Application of the Mechanics of Tropical Soils in Geotechnical Engineering;

Some Recent Advances and Introduction of Futuristic Concepts on Geoscientific
GECS
John MUKABI
Kensetsu Kaihatsu Consultants Ltd. dr.mukabi@kensetsu.co.ke
Abstract: Sound knowledge of Soil Mechanics is a fundamental requirement for a
Geotechnical Engineer. Increased application of theories and principles related to soil
mechanics as a basis for fostering enhanced geotechnical engineering practice is
indeed imperative for industrial and infrastructure development.
It is also common knowledge that the stability of any structure depends on the
suitability of soil as the load bearing capacity primarily depends on the soil
characteristics.
The various ways in which soil is used in structures are; as load bearing strata directly
under the structure, transferring load through piers, cassions or piles, as a construction
material for earthen dams and as embankment material for highways, railways and
runways.
Consequently, taking this into account, the importance of advancing the knowledge of
research based soil mechanics cannot be over-emphasized. It is important to
emphasize the fact that this research is still it its infant stage.
1. INTRODUCTION
It is indeed appreciated that the Special Theory of Relativity constitutes one of the
most beautiful chapters of the twentieth century physics. Its origin provides a particularly
interesting example of the overthrow of the notion of measure connected with space,
time and motion, hitherto regarded as fundamental. The departure from classical
concepts was forced by the discovery of new facts which were not in accordance with
the earlier theories.
The postulation of the Special Theory of Relativity in 1905 and the General theory in
1916, led to a radical revision of the accepted concepts of space and time. It denied the
need and possibility of the mechanistic view of nature that one can construct
mechanical models for all physical phenomena. It gave a great fillip to further
development of contemporary physics, in particular atomic and nuclear physics. This
role consisted not only of the use of important relations of the theory of relativity but also
showing that classical concepts obtained from everyday life turn out to be inadequate in
dealing with new fields.
To that extent, The Theory of Relativity envisaged the beginning of the development
of a new, non-classical physics.
In this Paper, new concepts of soil mechanics are introduced by relating soil structure,
strength and deformation characteristics, Several Systematic Scientific Approach
Concepts (SSACs) are presented and various theories introduced. Application of newly
proposed Theory of Suspended Particles (TSP) and the String Dispersion Theory (SDT)
in geo-scientifically and mathematically analyzing the intricate interaction of three phase
state of geomaterials by applying Lorentz transformations and their relativistic
consequences, is also discussed. Derivation of these equations in deducing the
kinematical geophysics is also presented and extended to the implications of Special
Relativity to Dynamics.
1
One such approach proposed is the formulation of the dynamic equation of motion in
accordance with the postulates of The Special Theory of Relativity through the adoption
of the concepts of four-vectors and relativistic invariance in a four-dimensional space-
time coordinate system.
The foregoing theories and principles are then to be consistently broadened to
establish hypothetical theories that can support the future development of the proposed
Global Energy Conservation Systems (GECS).
The fundamental idea behind this theory is to scientifically develop energy
conservation systems that can harness potentially destructive and disastrous energies
that emanate from as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis etc and transform them
into constructive and useful energy sources. One of the proposed theories is the EDF
2
.
Under this theory, relative motion, ballistics-collisions, dynamic stresses, tensors,
viscous and damping effects, particle movement and orientation, stress-strain energy,
variation in voids ratios, and hydrostatic/hydrodynamic stresses/forces are analyzed in
relation to an advanced multi-phase geosciences phenomenon.
Applying SSACs advanced theoretical analysis of canvassing systematic, organized,
entropic and complex interference, time-space dynamics, localized inter-particle
gravitational forces, constitutive solutions and redundancy theories defined in terms of
energy dissipation, conserved potential and kinetic energy, advanced laws of motion,
the Theory of Relativity and the Big Bang Theory are to be developed as a primary
attempt to the realization of the GECS.
2. BRIEF INTRODUCTION OF SOME FUNDAMENTAL THEORIES AND CONCEPTS
As mentioned in the introduction, the new theories introduced are based on
Systematic Scientific Approach Concepts (SSAC). The SSACs are merely control
concepts that ensure that the theories are systematic and not entropic in terms of logical
approach, definitive terms and development of events with a given space-time frame of
reference.
2.1 Theory of Suspended Particles (TSP)
Fundamentally, the TSP assumes that a particle is initially suspended in vacuum as a
result of the equilibrium between a gravitational force ( ) initiated field and a field
resulting from the force of gravity as schematically depicted Fig. 2.1
Fig. 2.1 Schematic depiction of the Theory of Suspended Particles
2
2.2 String Dispersion Theory
This theory is intended to quantitatively define the dispersion of particles under damped
collision conditions both in dynamic and static fields depending on the rate, level and
intensity of damping.
The particle motions are mainly translational in the major principal axis experiencing
reversible influxes of dispersion, suspension and flocculation.
An attempt will be made, during this research, to modify the Lorentz transformation
equations expressed in Eqs. (2.1) and (2.2) and application of kinematical
consequences of the same to characterize and quantify the lengths of the deformed
water strings and the relative motion of the particles.
The hypothetical postulates of the modified Lorentz transformations are:
(2.1)
(2.2)
Where and are the modifiers respectively.
The above equations would then be further modified to quantitatively define the
kinematical consequences.
On the other hand, the force transformations defining the action and reaction of
the particles relative to the water and air medium would be developed and modified
based on the following equations.
(2.3)
(2.4)
Thus,
(2.5)
(2.6)
The transformation of relativistic momentum and energy is then derived from modified
equations expressed as
(2.7)
and
(2.8)
respectively. and are the respective modifiers
Further modification to incorporate the four-vector concepts and their transformations
would then be undertaken.
3. INTRODUCTION OF SOME RELEVANT THEORIES AND CONCEPTS
3.1 Homogenization Theory of Elastic Problems and Particle Micro-damage
3.1.1Concept of Estimation of micro-damage initiation and propagation
Considering that most grains are in contact with each other as set out in the Hertzian
loading arrangement in Fig. 3.1.1 interpretation is based on the micro-crack initiation
and propagation at the contact portion of the grains incorporating a special formation of
the stress field of Hertzian loading [Wilshaw (1971)
3
Fig.3.1.1 Hertzian loading Arrangement showing a schematic Array of Grain
contact.
The radius a, as shown in Fig.3.1.1. of the circle of contact between the two spheres
Q and F is derived from the Hertzian analysis as:
( ) ( )
]
]
]


+

·

1
2 2
3
1 1
4
3
E
v
E
v
Pf a
(3.1)
Where,
P: Normal land Applied on the Grain’
E’, E: Young’s Moduli for Quartz and Feldspar Grains Respectively
V’, V: Corresponding values of the poisson Ratio
The primary stress – induced intracrystalline micro-crack is initiated from the contact
portion of the two grains while the crack in small and normal to the contact surface, the
maximum tensile stress
Q
m
σ
and
F
m
σ
in the Quartz and Feldspar grains are uniformly
distributed along the micro-crack and the microcracking criterion is assumed equivalent
to that for a single edge microcrack in tension.
The stress intensity factors
Q
I
K and
F
I
K which are the function of the stress and
microcrack length
Q
C and
1 F
C are given by:
( )
5 . 0
Q Q
m
Q
I
C A K π σ · (3.2)
and
( )
5 . 0
1 1 F F
m
F
I
C A K π σ · (3.3)
Where,
·
C
I
A 1.12 Predetermined Material Constant,
( )
2
1
2
2 1
a
P v
Q
Q
m
π
σ

· (3.4)
4
( )
2
1
2
1 2 1
a
PF v
F
m
π
σ

· (3.5)
By substituting Eq. (3.4 and 3.5) into Eq (3.2) and (3.3) respectively, we obtain the
critical forces for the initiation of microcracks in Quartz and Feldspar grains as:
( ) ( )
'
5 . 0
2
2 1
2
v C A
K a
P
Q
Q
IC Q
critical

·
π
π
(3.6)
And
( ) ( ) v C A
K a
P
F
F
IC F
critical
2 1
2
5 . 0
1
1 2
1

·
π
π
(3.7)
In this case it is assumed in the above analysis that the local stress field in the vicinity
of the microcrack is solely due to the elastic contact between the two grains as
demonstrated by (Zhang et al. 1990)
This is considered to be a reasonable assumption in our microcrack initiation analysis
since the contact stress concentration is highly localized and the microcrack length at
the initiation of Hertzian fracture is very short.
Evaluation of the characteristics of the microcrack growth was then undertaken by
Jeong et al. (1994). They stated that since at a contact portion of two grains
Q
critical
P

must be equal to the
1 F
critical
P
following relation can be obtained.
( )
5 . 0
1
'
1
2 1
2 1

,
`

.
|



·
Q
F
Q
IC
F
IC
C
C
v
v
K
K
(3.8)
Where critical stress intensity factors of Quartz and Feldspar are as previously
measured by Atkinson et al. (1980) for several orientation where the average are
m MP
a
383 . 0 for
Q
IC
K
and m MP
a
364 . 0 for
F
IC
K
.
The poisson ratios obtained are 109 . 0
'
· v and 299 . 0
'
· v .
Applying these values, the micro-crack growth condition is determined as:
Q F
C C β ·
1
(3.9)
When
β
= 3.42
However, this is not applicable to pre-existing intracrystalline microcracks developed
in Quartz and Feldspar grains.
3.1.2 Homogenization Theory for an Elastic problem
In general, the homogenization theory allows us to derive microscopic stress
distributions which account for micro-damage initiation of still geomaterials and rocks in
particular.
This theory applies when the media being investigated have a periodic structure
(Sanchez-papencia, 1980). In such a case it can then be shown that when the
dimensions of the period tend homothetically to zero, the fields of the strains and stress
tend to those corresponding to a homogeneous structure whose elastic properties can
be computed precisely when a single period of the medium to be investigated is known.
Consider a composite material formed by the spartial repetition of a unit cell made of
different material as shown in Fig.3.1.2
5
Let us assume that a body characterized by the domain Ω, for example, made up of two
materials whose mixture is represented by a unit cell that is very small of an order of E
compared with the dimensions of the structural body Ω.
The elasticity tensor is denoted by ( ) x E
ε
, the body force is ( ) x f
ε
, the traction is t, and
the displacement is ( ) x u
ε
. Then the static equilibrium using the weak form of the body
can be expressed as:
( )
j
i
l
K
ijkl
x
x v
X
x U
x E







ε ε
ε
) (
) (
(3.10)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
∫ ∫
Ω ∂ Ω
+ dx x v x ti dx x v x f
i i i
ε ε ε
(3.11)
Where V(x) is an arbitrary admissible displacement and superscript ε is used to indicate
dependence on the microstructure.
If the body is subjected to some load and boundary conditions, the resulting deformation
and stress, in general, rapidly vary from point to point because of repitition of
microscopic unit cells. Hence it may be considered that all quantities have two explicit
dependencies. One is on the microscopic level x, and the other is on the microscopic
level
ε
χ
.
In order to introduce a function depending on the microscopic level, we may take the
microscopic variable
ε
χ
· y .
Accordingly, ( ) x E
ε
, ( ) x f
ε
and ( ) x u
ε
have two variable functions expressed as follows:
( ) ( ) ( ) y x E
x
x E x E
ijkl ijkl ijkl
, , · ·
ε
ε
(3.12)
( ) ( ) ( ) y x f
x
x f x f
i i i
, , · ·
ε
ε
(3.13)
( ) ( ) ( ) y x u
x
x u x u
i i i
, , · ·
ε
ε
(3.14)
These functions are, in general Y-periodic functions on
y yε
.
The differentiation of the two variables is given by the following operator such as :
6
(c) Macroscopic and
Microscopic Periodic Structure
Fig. 3.1.2
33.3.1..2
(b) Idealized Periodic Structure
(a) Macroscopic
Structure
j j j
y x x ∂

+





ε
1
(3.15)
The solution ( ) x u
ε
from boundary conditions of the function in Eqs. (3.10) and (3.11)
makes it reasonable to assume that ( ) x u
ε
can be expressed as an asymptotic
expansion of the displacement field in the form:
( ) ( ) y x u x u , ·
ε
= ( ) ( ) ( ) .... , ,
2 2 1
+ + + y x u y x u x u
O
ε ε ;
ε
x
y ·
(3.16)
And
( ) ( ) y x v x v , ·
ε
= ( ) ( ) ( ) .... , ,
2 2 1
+ + + y x v y x v x v
O
ε ε (3.17)
Where ..... ,
2 1
u u are Y – periodic functions with respect to the variable
y yε
.
The solution
1
u expressing the effect of the micro-structures can be written as:
( ) ( )
( )
( ) x u
x
x u
y x X y x u
i
l
o
k kl
i i
1 ~ 1
, , +


·
(3.18)
Where ( ).
1 ~
x u is an arbitrary additive constant in y, that is, an integral constant on y.
kl
χ is symmetric with respect to the indices k and l.
This implies that six different vector functions are solved for the three-dimensional
problem. Accordingly, the function is given by:
( )
( )







y
y
V
Y
y x
y x E
i
i
q
kl
p
ijkl Y
,
,
χ
(3.19)
=
( )
( )
∫ ∫


·
]
]
]
]



− dy
y
v
y x E dy v
y
y x E
j
i
ijkl Y i
j
ijkl
y
,
,
(3.20)
Next,
The solution
O
u can be written based on the global equilibrium equation for
macroscopic structure as:
( )
( ) ( )








x
x
x v
x
x u
x E
j
i
O
k H
ijkl (3.21)
=
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
∫ ∫
Ω ∂ Ω
+ dx x v x t dx x v x f
i i i i
~
(3.22)
Where the homogenized elasticity tensor is expressed as:
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
y
y
y x X
y x E y x E
Y
x E
q
kl
p
ijpq ijkl Y
H
ijkl

]
]
]
]



− ·

,
, ,
1
(3.23)
Where
Y
stands for the volume of the unit cell, and homogenized body force is
defined as:
( ) ( )dy y x f
Y
x f
i Y i ∫
· ,
1
~
(3.24)
7
kl
χ is a vector function determined by the spatial repetition of micro-structure consisting
of microscopic unit cell, that is, this function is what is termed as a characteristic
deformation function:
Equation (3.18) shows that the displacement
1
u due to the microstructures is given by
form multiplied average behaviour strain expressed as
l
O
k
u χ ∂ ∂ /
and the characteristic
deformation function
kl
χ together.
Comparing Eqs. (3.21) and (3.22)) with the original Eqs. (3.18) and (3.19) we can find
that if we use the elasticity tensor expressed in Eq. (3.23) and the body force in Eq.
(3.10) instead of
( ) x E
H
ijkl and
( ) x f
i
~
respectively, then we can evaluate the average
behavior
O
u of the material with microstructure.
Equation (3.23) is also integral on microscopic unit cell, and
( ) x E
H
ijkl and
( ) x f
i
~
, as
average behavior, the functions are equivalent to homogenized elasticity tensor and
homogenized body force respectively.
The stress at each point is given by constitutive equation as follows:
( )
l
k
ijkl ij
x u
E
χ
σ
ε
ε ε


·
=
( ) ( ) ....... , ,
1
+ + y x y x
ij
O
ij
εσ σ
(3.25)
Whereby, introducing
1
u u u
O
ε
ε
+ · into Eq. (3.25) ij
σ
, the approximation of the
localized stress in microscopic unit cell, is then given by:
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
l
O
k
q
kl
p
ijpq ijkl ij
x u
Y
y x E y x E y x
χ
χ
σ


]
]
]
]



− · , , ,

(3.25’)
This localized stress
( ) y x
ij
, σ
depicts the stress field in microscopic unit cell, and the
volume average in the unit cell is given by:
( ) ( )

· dy y x
Y
x
O
ij
ij ,
1
~
σ σ
(3.26)
Equation (27) then satisfies the equilibrium equation as follows:
∫ ∫
Ω Ω
·


dx v f dx
v
i i
j
i
ij
χ
σ
~
(3.27)
As demonstrated above, from using the homogenization theory, the average physical
properties of the body, including microscopic repeated unit cell, can be computed and
localized strain distribution in an arbitrary portion can also be estimated.
This theory is then modified to account for the kinematic consequences of seismically
propagated landslides by extending it to global perspectives.
3.2 Relativistic Action of Geomaterial Particles
3.2.2 Characterization of propensity to slide Based on Relativistic Action of
Geometrical particle
Preamble
The propensity of the fill zeros to slide is characterized on the basis of classical and
non-classical (Modern) soils.
In the case of non-classical soil mechanics the special theory of relativity is applied.
8
Classical mechanics is applied where the movement of particles is low hence the
frames of Reference are vertical in nature. In such cases, absolute hence is an
imagined framework in which bodies move without any relation to anything external, is
always similar and immovable.
On the other hand, for relativistic dependent soil mechanics, where the velocity of the
particles is quite high caused by such events as earthquakes, explosions, and volcanic
actions, the space and time are no longer indecent of reference frames and turn out to
be greatly different in frames moving with large velocities relative to one another. The
simultaneity therefore has to be qualified with additional specifications. The dynamical
variables of position, velocity, acceleration and moment can be measured to any degree
of precision and accuracy.
When soil is considered as an assembly of particles and voids filled with gas and for
fluid as a multi-phase material, the probability theory is also employed. In this case, the
mechanical behavior of soil is defined on the basis of the motion of particles and voids
which the soil mass is composed of. The probability theory is introduced to integrate
the motion at the particle scale in order to characterize the whole en mass behavior of
the soil mass.
In the new approach to soil mechanics, the main components are considered,
namely: the identification of soil state, static and dynamics. The identification of soil
state is defined as the analysis of shape and size of the soil particles and voids, physic-
chemical properties of fluids in voids and the mineral composition of soil particles. The
statics include problems in the current soil mechanics related to compression and
shearing, unsaturated and saturate permeability, consolidation and heat transfer
applicable in the geotechnical engineering with respect to earth pressure, bearing
capacity compaction, slope stability liquefaction etc. On the other hand the dynamics
characterize the flow of soil mass to analysis the movement of granular geometrical.
The fundamental equation for statics and dynamics of soil in this case is the equation
of n – dimensional Markov process which is similar to the Fokker-Planck equation
expressed as follows:
(3.28)
Where A,
( ) s A
i
, η
= Drift Vector
( ) s B
ij
, η
= Diffusion Tensor
and,
( ) ( ) ( )
∫ ∫
− −
∆ + • −

·
8
8
8
8
... , , , , ...
1
lim ,
n i i i i i
dZ dZ dZ s s P Y Z s A ε η η
(3.29)
while,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
n i i j j i i ij
dZ dZ dZ s s P Y Z Y Z s B ... , , , , ...
1
lim ,
8
8
8
8
∆ + • − • −

·
∫ ∫
− −
ε η η
(3.30)
where,
( ) ·
n i
y y y ...
2 ,
η
a point in the dimensional space at time ∆ + S
·

,
`

.
|
∆ + S S P , , ,
~
ε η
transition probability from
η
at time S to
~
ε
at time ∆ + S .
9
( ) ( ) ( ) { ¦ ( ) ( ) ( ) { ¦ s w s w s B
y y
s w s A
y
s w
s
ij
j i j i
s i
i i
, , . , , , , ,
1 ,
2
1
η η η η η η
η

∂ ∂

+


− ·


∑ ∑

· ·
In Eq. (3.1.25) n and y are the vectors of random variables which are the physical
quantities to express the mechanical behavior of soil such as the contact angle, the
position and the velocity of soil particles etc. The drift vector and diffusion tensor reflect
them technical properties of soil mass and should be derived based on the
consideration of motion of soil particles and fluids in voids from a particle scale. As a
.consequence, the mechanical behavior of soil mass with time elapsed can be obtained
by numerically solving Eq. (3.28) where the computer can be employed to use the
calculus of finite differences.
On the other hand, the initial flow of soil is characterized on the base of the coefficient
of restitution of particles and the coefficient of friction, where the conservation of
momentum and the law of elastic collision are applied(Kitamura &
Kisanuki(1991c,1992)). Initiation of flow of soil is additionally simulated by introducing
the inter particle force due to cohesion which can also be applied to slope
stability(Kitamura & Fukuhara (1994b)}.
Analysis of Kinematical consequences of excessive mass and the reciprocal effects
on precipitating a rate of sliding due to earthquake is made from the perspective of
relativistic energy and momentum four – vector theory.
Considering that the force acting on a particle due to standing is F and that the
particle gets displaced by a distance of the force, then the work done is given by the
scalar product of F and dl i.e.
dl F dW ⋅ · (3.31)
Assuming that the work done goes into increase the kinetic energy of the particle,
then,
dl F dT ⋅ · (3.32)
Hence ,
ll F
dt
dl
F
dt
dT
⋅ · ⋅ ·
(3.33)
Where u is the velocity of the particle substituting for F = di/dt(mu), we get
( ) u mu
dt
d
dt
dT
⋅ ·
u u
dt
dm
u
dt
du
m ⋅ + ⋅ ·
(3.34)
Now,
2 2 2 2
u u u u
z y x
· + +
(3.35)
Differentiating with respect to time,
dt
du
u
dt
du
u
dt
du
u
dt
du
u
z
y
y
x
x
2 2 2 2
2
· + + (3.36)
i.e
dt
du
u
dt
du
u · ⋅
(3.37)
also,
dt
du
du
dm
dt
dm
⋅ ·
10
2
2
1
c
u
m
du
d
dt
du
o

⋅ ·
(3.38)
( )
2
3
2
2
2
1
c
u
c
u
m
dt
du
o

⋅ ·
(3.39)
Substituting these Equations from Eqs. (3.37) ~ (3.39) into Eq. (3.34)
( )
2
3
2
2
2
3
2
2
1
1
c
u
c
u
dt
du
m
dt
du
u
c
u
m
dt
dT
o
o

+

·
(3.40)
( )
( )
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
c
u
c
u
c
u
dt
du
u m
o

+ −
·
(3.41)
( )
dt
du
c
u
u m
o
2
2
1−
·
(3.42)
]
]
]
]
]


·
2
2
2
1
c
u
c m
dt
d
o
(3.43)
Integrating Eq. (3.43) with respect to time t, we obtain:
1
2
2
2
1
C
c
u
c m
T
o
+

·
(3.44)
where C
1
is the constant of the integration
T=0 when u=0, then
2
1
c m C
o
− ·
. Thus,
2
2
2
2
1
c m
c
u
c m
T
o
o


·
(3.45)

,
`

.
|


· 1
1
1
2
2
2
c
u
c m
o
(3.46)
or
2 2
c m T mc
o
+ ·
as can also be observed from centrifugal tests.
In order to observe the non-relativistic approximation in the limit when 1 <
c
v
, one
obtains by Binomial expansion from Eq. (3.46).
11
]
]
]

− + + + · 1 ...
8
3
2
1
1
4
4
2
2
2
c
u
c
u
c m T
o
(3.47)
...
8
3
2
1
2
4
2
+ + ·
c
u
m u m
o o
2
2
1
u m
o
· (3.48)
4. GLOBAL ENERGY CONSERVATION SYSTEMS (GECS)
The development of the various theories introduced briefly in this paper are envisaged
to lead to governing and constitutive theories that would culminate in the establishment
of energy systems that can harness hitherto destructive and disastrous energies and
transform and store them as constructive forms of useful energy resources.
In order to realize this goal, the EDF
2
(Extraction→ Destruction→ Forging→
Formation) Theory would have to be immensely developed based on advanced physics
and mathematical perspectives.
CONCLUSIONS
As stated in the Abstract, this research is still at a very premature stage.
Consequently, this paper was meant to just form a basis for further discussions and
research development.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author is highly indebted to the contributions of Professor Fumio Tatsuoka and the
University of Tokyo. Sincere appreciation is also expressed to the Japan International
Cooperation Agency (JICA), Japan Bank of International Cooperation (JBIC),
Construction Project Consultants Inc., Kajima Corporation and Kajima Foundation for
funding the subsequent part of the study conducted in Africa. The authors wish to
express their sincere appreciation to the Japan International Cooperation Agency
(JICA), Japan Bank of International Cooperation (JBIC), Construction Project
Consultants Inc., Kajima Corporation and Kajima Foundation for funding most of the
study. The paper would certainly not have been completed without the crucial support of
Ms. Piera Cesaroni, and the input of Silvester Kotheki, Kenneth Wambugu, Ms. Zekal
Ketsella, Joram Okado, Paul Kinyanjui, Bryan Otieno, Walter Okello, and Anthony Ngigi.
It is also important to mention the cooperation and assistance extended by the
Ethiopian Roads Authority as well as the Ministry of Roads, Public Works and Housing,
Kenya.
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