rain water % water to form acid rain, !5 @5 @ 9 5 9 !5) ". EE ectF to+ic waste % acid flows to into lakes and ri#ers, acid rain lowers the p9 #alue of water, soil and air. ). Dish and other aquatic organisms die. <. acid rain corrodes concrete 'uildings and metal structures 0. acid destroys trees in forest C. .cid rain reacts with minerals in soil to produces salt which are leached out the top soil. 3. /lants die of malnutrition and diseases. K. !oil 'ecomes acidic, unsuita'le for growth of plants and destroys the roots of plants. 1=. !ulphur dio+ide causes respiratory pro'lems in humans. <. P-+#MER, - large molecules made up of identical repeating su'-units of monomers which are Ioined together 'y co#alent 'onds. "!nthetic pol!mer /olythene /olypropene /oly#inyl chloride, /2/erspe+ Monomer *thene /ropene -hloroethene 7ethylmethacrylate .ses /lastic 'ags, plastic container /iping, car 'atteries .rtificial leather, water pipe !afety glass, reflectors

1" monomer $ ethene& polymer $polyethene&

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A++-' An allo! is a mi+ture of two or more elements with a certain fi+ed composition in which the maIor component is a metal. 1. The composition , properties and uses of some allo! Allo! >ronBe >rass !teel !tainless steel Auralumin Composition -u Tin -u 8inc ;ron -ar'on ;ron -ar'on -hromium .luminium -opper 7agnesium 7anganese Tin, -opper antimony Properties -9ard and strong -does not corrode easily -has shiny surface -harder than copper 9ard and strong -shiny -strong -does not rust -light -strong -luster$gloss&, shiny -strong .ses -in 'uilding of statue or monuments. -in making of medals -swords and artistic material -in making of musical instruments and kitchenware -in construction of 'uildings and 'ridges -in 'uilding of the 'ody of cars and railway tracks -in making of cutlery -in making of surgical instrument -in 'uilding of the 'ody of airplane and 'ullet trains ;n making of sou#enirs


>ronBe is har1er than pure copper. *+plain. 1. The presence of atoms of other metals % tin that are 1i erent si9es . Disrupt the orderly arrangement of copper atoms ". Tin atoms re1uce the la!ers o copper atoms from sliding ). .lloy is stronger and har1er than pure metal

-opper atom

!tanum atom

. !teel is an alloy of iron. !teel is harder than pure iron. >oth iron and steel can rust when e+posed to air and water. Ao they rust at the same rateN Aim : To compare the rate o rusting 'etween iron, steel and stainless steel Problem "tatement : 9ow does the rate of rusting 'etween iron, steel and stainless steel differN H!pothesis : ;ron rust faster than steel and steel rust faster than stainless steel. Gariables: Manipulate1 : ;ron, steel and stainless steel. Respon1ing : intensity % amount of dark 'lue colour % rate of rusting 1)

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: siBe of nail, concentration of solution, duration of rusting

Proce1ure: 1. -lean the nails with sand paper $to remo#ed the rust from all the nails& . /lace the iron nail, steel nail and stainless steel nail into the test tu'e ., > and - respecti#ely. ". /repare a < M Ielly solution 'y adding < g Ielly to 1== cm" of 'oiling water. .dd a few drop of potassium he+acyanoferrate $;;;& solution. ). /our the hot Ielly into the test tu'es until all the nails are fully immersed. <. Lea#e the nails for " days. 0. 5'ser#e and record the intensity of the dark 'lue colour. Tabulation o 1ata Test tu'e . > The intensity of the dark 'lue colour %rate of rusting

Conclusion 1. The concentration of De @ ions in the test tu'e . is higher than in test tu'e >. 1o De @ ions are present in test tu'e -. . The rate of rusting in test tu'e . is higher than that in test tu'e >. 1o rusting takes place in test tu'e -. .lloy slow down the rate of rusting. Properties7 composition an1 uses 1i erent t!pe o glass T!pe Dused glass Properties Chemical .ses composition !i5 Lenses, telescope mirrors, optical fi'res, La'oratory glassware. !i5 -a-5" % 1a -5" Dlat glass, light 'ul', mirrors, glass containers.

-2ery high softening point -9ighly heat resistant -Aoes not crack when temperature changes -#ery resistant to chemical reactions -difficult to 'e shaped !oda lime -low softening point glass -does not withstand heating -'reak easily -less resistant to chemical reactions -easy to 'e shaped - cracks easily with sudden change in temperature >orosilicate -lower thermal coefficient -heat resistant - Aoes not crack when temperature changes -#ery resistant to chemical reactions -does not 'reak easily 1<

!i5 > 5" 1a 5

La'oratory glassware, cooking utensils. .utomo'ile headlights.

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Lead glass

-low softening point -high density -9igh refracti#e inde+

!i5 /'5 -a5

Aecorati#e items, crystal glass ware, lens, prism, chandelier

Composite Materials is a structural material that is formed 'y combining t3o or more different su'stances such as metal7 allo!s7 glass7 ceramics an1 pol!mers. Composite material 6einforced concrete Component -oncrete !teel Properties o component 9ard 'ut 'rittle, low tensile strength 9ard with high tensile strength 'ut e+pensi#e and can corrode. Properties o composite !tronger, high tensile strength does not corrode easily, can withstand higher applied forces and loads, cheaper. -onducts electricity .ses o components -onstruction of framework for highway, 'ridges and high-rise 'uilding Generators, transformers, electric ca'le, amplifiers, computer parts 76; Transmit data in the form of light in telecommunications :ater storage tanks, small 'oat, helmet


-opper$;;&o+ide, ;nsulators of electricity 'arium o+ide

Di're optics Glass of low refracti#e inde+ Glass of high refracti#e inde+ Glass /olyester plastic

Transparent, does reflect light rays.

reflect light rays and allow light rays to tra#el along the fi'er Light, strong, tough, resilient and fle+i'le wit high tensile strength not inflamma'le, low density, easily coloured, shaped and moulded. !ensiti#e to light , darkens when light intensity is high, 'ecomes clear when light intensity is low.

Di're glass

9ea#y, strong 'ut 'rittle and non-fle+i'le Light, fle+i'le, elastic 'ut weak and inflamma'le

/hotochromic glass

Glass !il#er chloride or sil#er 'romide

Transparent, does reflect light rays. !ensiti#e to light

/hotochromic optical lens, camera lens, car windshields, optical switches, light intensity meters.


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CHAPTER $;: RATE -, REACT#-@ Chapter $ : Rate o reaction 6ate of reaction is the change in selected quantity of reactants or products per time taken. 1. *+plain why potatoes fried in 'oiling oil cook faster than potatoes 'oiled in 'oiling waterN - >oiling point of oil is higher than 'oiling point of water - .t higher temperature potatoes is faster to cook . >ased on the collision theory, e+plain why we need to store fresh milk in refrigerator. $i& the temperature inside the refrigerator is lower $ii& 'acteria are not acti#e at low temperature $iii& decomposition of milk caused 'y 'acteria will slow down $i#& this will keep the milk fresh for along time Collision theor! E ective collision: -ollision which achieve activation energ! $minimum amount& and with correct orientation. Temperature 1. .s temperature increases, the kinetic energy of the particles $ 9@, ! 5" - & increases % . Drequency of collision 'etween particles $ 9@, ! 5" - & increases ". Drequency of effecti#e collision increases ). 6ate of reaction increases "i9e o particles 6total sur ace area0 1. The smaller the siBe of particles, . The larger the total surface area e+posed to the collision ". Drequency of collision 'etween particles increases ). Drequency of effecti#e collision increases <. 6ate of reaction increases Concentration o the solution 1. The higher the concentration of the solution, . The greater the num'er of particles per #olume ". Drequency of collision 'etween particles increases ). Drequency of effecti#e collision increases <. 6ate of reaction increases Catal!st 1. The presence of catalyst pro#ide an alternati#e pathway % route . with lower acti#ation energy ". Drequency of effecti#e collision 'etween particles increases 1C

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). 6ate of reaction increases. 1. -atalyst a su'stance 3hich alters the rate of chemical reaction while remains chemicall! unchange1 at the end of reaction. . -bservable changes for measuring the rate of reaction. $a& #olume of gas li'erated $'& precipitate formation $c& change in mass during reaction, colour ,temperature, pressure 1. -atalyst $7anganese $;2& o+ide& a& Aecomposition of sodium chlorate $2&, '& Aecomposition hydrogen pero+ide , 1a-l5" 1a-l @ "5 95 95 @ 5

. Catal!tic converters in the car e+haust system contain rhodium, platinum or chromium $;;;& o+ide -r 5". Example: $/ Aim: To in#estigate the e ect o temperature of sodium thiosulphate 1a ! 5" solution on the rate of reaction Problem "tatement: Ho3 1oes temperature of sodium thiosulphate 1a ! 5" solution affect the rate of reactionN H!pothesis: :hen the temperature of sodium thiosulphate 1a ! 5" solution increases, the rate of reaction increases.%% the higher the temperature of sodium thiosulphate solution, the higher the rate of reaction. Gariables: Manipulate1 :Temperature of sodium thiosulphate solution. Respon1ing :6ate of reaction% Time taken for the cross OXP to disappear from the sight. ,ixe1 : Concentration an1 volume of sulphuric acid, concentration an1 volume of sodium thiosulphate solution. Apparatus : 1<= cm" connical flask, <= cm" measuring cylinder,1=cm" measuring cylinder, stopwatch, thermometer, >unsen 'urner, tripod stand, wire gauBe. Materials: ;/2 mol 1m4* sodium thioulphate solution, 1.= mol dm-" sulphuric acid, white paper marked QXR at the centre. Proce1ure, 1. <= cm" of =. mol dm-" sodium thiosulphate solution is measured using measuring cylinder and poured into a conical flask. . The temperature of the solution is measured with a thermometer. ". The conical flask is placed on a white paper markedJXJ. ). < cm" of 1 mol dm-" sulphuric acid is measured and then poured quickly and carefully into the sodium thiosulphate solution. <. The stopwatch is started immediately and the conical flask is swirled. 0. The mark JXJ is #iewed % o'ser#ed #ertically from a'o#e. C.The stopwatch is stopped as soon as the mark disappear from sight. 3.Time taken is recorded. 13

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K. !teps 1 to K are repeated 'y using the different temperature of sodium thiosulphate solution. Data an1 -bservation Experiment Temperature 7 6oC0 1 3 "< " )= ) )< < <= Time ta2en or the K%L mar2 to 1isappear rom vie37 t 6s0 $5 time ta2en 7 $5t 6 s4$0

Discussion >ased on plotted graph, E calculation F The higher the temperature of sodium thiosulphate, the shorter the time taken for crossOXP to disappear from the sight. The rate of reaction directly proportional to the temperature of sodium thiosulphate solution used. %% .s the temperature sodium thiosulphate solution increases, the time taken decreases. Therefore the rate of reaction increases. Conclusion : The rate of reaction increases as the temperature sodium thioulphate solution increases.

Energ! pro ile 1iagram


1. *a acti#ation energy without catalyst . *aP - acti#ation energy with catalyst ". *+othermic reaction heat released %gi#en out ). *nergy content in reactants higher than products <. S 9 is the energy difference in reactants and products 0. 9eat gi#en out during bon1 ormation is greater than heat a'sor'ed during bon1 brea2ing C. *+othermic reacton.


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2/ Aim: to in#estigate e ect o catal!st on the rate of decomposition hydrogen pero+ide. Problem statement: ho3 1oes a catalyst affect the rate of decomposition hydrogen pero+ideN H!pothesis, manganese $;2& o+ide, 7n5 increases the rate of decomposition of hydrogen pero+ide Gariables: 7anipulated 6esponding Di+ed , presence of manganese $;2& o+ide $7n5 & , rate of reaction , concentration of 9 5 , initial temperature of 9 5 solution.

Apparatus, test tu'e, 1= cm" measuring cylinder, test tu'e rack, spatula. Materials: $<-1=& #olume of 9 5 solution, manganese $;2& o+ide $7n5 & powder, wooden splinter Proce1ures: 1. la'el two test tu'e as . and > . 4sing a measuring cylinder measure < cm" of = #olume of 9 5 solution and pour into test tu'e .. ". .dd T spatula of manganese $;2& o+ide powder into test tu'e .. ). !hake the test tu'e. <. ;mmediately place a glowing splinter into the test tu'e. 0. 5'ser#e and record the changes. C. 6epeat the same procedure for test tu'e > without 7n5 -bservation: =Paper 2> Test tube . > -bservation *ffer#escence occurred. The glowing wooden splinter relight. 1o effer#escence. The glowing wooden splinter did not relight.

Discussion: 7anganese $;2& o+ide $7n5 & increases the rate of decomposition of hydrogen pero+ide. Aecomposition of hydrogen pero+ide produces o+ygen gas. 9 5 9 5 @ 5

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CHAPTER $$: CAR)-@ C-MP-.@D 1. H!1rocarbon chemical compound containing carbon and h!1rogen atom onl!. . Al2ene chemical compound containing carbon an1 h!1rogen atom and at least one carbon4carbon 1ouble bon1 6 C H C 0 */ #somers are molecules with the same molecular ormula, 'ut with 1i erent structural ormula. Example: C&H$; 8 butane n-'utane -methylpropane

-091 50 Dermention - 9)>r - 90 - 9)$59& - 9<59 - 9<>r - -9 - -9 >r 9 - 9)

G7n5)% 9@, G -r 5C% 9@
G7n5)% 9@, G -r 5C% 9@

- 9<59 9ydro+yl -59


-9"-559 -ar'o+yl --559

Aou'le 'ond 'etween - atoms, -?-

95 9X

. d d i t i o n

*sterification 9 !5) -9"-55 - 9< *thyl ethanoate

-n9 n@ , n ? 1, alkane -n9 n , n ? , " alkene -n9 n@ 1 59, n ? 1, alcohol -n9 n@1 -559 , n?=,1.. -ar'o+ylic acid

G7n5)%9@ % G -r 5C% 9@

1. - 9) @ E5F @ 9 5 . -9"-559 @ C2H:59 ". - 9) @ 9 5 ). -091 50


- 9)$59& E purple turns colourlessF %%E orange turns greenF

9 !5), cons

-9"-55 C2H: @ 9 5 - 9<59

9 " /5), 0= atm, "== o-

- 9<59 @

-5 1

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Homologous series .lkane

Aeneral ormula -n9 n @ , n ? 1, ..

,unctional group !ingle co#alent 'ond 'etween car'on atoms. -- Aou'le co#alent 'ond 'etween car'on atoms. -?9ydro+yl group % - 59

Member 7 example *thane

.lkene .lcohols

-n9 n , n ? .. -n9 n @ 1 59, n ? 1, ..

*thene *thanol

-ar'o+ylic acid

-n9 n @ 1 -559, n ? =,1, ..

-ar'o+yl group , --559

*thanoic acid -9"-559

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). Lour are required to prepare one namely ester 'y using ethanoic aci1 is one of the reactants. >y using a namel! alcohol, 1escribe one e+periment to prepare the ester. ;n your description include the chemical e<uation and observation in#ol#ed. Ester: ethylethanoate Material: ethanol, etahanoic acid, water, concentrated sulphuric acid Apparatus: )oiling tube 5 test tube, >unsen 'urner, test tu'e holder, 'eaker Proce1ure: 1. Pour cm" of ethanol into a 'oiling tu'e % test tu'e . A11 1 cm" of ethanoic acid ". A11 to ) drops of concentrated sulphuric acid ). Heat the mi+ture gentl! for a'out two minutes <. Pour the mi+ture into a 'eaker containing water. -bservation: !weet% pleasant % fruity smell %% insolu'le in water Chemical e<uation, CH*C--9 @ C2H:59 CH*C-- C2H: @ 9 5

&/ Deh!1ration o alcohol Aiagram of set up of apparatus 1. -omplete and functional . La'els of set up of apparatus correct

Proce1ure: a& /lace some glass wool in a 'oiling tu'e '& 4se a dropper to add propan-1-ol to wet the glass wool. c& -lamp the 'oiling tu'e horiBontally and placed unglaBed porcelain chips in the mi1 section of the 'oiling tu'e. d& 9eat the unglaBed porcelain chips strongl!/ "

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e& Then heat the glass 3ool gentl! to #aporiBe the propanol. f& EAescription of the chemical test to the gas collected in the test tu'e.F .dd 1 cm" of bromine 3ater and shake well. =-bservation>: Re11ish bro3n colour o bromine 1ecolourise1 5r, .dd 1 cm" of acidified potassium manganate$2;;& solution and shake well. =-bservation>: Purple colour o potassium manganate6G##0 solution 1ecolourise1 Chemical e<uation: -"9C59 -"90 @ 9 5

#n1ustrial extraction o palm oil

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<. Ta'le shows results of late+ coagulation Proce1ure /ropanoic acid $weak acid& is added to late+ Late+ is left under natural conditions
/rotein mem'ranes

-bservation Late+ coagulates immediately Late+ coagulates slowly

6u''er particles 6u''er molecules

*+plain why there is a 1i erence in these o'ser#ations Ans3er: 1. .cid ioni9es in water to produce high concentration of % a lot of h!1rogen ions . 9ydrogen ions, 9@ neutraliBe the negative charges on the protein membranes ". The rubber particles colli1e and the protein mem'ranes 'reak ). 6u''er molecules are released and com'ine with one another and entangle. <. The e+istence of bacteria in natural conditions 0. The growth of 'acteria produce % lactic aci1 %3ea2 aci1 % low concentration of 9@ ions. C. Aue to the slo3 bacterial action, the coagulation of late+ takes a longer time to occur. =Monomer o natural rubber: 2 8 meth!lbuta4$7*4 1iene 7 C:HD 5 isoprene > Explain ho3 to prevent coagulation o latex 1. A11 ammonia solution . .mmonia solution contains % ioniBed to produce h!1roxi1e ions 7 -H4 ". 9ydro+ide ions, 59- neutrali9e1 the hydrogen ions, 9@ % acid produced 'y the 'acteria ). The ru''er particles remain negativel! charge1 and coagulation is pre#ented. 0. E/aper "F Aim: To compare the elasticit! % strength of #ulcanised and un#ulcanised ru''er Problem statement, Aoes #ulcanised ru''er more elastic than un#ulcanised ru''er H!pothesis: 2ulcanised ru''er is more elastic than un#ulcanised ru''er Gariable: Manipulate1 , #ulcanised ru''er and un#ulcanised ru''er Respon1ing , length of ru''er strip % elasticity ,ixe1 , mass of weight, siBe of ru''er Material an1 apparatus, 6etort stand, 'ulldog clip, meter ruler, weight, #ulcanised and un#ulcanised ru''er Proce1ure: 1. 9ang 'oth ru''er strips to the retort stand with 'ulldog clip. . 7easure the initial length of 'oth ru''er strips and recor1/ ". 9ang <= g weight to the end of each ru''er using 'ulldog clip. ). 6emo#e the weight and measure the length of 'oth ru''er strips and recor1.%% <. 6ecord all the data o'tained. <

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.nvulcanise1 rubber Result 5 Data Type of ru''er #ulcanised un#ulcanised ;nitial length , cm

Gulcanise1 rubber

Length after remo#al of weight , cm

Compares an1 contrasts the properties o vulcani9e1 rubber Gulcani9e1 rubber 9arder 7ore elastic !tronger -an withstand higher temperature Less easily o+idiBed Aoes not 'ecome soft and sticky easily Conclusion: 1. Gulcanise1 rubber is more elastic than un#ulcanised ru''er due to the presence of cross4lin2age o sul ur atoms 'etween the ru''er molecules. 2ulcanised ru''er could return to its original length after remo#al of the weight. To prepare vulcanise1 rubber 6u''er can 'e #ulcaniBed 'y dipping natural ru''er sheets into 1isulphur 1ichlori1e solution in meth!lben9ene or heated with sulphur/ @ote: 2ulcanised ru''er is more heat resistance due to the presence of cross4lin2age o sul ur atoms increases the si9e o rubber molecules. Dorce of attraction 'etween molecules will increase. Elasticit! 9ardness *lasticity Tensile strength 6esistance to heat 6esistance to o+idation *ffect of organic sol#ent .nvulcanise1 rubber Less harder Less elastic :eaker -annot withstand higher temperature 7ore easily o+idiBed >ecome soft and sticky easily

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B/ Compare and 1i erentiate 'etween namely al2ene and al2ane Al2ane 6 hexane 0 1 " ) < 0 C 3 Al2ene 6 hexene 0 9ydrocar'on $ contain - and 9 atom& Low melting and 'oiling point ;nsolu'le in water, solu'le in organic sol#ent -annot conduct electricity Aensity less than water -ompletely com'ustion produce -5 @ 9 5 4nsaturated , contain at least one dou'le 'ond -?6eacti#e undergo addition reaction$ hydrogenation, halogenations, o+idation, polymeriBation, with halide, steam$hydration& , -n9 n , n? U

!aturated , single co#alent 'ond, --4nreacti#e undergo su'stitution with halogen in the presence of sunlight % 42 ray General formula , -n9 n@ , n ? 1, U

1= #1enti ! test 1. -om'ustion, 'urn less soot flame. $M of car'on per molecule is lower& Chemical tests . add 'romine water , bro3n colour remains ". add acidified G7n5) , purple colour remains

1. 7ore soot flame. $ M of car'on per molecule is higher&. . decoloriBed bro3n 'romine water ". purple colour is decolouriBed

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CHAPTER $2: RED-% Re1ox reactions are chemical reactions in#ol#ing oxi1ation an1 re1uction occurring simultaneousl!. 1. . ". ). Transfer of electron, 7g 7g @ @ e %% -u @ @ e -u Loss or gain o+ygen, - @ -u5 -u @ -5 Loss or gain hydrogen, H ! @ -l 9-l @ " changes in o+idation num'er

Rusting o iron 1. :hen iron e+posed to 3ater and ox!gen . ;ron atom releases 2 electrons to form iron 6##0 ion, De @ % is o+idiBed to form iron $;;& ion, De @ ". De De @ @ e %% $anode& = oxi1ation> ). ;ron acts as re1ucing agent <. 5+ygen and water receives 5gain electrons to form hydro+ide ions. 0. 5 @ 9 5 @ )e )59- $cathode& =re1uction> C. 5+ygen acts as oxi1i9ing agent. 3. ;ron $;;& ion, De @ com'ine with hydro+ide ion, 59- to form iron $;;& hydro+ide, De$59& . K. ;ron $;;& hydro+ide, De$59& o+idiBed 'y o+ygen to form iron 6###0 oxi1e, bro3n soli15precipitate, De 5".+ 9 5. %% De @ De"@ @ e E ect o the contact o other metals on the rusting o iron/ Aim : To in#estigate the e ect of in contact of other metals on the rusting of iron. Problem statement, 9ow does the e ect on rusting when iron is in contact with another metalN %% 9ow does different type of metal in contact with a ect the rusting of ironN H!pothesis : :hen a more electropositi#e metal is in contact with iron, the metal inhibits rusting. :hen a less electropositi#e metal is in contact with iron, the metal spee1s up the rusting. Gariable: 7anipulated 6esponding Di+ed , Type of metal that in contact with iron. , 6usting of iron , ;ron nails, temperature, medium in which iron nails are kept.

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Apparatus , Test tu'e, test tu'e rack Materials : iron nails, magnesium ri''on, copper strip, Binc strip, tin strip, hot Ielly solution, potassium he+acyanoferat $;;;& , G"De$-1&0 solution, phenolphthalein indicator, sand paper. Proce1ure: 1. Di#e iron nails, magnesium ri''on, copper strip, Binc strip and tin strip were cleaned with sand paper. . Dour iron nails were coiled tightly with the magnesium ri''on, copper strip, Binc strip and tin strip respecti#ely. ". .ll fi#e iron nails were placed in separate test tu'e. ). The #olume of hot Ielly solution that was mi+ed with a little G "De$-1&0 solution and phenolphthalein indicator was poured into the each test tu'e to completely co#er all the nails. <. The test tu'es were kept in a test tu'e rack and were aside for a day. 0. .ll o'ser#ations were recorded. -bservation
7etal De De7g De-8n De-!n De--u 7oderate 9igh ;ntensity of dark 'lue colouration Low ;ntensity of pink colouration 9igh 9igh Low Low 5'ser#ation -ondition of nail The surface of the nail was partially co#ered with reddish 'rown solid 1o reddish 'rown solid was found on the surface of the nail. 1o reddish 'rown solid was found on the surface of the nail. The whole surface of the nail was co#ered with reddish 'rown solid The whole surface of the nail was hea#ily co#ered with reddish 'rown solid

The nail in test tu'e . rusted a little. 1o rusting occurred to the nails in test tu'es > and - .The nail in test tu'e A rusted 'ut the nail in test tu'e * rusted e#en more. Discussion 1. >ased on the o'ser#ations magnesium and Binc metals inhi'it rusting of iron, while copper and tin metals speed up rusting of iron. . This is 'ecause magnesium and Binc are more electropositi#e than iron. 7agnesium atom or Binc atom releases its electron more easily than iron. 7g 7g @ @ e 5 @ 9 5 @ )e )59". -opper and tin are less electropositi#e than iron. ;ron atom releases its electrons more easily than copper atom or tin atom. ). De De @ @ e <. The less electropositive metals that in contact with iron, the aster the rusting of iron occurs. 0. The more electropositive metals that in contact with iron prevent iron from rusting. Conclusion: 6usting can 'e prevented when iron is in contact with a more electropositive metal. 6usting occurs aster when iron is in contact with a less electropositive metal. K

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$/ Displacement reaction Metal: Example: Mn ? Cu"-& Mn"-& ? Cu 55 Mn ? Cu2? Cu ? Mn2? a0 8n atom o+idiBed to 8n @ , 8n 8n @ @ e '& 5+idation num'er of 8n changes % increase from = to @ , c& 8n acts as reducing agent. d& -opper $;;& ion reduced to -u, -u @ @ e -u e& 5+idation num'er of copper changes % decrease from @ to = f& -u @ ion acts as o+idiBing agent Example: .n e+periment is carried out to determine the relati#e position of three metals, sil#er, L and 7, in the electrochemical series.

sil#er sil#er L nitrate nitrate nitrate solution solution solution

Experiment L7 7 grey deposit colourless solution grey deposit light 'lue solution no change


>ased on results, arrange the three metals in order of increasing electropositivit!. *+plain you answer. "ample ans3er: 1. !il#er, 7 and L . L can displace sil#er from sil#er nitrate solution. ". L is more electropositi#e than sil#er %% L is higher than sil#er in electrochemical series. ). 7 metal can displace sil#er from sil#er nitrate solution. <. 7 is more electropositi#e than sil#er %% 7 is higher than sil#er in the electrochemical series. 0. 7 cannot displace L from L nitrate solution. C. 7 is less electropositi#e than L %% L is higher than 7 in the electrochemical series.


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2/ Displacement o Halogen: Aim: To investigate oxi1ation an1 re1uction in the 1isplacement o halogen rom its hali1e solution/ Proce1ure: $/ Pour 2m cm* o potassium bromi1e solution into a test tube/ 2/ A11 2 cm* o chlorine 3ater to the test tube an1 sha2e the mixture/ */ A11 2 cm* o $7$7$4trichloroethane 5 tetrachlorometane to the test tube an1 sha2e the mixture an1 leave it on the test tube rac2 &/ Recor1 theobservation/ :/ Repeat steps $ to & using another halogens an1 hali1e solutions/ Tabulation o 1ata: Halogen Hali1e solution Potassium chlori1e Potassium bromine Potassium io1i1e Chlorine )romine % 5 5 5 #o1ine % %

Example: Cl2 ? 2I# 2ICl ? #2 55 Cl2 ? 2#4 #2 ? 2Cl4 Cl2 ? 2e 2Cl4 6 re1uction0 2#4 #2 ? 2e 6oxi1ation

'romine water

potassium iodide solution

*/ Trans er o electron at a 1istance 8 .4tube Proce1ure: 1. clamp a 4-tu'e to a retort stand . pour dilute sulphuric acid ". add solution 6oxi1i9ing agent0 into one end of the arm of the 4-tu'e ). .dd solution 6re1ucing agent0 into the other end. <. place % dip car'on electrodes into each arm of the 4-tu'e 0. connect the electrodes to a #oltmeter% gal#anometer using connecting wire C. lea#e the apparatus for "=minutes 3. record the o'ser#ation


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). >ased on electron transfer7 E%P+A#@ the o+idation and reduction reaction in $i& -hanging of De @ ions to De"@ ions $ii& -hanging of De"@ ions to De @ ions 4se a suitable example for each of the reaction. ;nclude half equations in your answer. "ample ans3er: 6i0 a. De@ De@" @ e '. >r @ e >r . ;ron $;;& ions releases % donates electron to 'ecome iron$;;;& ions. ;ron$;;& ions are o+idiBed. ". >romine molecules recei#e% gain electrons to form 'romide ions. >romine molecules are reduced. $any suita'le o+idiBing agent, -l , G7n5)%9@ & 6ii0 1. De@" @ e De@ . 8n 8n@ @ e ". ;ron$;;;& ions gain electron to 'ecome iron$;;& ions. ;ron$;;;& ions are reduced. ). 8inc atoms releases% donates electrons to form Binc ions. 8inc atoms are o+idiBed. $a, any suita'le reducing agent& <. Aescri'e an experiment to in#estigate o+idation and reduction in the change of iron$;;& ions to iron$;;;& ions and #ice #ersa. $i& Changing o ,e2? ions to ,e*? ions

Proce1ure: 1. /our cm" of freshly prepared iron$;;&sulphate solution into a test tu'e. . 4sing dropper, add 'romine water drop 'y drop until no further changes are o'ser#ed. ". 9eat slowly % gently ). .dd " drops of potassium he+acyanoferrate $;;& solution % sodium hydro+ide solution. <. Aark 'lue precipitate %% 'rown precipitate formed. $ii& Changing o ,e*? ions to ,e2? ions Proce1ure: 1. /our cm" of iron$;;;&sulphate solution into a test tu'e. . .dd half spatula of Binc % 7g powder to the solution. ". !hake the mi+ture until no further changes are o'ser#ed. ). Dilter the mi+ture. <. .dd " drops of potassium he+acyanoferrate $;;;& solution % sodium hydro+ide solution into the iltrate. 0. Aark 'lue precipitate %% green precipitate formed.


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Reactivit! series $/ reactive metal 3ith ox!gen Aim: 1. to in#estigate the reacti#ity of metal with o+ygen . To arrange metals in term of their reacti#ity with o+ygen Proce1ure: 1. /ut one spatula of potassium manganate$2;;&, G7n5) , into a 'oiling tu'e. . /ush some glass wool into the 'oiling tu'e and clamp horiBontally. ". /lace one spatula magnesium powder on a piece of as'estos paper and put into the 'oiling tu'e. ). 9eat magnesium powder strongl! and then heat the solid G7n5). <. 5'ser#e and record how vigorous the reaction and colour of the residue when it is hot an1 3hen it is col1. 2Mg ? -2 2Mg/roduce o+ygen

G 1a -a 7g .l C 8n H De !n /' -u 9g .g .u

/ositions of car'on and hydrogen in the reacting series of metal

2/ h!1rogen gas 3ith oxi1e o less reactive metal H2 ? Pb- Pb ? H2-

*/ carbon 3ith oxi1e metal C ? 2Cu- 2Cu ? C-2 Aim: To determine the position of car'on in the reacti#ity series of metals Proce1ure: 1. 7i+ thoroughly a spatula of car'on powder and a spatula of copper$;;&o+ide in a cruci'le. . 9eat the mi+ture strongl!/ ". 6ecord the o'ser#ation. ""

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). 6epeat steps 1 to ", using magnesium o+ide, aluminium o+ide and Binc o+ide to replace copper$;;&o+ide. &/ Carbon 1ioxi1e 3ith metal C-2 ? 2Mg 2Mg- ? C 5+idiBing agent reducing agent

Application o reactivit! series in the extraction o metals *+traction of iron from its ores, hematite, De 5" *+traction of tin from its ores, cassiterite, !n5 - in blast urnace , car'on % coke as a reducing agent. *+ample, - @ 5 -5 - @ -5 -5 -, -5 , -5 reduced the iron o+ides to iron De 5" @ "- )De @ "-5 De 5" @ "-5 De @ -5 -a-5" -a5 @ -5 $ lime stone decomposed& -a5 @ !i5 -a!i5" $ impurities &


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Re1ox reaction in various chemical cells


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CHAPTER $*: THERM-CHEM#"TR' 1. Exothermic . chemical reaction that gives out heat to the surroundings - The reactants lose heat energy to form the products - The energy content of reactants is higher than products - V9 negati#e . *nergy le#el diagram $la'el energ!, reactants and product with correct chemical % ionic formula, heat of reaction with unit. ". 9eat of reaction heat change%releases when $ mole of product formed. E kWmol- F ? m-X % mole 9eat of neutraliBation heat releases when $ mole o H? com'ines with $ mol o -H4 to form $ mole o 3ater. H? ? -H4 H2). 9eat of com'ustion heat releases when $ mole of alcohol 'urnt completely in e+cess o+ygen. C2H:-H ? *-2 2C-2 ? *H2<. .s the num'er of car'on atom per molecule increases, the heat of com'ustion increases, due to more pro1ucts orme1 $-5 H 9 5& . Therefore more heat released when more bon1s are orme1. 0. To determine heat of com'ustion $material and apparatus, procedure, ta'ulation of data, calculation, o'ser#ations, precautions&. Proce1ure: 1. $1== ==& cm" of 3ater is measured using a measuring cylinder . and poured into a copper tin. ". The initial temperature of water is measured and recorded, Y 1 ). . spirit lamp is filled with 'utanol% other alcohol and weighed, + gram <.The spirit lamp is light and put under the copper can. 0.The water is stirred continuously with a thermometer. C.:hen the temperature of water increase1 b! *;oC, the flame is put off. 3.The spirit lamp is weighed again, y gram K.The highest temperature is recorded, Y "0

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Results: 7ass of weight of spirit lamp @ 'utanol %g Dinal mass of spirit lamp @ 'utanol %g 7ass of 'utanol used%g 9ighest temperature of water %o;nitial temperature of water %o;ncreased in temperature %oCalculation: 9eat change ? mcY ? 1== + ). + $Y Y1& ?aW + y $+-y& %% B Y1 Y $Y1 - Y & %% Y"

9eat of com'ustion of 'utanol ?

aW $B%C)& mol

Precautions: 1. 7ake sure the flame from the com'ustion of ethanol touches the 'ottom of the copper can %% The spirit lamp is placed #ery close or Iust 'eneath the 'ottom of the copper can. . "tir the water in the copper can continuously. ". The spirit lamp must 'e weighed immediately $'ecause the ethanol is #ery #olatile&. ). . 3in1 shiel1 must 'e used during e+periment. Heat o 1isplacement Aim: To determine the heat of displacement of copper 'y Binc and iron Proce1ure: 1. 7easure < cm" of =. mol dm-" of copper$;;&sulphate solution and pour into a plastic cup % polystrene cup. . 6ecord the initial temperature of the solution. ". /our =.<g of Binc powder into the solution. ). !tir the mi+ture with thermometer <. 7easure and record the highest temperature of the reacting mi+utre. Tabulation o 1ata: Metal Minc #ron #nitial temperature7 oC Highest temperature7 oC

Heat o precipitation Aim: To 1etermine the heat o precipitaion o silver chlori1e7 AgCl Apparatus: plastic cup, thermometer, measuring cylinder Material : sil#er nitrate solution , =.< mol dm-" , sodium chloride solution, =.< mol dm-" Proce1ure: 1. 7easure = cm" =.< mol dm-" of sil#er nitrate solution and pour into plastic cup. . 7easure and record the initial temperature of sil#er nitrate solution. ". 7easure = cm" =.< mol dm-" of sodium chloride solution and pour into plastic cup. ). 7easure and record the initial temperature of sodium chloride solution. "C

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<. .dd the sodium chloride soltuions into the sil#er nitrate solution <uic2l! an1 stir the mi+ture. 0. 7easure and record the highest temperature of the reacting mi+ture. Tabulation o 1ata: initial temperature of sil#er nitrate solution, oinitial temperature of sodium chloride solution, o.#erage temperature of 'oth solutions, ohighest temperature of the reacting mi+ture, oHeat o precipitation is the heat released % heat change when one mole of precipitate is formed from their ions in aqueous solution.

Aplication o exothermic an1 en1othermic reaction

ammonium nitrate $19)15"&

-alcium chloride or magnesium sulphate

sodium acetate crystals


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CHAPTER $&: CHEM#CA+" ,-R C-@".MER" Example: 1. $a& . student washed his socks which had oily stains. *+plain the cleansing action of soap on the oily stains. ;n water soap ioni9es to form ions%anion -9"$-9 &+ C--4 and cation, sodium ions, 1a@ The anions consists of h!1rophilic part $ --55 -& and h!1rophobic part $hydrocar'on& H!1rophilic part 1issolve in 3ater only 'ut hydropho'ic part dissol#e in grease only. The anions re1uce sur ace tension o 3ater, causing wetting of greasy surface. Auring washing and scru''ing, the anions pull the grease and lifted it off the surface and 'reak it into a small droplets $*mulsifying agent& 6insing away the dirty water remo#es the grease $the dirt& and e+cess soap and the surface is clean. $'& .nother student carried out four e+periments to in#estigate the cleansing effect of soap and detergent on oily stains in soft water and hard water respecti#ely.


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Compare the cleansing effect 'etween $i& *+periments ; and ;; $ii& *+periment ;; and ;2 Explain the 1i erences in the observation Exp/ # an1 ## The oily stain disappears in *+periment ; 'ut remains oily in *+periment ;;. Har1 3ater contains Ca2? an1 Mg2? ions which reacts with soap ions to form scum 6insoluble salt0 The formation of scum makes anions less efficient for cleaning the oily stain on the sock ;n soft water, all anions are used to clean the oily stain Thus, soap is only effecti#e as a cleansing agent in soft water and ineffecti#e in hard water. Exp/ ## an1 #G The sock in *+periment ;; remains oily 'ut is clean in e+periment ;2. The soap anions form scum when reacts with -a @ and 7g @ ions in hard water. The formation of scum makes anions less efficient for cleaning The detergent anions -9"$-9 &+ -"-*4 % -9"$-9 &+ "-*4 do not form a precipitate with -a @ 5 and 7g @ in hard water. 9ence, detergent cleans effecti#ely in hard water 'ut soap does not clean effecti#ely in hard water.

2/ Preparation o soap Proce1ure 1. pour 1= cm" palm oil $ #egeta'le oil & into a 'eaker . add <= cm" of :/; mol 1m4* 1a59 % G59 solution ". heat the mi+ture for $1= minutes& ). stir <. stop heating, add <= cm" distilled water and soli1 @aCl 0. 'oil the mi+ture for < minutes C. cool 3. filter, wash % rinse K. dry $ press the residue 'etween filter papers Test 1=. /lace a small amount of the residue into a test tu'e add distilled water, shake it well. produce a lot of lather $ #ery foamy& )=

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-bservation , white solid, slippery and produce a lot of lather $ #ery foamy&. Chemical e<uation:

*/ Lou are gi#en liquid soap, sample of hard water, sample of soft water and other materials. Describe an experiment to in#estigate the effect of cleaning action of the soap in different types of water. Lou description must include e+ample of har1 3ater and so t 3ater, o'ser#ation and conclusion. E1= marksF "ample ans3er: 1. hard water , sea water . soft water , distilled water 7aterials, liquid soap, sea water, distilled water, pieces of cloth with oil stain. .pparatus, 'eaker $suita'le container&, glass rod, measuring cylinder Proce1ure: 1. pour $1== ==& cm" sea water into a 'eaker% suita'le container . .dd $1= = & cm" liquid soap into the 'eaker. ". stir the mi+ture ). /lace a piece of cloth with oil stain into the 'eaker. <. 6ecord the o'ser#ation. 0. 6epeat step 1 ) using distilled water. -bservation: 1. The oil stain in hard water remained 'ut remo#ed in soft water. Conclusion: 1. 9ard water contains 7g @ or -a @. !oap anion formed scum $insolu'le salt& when react with 7g @ or -a @. )1

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. !oap is not an effecti#e cleansing agent in hard water 'ut only effecti#e in soft water.

Compare an1 contrast soap an1 1etergent "oap

-9" $-9 &1< -55 1a


!odium car'o+ylate 7aterial , fat, #egeta'le oil, 1a59 % G59, mol dm-" /reparation !aponification

!odium alkyl sulphate /etroleum fractions , long chain alcohol, 1a59 % G59, < mol dm-" , 9 !5) 1. sulphonation . neutraliBation

!odium alkyl'enBene sulphonate /etroleum fractions , long chain alkene, 1a59 % G59, < mol dm-", 9 !5) 1. alkylation . sulphonation ". neutraliBation

The a11itives in 1etergent T!pe Dragrances >iological enBymes :hitening agents !uspension agents Dillers 5ptical whitening >uilder ,unction Example To add fragrance to 'oth the detergent and fa'rics To remo#e protein stains such as 'lood .mylases, proteases, celluloses, lipases To con#ert stains into colourless su'stances To pre#ent the dirt particles remo#ed from redepositing onto cleaned fa'rics To add to the 'ulk of the detergent and ena'le it to 'e pour easily To add 'rightness and whiteness to white fa'rics. To enhance the cleaning efficiency of detergent 'y softening the water ) !odium per'orate -ar'o+ymethylcellulose $-7-& !odium sulphate, sodium silicate Dluorescent dyes !odium tripolyphosphate

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,oo1 a11itive T!pe /reser#ati#es ,unction To slow down% pre#ent the growth of microorganism, therefore food can kept for longer periods of time Examples "alts5sugar, 1ra3s the 3ater out of the cells of microorganism and retar1s the gro3th o microorganism/ Ginegar: pro#ides an acidic condition that inhibits the gro3th o microorganism/ @a@-* $>urger& )en9oic aci1 5 so1ium ben9oate, to slo3 1o3n the gro3th o microorganism/ Ascorbic aci1 and vitamin E $Tocopherol& !ugar , salt, 7!G, #inegar, aspartame and synthetic essences $ester& Lecithin, fatty acid /ectin, acacia gum, gelatin 1atural dyes and artificial dyes, A9o compoun1s or triphen!l compoun1/

.ntio+idants Dla#orings !ta'iliBers Thickeners Ayes

To pre#ent o+idation that can causes rancid fats and 'rown fruits To impro#e the taste of food and restore taste loss 'ecause of processing. To pre#ent emulsion from separating out. ;ts use to thicken foods To add or restore the colour in food in order to enhance its #isual appeal and match consumers e+pectations.

T!pe .nalgesic

Me1icine ,unction Example To relie#e pain without affected .spirin consciousness

E ect on health -;nternal 'leeding and ulceration -can cause 'rain and li#er damage to children 5#er dose can cause 'rain and li#er damage .ddiction, depression and nausea

/aracetamol -odeine


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To treat infections cause 'y 'acteria $tu'erculosis, T>& and pneumonia. -an kill or slow down the growth of 'acteria.

/enicillin $Penicillium notatum) !treptomycin

-an cause allergic reaction. -an cause nausea, #omiting, diBBiness, rashes, fe#er -9igh dose can lead to an+iety, hallucinations, se#ere depression, and psychological dependence. 5#erdose can lead to respiratory difficulties, sleeplessness, come, death. AiBBiness, drowsiness, rapid heart'eat.

/sychotherapeutic To alter the a'normal thinking, feelings and 'eha#iors. Ai#ide into " categories , a& stimulant, to reduce fatigue '& anti1epressant: to reduce tension and an+iety c& antips!chotic: to treat psychiatric illness

Amphetamines )arbiturate 5 tran<uili9er chlorproma9ine haloperi1ol7 clo9apine

The existence o Chemicals 1. Detergent: Z wear glo#es when working with strong detergents to protect your hands Z use 'iodegrada'le detergent Z use appropriate amounts of detergents . ,oo1 a11itives Z >e wise consumer. 6ead the la'el to know what you are eating. Z .#oid consuming too much salts and sugar Z a#oid foodstuff with additi#es which are you sensiti#e to. Z a#oid rewarding children with Iunk food. ". Me1icine: Z do not store up medicines. Z no self medication Z do not take medicine prescri'e for someone else Z check for e+piry date Z follow your doctorJs instructions for taking medicine. Z keep away from children Z do not o#erdose


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"ome common me1ical plant an1 their unctions