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PETE 332 Petroleum Production Engineering II Session 6 Hydraulic Pumps

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PETE - 332

Hydraulic Pumps

Piston Pumps Jet Pumps

PETE - 332

References for Hydraulic Pumps

Main Text:

SPE, Petroleum Engineering Handbook, Volume IV, Production Operations Engineering, Chapter 14, 2007

Additional Reference:

Kermit E.Brown, The Technology of Artificial Lift Methods, Volume 2b, PennWell Books, 1984

G.V. Chilingarian et. al. , Surface Operations in Petroleum Production 1, Elsevier, 1987

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Hydraulic Pumps

Objective:

Review the basics of Hydraulic Pumping

Understand the basic operating principles of Piston Pumps

Jet Pumps

Learn about downhole and surface equipment for hydraulic pumps

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Hydraulic Pumps

PETE -332 Hydraulic Pumps (figure from Schlumberger, Oilfield Review, Spring 1999) Hydraulic Pumps (Piston & Jet)

(figure from Schlumberger, Oilfield Review, Spring 1999)

Hydraulic Pumps (Piston & Jet)

Used since 1930.

Tranmits energy to bottom hole by means of pressurised power fluid (oil or water).

Two types of downhole pump exists:

Piston (Reciprocating) Pump Jet Pump

Surface facilities require:

Power fluid storage Cleaning system High pressure pump and High pressure flowlines.

Pump can be circulated in and out. No rig required. Attractive for offshore and remote locations, populated areas.

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Hydraulic Pumps

Types of Hydraulic Pump Installations:

Fixed Pump Installations:

(Not commonly used) Pump is attached to the end of a tubing string and run in the well.

  • 1. Fixed Insert (Tubing Conveyed) Design

  • 2. Fixed Casing Design

Free Pump Installations:

(Common Practice) Designed to allow the downhole pump to be circulated in and out of the wellbore inside

the power fluid string, or it can also be installed and retrieved by wireline operations.

  • 3. Casing Return Free Installation Design

  • 4. Parallel Return Free Installation Design

4 3 1 2
4
3
1
2

(figures from SPE Handbook, 2007)

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Hydraulic Pumps

1
1

Fixed Insert (Tubing Conveyed) Design:

First, a larger diameter tubing string in run with a seating shoe at the bottom.

Then pump is run in hole, attached to the end of a smaller tubing,

and it lands on a seating shoe in the larger tubing.

- Power fluid is normally directed down the inner tubing string. - Produced fluid and the injected power fluid flow to surface from the annulus between two tubing strings.

Free gas is produced from casing and outer tubing annulus (gas separation will work better if pump is placed below perforations).

It is used mainly to fit a large diameter downhole pump into

restricted casing sizes and still retain the gas venting feature.

It can also be used to lift more than one zone of a well separately, with parallel strings.

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(figure from SPE Handbook, 2007)

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Hydraulic Pumps

2
2

Fixed Casing Design:

Tubing with pump attached to the bottom is seated on a packer.

- Power fluid is directed down the tubing string. -Mixed power fluid and produced fluid return to surface in the tubing/casing annulus.

Because well fluids enter the pump below the packer, no gas

separation takes place and pump must handle all the gas.

It is used for large diameter, high capacity pumps in wells with little free gas.

If space permits, gas vent string can be run below the packer to the surface.

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(figure from SPE Handbook, 2007)

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Hydraulic Pumps

3
3

Casing Return Free Installation Design:

- Power fluid is directed down the tubing - Power fluid and the produced fluids are mixed and produced to the surface from casing/tubing annulus

Low initial cost (because only one tubing string is used).

Because well fluids enter the pump below the packer, no gas

separation takes place and pump must handle all the gas.

If space permits, gas vent string can be run below the packer to the surface.

Disadvantages:

-The produced fluids contacts the casing. If corrosive fluid is produced, casings may be damaged. -Intakes all gas, therefore the displacement efficiency is low if the free gas is high.

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(figure from SPE Handbook, 2007)

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Hydraulic Pumps

4
4

Parallel Return Free Installation Design:

Bottom hole assembly (BHA) is suspended on the power fluid string. The pump is sent down to the top of the seat in BHA.

- Power fluid is directed down the tubing - Power fluid and the produced fluids are mixed and produced to the surface from a return tubing. The return tubing is either

screwed into the BHA, or it is run separately with a landing spear

that enters a bowl above the BHA.

It normally does not require packer.

Annulus serves as a gas vent passage (gas separation will work

better if pump is placed below perforations).

Packer may be used if the produced gas or liquid in the casing is corrosive, but packer prevents gas passage and lowers displacement efficiency.

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(figure from SPE Handbook, 2007)

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Hydraulic Pumps

Reverse flow systems:

In conventional systems, power fluid is injected from the tubing string. Produced fluid and returning power fluid flows to surface from casing/tubing annulus.

In reverse flow systems, the power fluid is injected through casing/tubing

annulus and produced fluid flow to surface from the tubing string.

Advantage:

If the produced fluids are corrosive, they don’t damage the casing.

Disadvantage:

Casing is subject to high power fluid pressures. Stronger casing design is needed to avoid casing burst and leaks.

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Hydraulic Pumps

Free Pump Installation :

(1/2)

It is one of the most significant advantages of hydraulic pumping system.

Permits circulating the pump to the bottom to produce from the well, and circulating

the pump back to the surface for repair or size change.

Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) is run on the tubing string to serve as the receptacle for the pump.

Circulating to surface takes 30 mins to 2 hrs based on depth, tbg size, flow rate.

Advantages:

- Reduced downtime and ability to operate without workover unit to pull the tubing. - Pressure and Temperature recorders can be mounted on the pump to monitor downhole conditions with different pump rates. At the conclusion of the test, circulating the pump to the surface also retrieves the data recorders. -Steaming, acidizing, chemical treatment can be done without pulling the tubing out of hole.

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Hydraulic Pumps

Free Pump Installation :

(2/2)

PETE -332 Hydraulic Pumps Free Pump Installation : (2/2) Pump In and Pump Out Operations for

Pump In and Pump Out Operations for Free Pump Installation

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(figure from SPE Handbook, 2007)

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Hydraulic Pumps

Downhole Pump:

Downhole pumps acts as a transformer to convert the power fluid energy to pressure in produced fluids.

Two types of downhole pumps exist in hydraulic Pumps:

Piston Pump Powered by the injected fluid, the positive displacement pump piston pushes the reservoir liquid to surface.

It consists of a set of coupled reciprocating pistons, one driven by the

power fluid and the other pumping well fluids.

Jet Pump (More commonly used than Piston Pump) It converts the

pressurized power fluid to a high velocity jet that mixes directly with the

well fluids. The injected power fluid passes through a nozzle creating a venturi effect pushing the produced fluids to surface. In the turbulent mixing, momentum and energy from power fluid are added to the produced fluids.

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Hydraulic Pumps

Principles of Operation for Piston and Jet Pumps:

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Hydraulic Piston Pumps

Operating of Hydraulic Piston Pump:

There eare two pistons are connected to each

other with a rod.

Engine Piston :

The injected power fluid operates the Engine

Piston and creates the reciprocal (up/down)

motion of the rods connecting the Engine Piston to Pump Piston.

Pump Piston :

The rods connected to the Engine Piston moves The Pump piston up and down. At each stroke,

it takes in the reservoir fluid İnside the pump

barrel and pushes it out for production.

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PETE -332 Hydraulic Piston Pumps Operating of Hydraulic Piston Pump: There eare two pistons are connected

16

(figures from SPE Handbook, 2007)

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Hydraulic Piston Pumps

Working of the Engine Piston:

(1/2)

Downstroke: Power fluid fills the upper chamber. The power fluid in lower chamber is purged into the production stream. The piston moves down.

Upstroke: Power fluid fills the lower chamber. The power fluid in the upper chamber is purged. The piston moves up.

PETE -332 Hydraulic Piston Pumps Working of the Engine Piston: (1/2) Downstroke: Power fluid fills the

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17 Can S. Bakiler (figures from G.V.Chilingarian et.al., 1987)
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(figures from G.V.Chilingarian et.al., 1987)

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Hydraulic Piston Pumps

Working of the Engine Piston:

(2/2)

The Engine Valve is responsible for changing the flow channel for the power fluid (to

upper chamber and to lower).

Engine valve moves up and down at each stroke, because of the changes in rod diameter, which enables power fluid to push the engine valve up and down.

PETE -332 Hydraulic Piston Pumps Working of the Engine Piston: (2/2) The Engine Valve is responsible

Engine Valve down, Upper Chamber is filled with power fluid.

PETE -332 Hydraulic Piston Pumps Working of the Engine Piston: (2/2) The Engine Valve is responsible

Engine Valve up, Lower Chamber is filled with power fluid.

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(figures from G.V.Chilingarian et.al., 1987)

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Hydraulic Piston Pumps

Working of the Pump Piston:

(1/2)

The working principle is very similar to sucker rod

pump.

Two ball valves exist on upper and lower chambers.

Motion of the piston away from the intake valves lowers the pressure in the chamber and

opens the intake valve, closes the exhaust valve.

Reservoir fluid enters the chamber.

When the plunger action is reversed, the motion of the piston towards the intake valves increases the

pressure in the chamber and closes intake valve,

opens the exaust valve. Reservoir fluid leaves the Chamber and produced into the production string.

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19

(figure from G.V.Chilingarian et.al., 1987)

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Hydraulic Piston Pumps

PETE -332 Hydraulic Piston Pumps 20 Working of the Pump Piston: (2/2) At Downstroke: • Reservoir
PETE -332 Hydraulic Piston Pumps 20 Working of the Pump Piston: (2/2) At Downstroke: • Reservoir

20

Working of the Pump Piston: (2/2)

At Downstroke:

Reservoir fluid fills upper chamber. The reservoir fluid in the lower chamber is produced up the well (through the

casing/tubing annulus).

At Upstroke:

Reservoir fluid fills lower chamber. The reservoir fluid in the upper chamber is produced up the well (through the casing/tubing annulus).

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(figures from G.V.Chilingarian et.al., 1987)

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Hydraulic Piston Pumps

Schematic Operation of Piston Pump (1/7)

Beginning of Downstroke:

Engine Valve is at lower position. It is kept in this position because the power fluid pushes it down.

Engine Piston:

The injected power fluid enters to the top chamber of engine piston and pushes the engine piston down. The power fluid in the lower chamber is pushed out into the annulus.

Pump Piston:

Engine piston pushes the pump

piston down.

Reservoir fluid fills the top chamber of the pump piston. The reservoir fluid in the lower chamber is pushed out to the annulus to be produced.

Downstroke Power Fluid IN OUT OUT Reservoir Fluid IN
Downstroke
Power Fluid IN
OUT
OUT
Reservoir Fluid IN

Engine Valve

Engine Piston

Pump Piston

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Hydraulic Piston Pumps

Schematic Operation of Piston Pump (2/7)

Continuation of Downstroke:

Same as before.

Downstroke

Power Fluid IN

  • OUT

  • OUT

Reservoir Fluid IN

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Hydraulic Piston Pumps

Schematic Operation of Piston Pump (3/7)

End of Downstroke:

Engine Piston:

The injected power fluid pushed the piston down. All of the power fluid in the lower chamber is pushed out into the annulus.

Pump Piston:

Engine piston pushed the pump piston down. All of the top chamber is filled with reservoir fluid. All of the reservoir fluid in the lower chamber is pushed

out to the annulus to be produced.

Downstroke

Power Fluid IN

Reservoir Fluid IN

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Hydraulic Piston Pumps

Schematic Operation of Piston Pump (3/7)

End of Downstroke (continued):

Because of the decreased diameter in the rod connecting the engine piston and pump piston, power fluid can go below the engine valve and push the engine valve up (see next slide).

Downstroke

Power Fluid IN

Reservoir Fluid IN

PETE -332 Hydraulic Piston Pumps Schematic Operation of Piston Pump (3/7) End of Downstroke (continued) :

Power fluid moves below

the engine valve to push it up.

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Hydraulic Piston Pumps

Upstroke

Power Fluid IN

OUT

OUT

Reservoir Fluid IN

piston up.
piston up.

Schematic Operation of Piston Pump (4/7)

Beginning of Upstroke:

Engine Valve is pushed up. This closes the previous path for power fluid and it opens a new path which diverts the power fluid to the bottom of the Engine piston.

Engine valve is kept in upper position because the power fluid is trapped below the valve and it can not escape anywhere because the diameter of the rod is changed (increased) again.

Engine Piston:

The injected power fluid enters to

The power fluid pushed the

engine valve up. Power

fluid is trapped below the engine valve because of rod diameter change, so the valve can not come down until the upstroke is

completed.

Pump Piston:

Engine piston pushes the pump

Reservoir fluid begins filling the bottom chamber of the pump piston. The reservoir fluid in the upper chamber is pushed out to the annulus to be produced.

the bottom chamber of engine piston and pushes the engine piston up. The power fluid in the upper chamber is pushed out into the annulus.

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Hydraulic Piston Pumps

Schematic Operation of Piston Pump (5/7)

Continuation of Upstroke:

Same as before.

Upstroke

Reservoir Fluid IN Power Fluid IN OUT OUT
Reservoir Fluid IN
Power Fluid IN
OUT
OUT

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Hydraulic Piston Pumps

Schematic Operation of Piston Pump (6/7)

Continuation of Upstroke:

Same as before.

Upstroke

Reservoir Fluid IN Power Fluid IN OUT OUT
Reservoir Fluid IN
Power Fluid IN
OUT
OUT

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Hydraulic Piston Pumps

Upstroke

Power Fluid IN

Reservoir Fluid IN

Schematic Operation of Piston Pump (7/7)

End of Upstroke:

Engine Valve is at upper position. It is kept in this position because there is power fluid trapped below the engine valve.

Engine Piston:

The injected power fluid pushed the piston up. All of the power fluid in the upper chamber is pushed out into the annulus.

Pump Piston:

Engine piston pushed the pump

piston up.

All of the bottom chamber is filled with

reservoir fluid. All of the reservoir fluid in the upper chamber is pushed out to the annulus to be produced.

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Hydraulic Piston Pumps

Schematic Operation of Piston Pump (7/7)

End of Upstroke (continued):

Because of the decreased diameter in the rod connecting the engine piston and pump, the power fluid trapped below the engine valve can escape and the injected power fluid pushes the engine valve down.

Upstroke

Power Fluid IN

Reservoir Fluid IN

PETE -332 Hydraulic Piston Pumps Schematic Operation of Piston Pump (7/7) End of Upstroke (continued) :

Upstroke is completed and

trapped power fluid can

escape from the bottom of engine valve. This moves the engine valve down (see next slide).

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Hydraulic Piston Pumps

Schematic Operation of Piston Pump (1/7)

Beginning of Downstroke:

Engine Valve is at lower position

again. It is kept in this position because the power fluid pushes it down and the change (increase) in the rod

diameter doesn’t allow power fluid

to go below the valve to push it up.

Engine Piston:

The injected power fluid enters to the top chamber of engine piston and pushes the engine piston down. The power fluid in the lower chamber

is pushed out into the annulus.

whole cycle (downstroke/upstroke)

.. is repeated with this pattern.

Downstroke

Power Fluid IN

  • OUT

  • OUT

Reservoir Fluid IN

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Pump Piston:

Engine piston pushes the pump

piston down. Reservoir fluid fills the top chamber of the pump piston. The reservoir fluid in the lower chamber is pushed out to the annulus to be produced.

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Hydraulic Piston Pumps

Engine Piston and the Pump Piston is

connected to each other by hollow rods.

The hollow rods and fluid channels in the pistons allow for:

- Equal distribution of the force between the

Pistons. - Lubricating the pistons.

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PETE -332 Hydraulic Piston Pumps Engine Piston and the Pump Piston is connected to each other

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(figures from SPE Handbook, 2007)

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Relative Advantages/Disadvantages of Artificial Lift systems

Hydraulic (Piston) Pump ADVANTAGES

(1/2)

Not so depth limited-can lift large volumes from great depths

500 B/D (80 m 3 /d) from 15,000 ft. (4572 m) have been installed to 18,000 ft. (5486 m)

Crooked holes present minimal problems.

Unobtrusive in urban locations.

Power source can be remotely located.

Analyzable.

Flexible-can usually match displacement to well’s capability as well declines.

Can use gas or electricity as power source.

(from K.E.Brown, JPT, Oct 1982)

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Relative Advantages/Disadvantages of Artificial Lift systems

Hydraulic (Piston) Pump ADVANTAGES

(2/2)

Downhole pumps can be circulated out in free systems.

Can pump a well down to fairly low pressure.

• Applicable to multiple completion’s.

Applicable offshore.

Closed system will combat corrosion.

Easy to pump in cycles by time clock.

Adjustable gear box for Triplex offers more flexibility.

Mixing power fluid with waxy or viscous crudes can reduce viscosity.

(from K.E.Brown, JPT, Oct 1982)

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Relative Advantages/Disadvantages of Artificial Lift systems

Hydraulic (Piston) Pump DISADVANTAGES

Power oil systems are a fire hazard.

(1/2)

Large oil inventory required in power oil system which detracts from profitability.

High solids production is troublesome.

Operating costs are sometimes higher.

Usually susceptible to gas interference; usually not vented.

Vented installations are more expensive because of extra tubing required.

Treating for scale below packer is difficult.

Not easy for field personnel to troubleshoot.

(from K.E.Brown, JPT, Oct 1982)

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Relative Advantages/Disadvantages of Artificial Lift systems

Hydraulic (Piston) Pump DISADVANTAGES

(2/2)

Difficult to obtain valid well tests in low volume wells.

Requires two strings of tubing for some installations.

Problems in treating power water where used.

Safety problem for high surface pressure power oil.

Lost of power oil in surface equipment failure.

(from K.E.Brown, JPT, Oct 1982)

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Hydraulic Jet Pumps

Operating of Downhole Jet Pump:

High pressure power fluid supplied from the surface passes

through the nozzle.

Its potential energy (pressure) is converted to kinetic energy in the form of a very high velocity jet of fluid.

Reservoir fluids surround the power fluid jet at the tip of the

nozzle.

The power fluid and reservoir fluid are mixed in the throat, And momentum is transfered from the power fluid to reservoir fluid, causing its energy to rise.

The mixed fluid enters an expanding area (diffuser) which converts the remaining kinetic energy to static pressure by slowing down the fluid velocity.

The resulting pressure is sufficienly high to flow the mixed

fluid (power + reservoir) to the surface.

PETE -332 Hydraulic Jet Pumps Operating of Downhole Jet Pump: High pressure power fluid supplied from

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(figure from SPE Handbook, 2007)

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Hydraulic Jet Pumps

Characteristics of Jet Pumps:

(1/2)

Jet pumps are tolerant to corrosive and abrasive well fluids because there are no moving parts.

Nozzle and throat are usually constructed of

tungsten carbide or ceramic materials for long life.

Because of high velocities, the turbulence and friction is very high in the pump. Therefore,

lower horsepower efficiencies are achieved

compared to positive displacement pumps. This leads to higher surface hp requirements.

By changing the nozzle size, throat size, power fluid rate and pressure, jet pump can produce from less than 50 B/D to more than 15,000 B/D.

Power Fluid

PETE -332 Hydraulic Jet Pumps Characteristics of Jet Pumps: (1/2) Jet pumps are tolerant to corrosive

Produced Fluid

(figure from SPE Handbook, 2007)

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Power Fluid + Produced Fluid

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Hydraulic Jet Pumps

Characteristics of Jet Pumps:

(2/2)

The ratio of nozzle area (A n ) to the throat area (A t ) determines the trade off between produced head (added DP) and flow rate.

If the ratio of A n /A t increases, a relatively high head, but low flow rate pump will result. There will be a relatively small area around the nozzle for well fluids to enter. Therefore, flow rate will decrease. Because the energy of the power fluid is given to a smaller amount

of produced fluid, high head is observed.

This is suitable for deep wells requiring high lifts.

If the ratio of A n /A t decreases, a high flow rate, but low head pump will result. A larger area is available around

the nozzle for the well fluids. Therefore, higher rates are

possible. Because the energy of the power fluid is given to a larger amount of produced fluid, low head will be available.

This is suitable for shallow wells with low lifts.

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Power Fluid Produced Fluid Nozzle Area Throat Area (figure from SPE Handbook, 2007)
Power Fluid
Produced Fluid
Nozzle Area
Throat Area
(figure from SPE Handbook, 2007)

Power Fluid + Produced Fluid

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Relative Advantages/Disadvantages of Artificial Lift systems

Hydraulic (Jet) Pump ADVANTAGES

Retrievable without pulling tubing.

Has no moving parts.

(1/2)

No problems in deviated or crooked holes.

Unobtrusive in urban locations.

Applicable offshore.

Can use water as a power source.

Power fluid does not have to be so clean as for hydraulic piston pumping.

(from K.E.Brown, JPT, Oct 1982)

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Relative Advantages/Disadvantages of Artificial Lift systems

Hydraulic (Jet) Pump ADVANTAGES

(2/2)

Corrosion scale emulsion treatment easy to perform.

Power source can be remotely located and can handle high volumes to 30,000 B/D (4,780 m 3 /d).

(from K.E.Brown, JPT, Oct 1982)

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Relative Advantages/Disadvantages of Artificial Lift systems

Hydraulic (Jet) Pump DISADVANTAGES

Relatively inefficient lift method.

Requires at least 20% submergence to approach best lift efficiency.

Design of system is more complex.

Pump may cavitate under certain conditions.

Very sensitive to any change in back pressure.

The producing of free gas through the pump causes reduction in ability to handle liquids.

Power oil systems are fire hazard.

High surface power fluid pressures are required.

(from K.E.Brown, JPT, Oct 1982)

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Hydraulic Pumps

Surface Equipment:

Pump

Motor

Pulsation Dampener

Power Fluid Vessel and flow lines

Cyclone

Manifolds

Wellheads

PETE -332 Hydraulic Pumps Surface Equipment: • Pump • Motor • Pulsation Dampener • Power Fluid

(figure from K.Brown, 2b, 1980)

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Hydraulic Pumps

PETE -332 Hydraulic Pumps Schematic of a single well hydraulic pumping system (figure from SPE Handbook,

Schematic of a single well hydraulic pumping system

(figure from SPE Handbook, 2007)

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Hydraulic Pumps

Surface Equipment:

Surface Pumps

Surface operating pressures range from 2,000 psi to 4,000 psi. Power fluid rates range between a few hundred bbl/day to more than 3,000 bbl/day.

The power needed normally ranges between 15 to 625 hp.

Most common surface pump to pressurize the power fluid is multiplex positive displacement pumps (triplex and quintuplex).

The multiplex pumps are driven by an electric motor or gas/diesel engine depending on the availability and cost of the power source.

Each plunger pumps individually from a common intake manifold to a common

discharge, and because discharge occurs only on the upstroke, there is some

pulsation, for which pulsation dampener is used.

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Hydraulic Pumps

Power Fluid

Hydraulic pump systems transmit power downhole by pressured ‘’power fluid’’.

The power fluid usually comes from well production. It can be either oil

or water.

The power fluid is usually pressurized to 2000 to 4000 psi before being injected into wellbore.

In addition to supplying energy to the downhole pump, the Power Fluid can also be used for:

  • - Injecting chemicals to control corrosion, paraffin, emulsions.

  • - Diluent to reduce viscosity in heavy oils

  • - Heating the heavy oil or low pour point reservoir fluids

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Hydraulic Pumps

Open and Closed Power Fluid Systems:

Open Power Fluid Systems (OPS): The injected power fluid and the produced fluid is mixed together at downhole and they are returned to surface together in a common flow line. OPS is more commonly used than CPS.

All jet pumps work with OPS because of their operating principle.

Closed Power Fluid Systems (CPS): The injected power fluid and the produced fluid is NOT mixed together at downhole and they are returned to surface with

separate flow lines.

All piston pumps keep the power fluid and produced fluid separate because there is a seperate piston for each fluid. If the bottom hole assembly (BHA) has the proper arrangement to have seperate tubing strings for each fluid, they can be returned to surface separately.

Advantage: Power fluid is circulated in and out of well in a closed loop. No need for processing the power fluid on the surface. Disadvantage: More initial cost for downhole equipment.

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Hydraulic Pumps

(figure from SPE Handbook, 2007)
(figure from SPE Handbook, 2007)

Central OPF hydraulic power oil treating system

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Hydraulic Pumps

Cyclone:

The cleaning of the power fluid is accomplished with cyclone desanders that require a pressure difference accross them.

Fluid enters from top tangentially and spirals downward. Rotational speed increases as radius of the cyclone decreases. The high rotaional speed cleans

the fluid by centrifugal force.

The clean fluid (overflow) spirals back upward through the vortex core to the vortex finder.

The dirty fluid exits downward at the apex thru’

the underflow nozzle.

Cones are usually constructed of cast iron with elastomer interior.

Different designs for feed and underflow nozzles and cone sizes are available, changing the performance characteristics of the cyclone.

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PETE -332 Hydraulic Pumps Cyclone: The cleaning of the power fluid is accomplished with cyclone desanders

(figure from SPE Handbook, 2007)

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Hydraulic Pumps

Control Manifolds:

When a number of wells are to be pumped from a central pumping unit,

a control manifold is used to direct the flows to and from the individual wells.

The functions of the control manifolds are:

Distributing the flow of power fluid to the individual wells

Regulating the flow rate of the individual wells

Providing a means of measuring pressure to each individual well

Providing a means for running soluble plugs in surface lines (for cleaning the lines)

Providing a manual or automatic valve to control manifold pressure by by-passing excess power fluid

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Hydraulic Pumps

Wellheads:

Functions:

• Directs power fluid down the tubing for ‘’pump in and operate’’

• Direct power fluid down the proper conduit for ‘’pump out’’

Shut power fluid line and provide a means to bleed pressure from the tubing

• Catch and hold the pump at ‘’pump out’’ operations

Be a safety device to prevent high pressure from accidentally being applied to the casing

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Hydraulic Pumps

End