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CSV Wardha : Gandhian Model of Development

Sanjeev Prashar Dinesh Jain

A group of 21 friends landed on land of two great man of India Mahatma Gandhi & Vinoba Bhave Wardha, Maharastra on 5th February 2014. The group was pursuing Post Graduate Program for Working Executive from Indian Institute of Management Raipur and Agenda was Rural Immersion at Centre of Science for Villages (CSV). When we meet the people at CSV and saw their work we were amazed by the breakthrough innovation for rural people which includes low cost housing, total sanitation, Village industries, renewable energy etc. CSV has showcase a wide variety of alternate technologies for rural scenario both through models as well as practical application at following centers. (Distance from Wardha station) 1. Dattapur (6km) (from Magan Sangrahalaya ) Base Campus 2. Karla (5km) Cover Management Spirulina Production 3. Kumarappapuram (7km) Building Centre & Sanitation Park

Innovation for Rural People, Technology Transfer, Building Technology, Replication of Good Practices, Training, Case Study.

Center of Science for Villages (CSV) was set up in 1977 act as a technology transfer centre for reviving the rural economy. CSV works to salvage traditional sciences through appropriate technology transfer and introduction of practical and innovative scientific products for rural areas that benefit both the people and the environment. It was established in 1995 as an independent training center. The two campuses of CSV (Kumarappapuram and Dattapur) in Wardha showcase a wide variety of alternate technologies for rural scenario both through models as well as practical application in their own facilities.At these locations,CSV also provides training to artisans, SHGs, micro-entrepreneurs and development practitioners on alternate technologies. Key areas ofwork ofCSVare: Ecological Housing - low carbon building technologies (mud houses and bamboo houses)

Total sanitation - solutions for home sanitation, school sanitation, sewerage management Solid Waste management vermin - composting Water management - water recycling, low cost water filter, rain water harvesting Non conventional energy improved cook stove, new bio-gas technology Rural industries banana fibre paper technology, pottery, honey collection, agricultural tools, and micro enterprises Forest resource management Bio-technology

CSV also has a demonstrative sanitation park that demonstrates a range of sanitation technologies including biogas. The campuses also demonstrate rainwater collection and recharge units, technology and buildings showcasing their housing technology. The Dattapur campus is the production and research facility. Technologies for rural industries and micro enterprises are showcased here.

Origin :Center of Science for Villages (CSV) was founded in 1977 by Dr. Devendra Kumar. Dr. Kumar sought guidance from Indira Gandhi, Vinobha Bave, J.C.Kumarappa and others in reviving the rural economy. During 1987-1989, he was appointed as the Vice-Chancellor of the Gandhigram Institute in Dindukal. Dr. Kumar passed away in 1999.

Vision :The primary goal of the centre has always been to improve life conditions in the rural areas of India. The techniques developed by the CSV range from mud housing technology to various methods of energy production and food growing.CSV actively works in the areas of hygiene promotion and development of local alternate industries. These techniques are primarily based on locally available materials. They are simple to use, cost effective and environment-safe. Training to villagers is provided in parallel, so that they can pass their skills and experience to others. This favors the creation of a local know-how that can be used to create jobs, trades, etc. *This is in agreement with the Gandhian philosophy that envisioned villages as self-sufficient units. The use of these "appropriate technologies" brings freedom for villagers and helps themto live life with dignity.

Strategies Business Verticals :-

The CSV is primarily supported by the funds raised for the research and implementation done for the government agencies. It is in some cases funded by the Wardha Development Association, based out of France. The building centre of CSV is also partially supported by the HUDCO.

Context :-

CSV Wardha is accessible by road and rail services. It has two campuses both on the state highway connecting Nagpur and Wardha. Both the campuses lie outside the main town of Wardha.

Outreach :-

CSV has undertaken demonstration projects all over India.

Stakeholders Involved :-

The target groups of CSV include: rural populace, local NGOs for the demonstration of technologies, government organizations. Wardha Development Association, France is one of the partner organizations with CSV. The clients among others are HUDCO, DST,

Training Centre :-

An independent training Centre of CSV is established in the year 1995. Where various training programmes which were sponsored by Govt of India, several Foreign Agencies like UNESCO, UNICEF, UNDP, KVIC, etc. This training centre have the following Infrastructural, Academic Facilities / Arrangements. A training campus is established in a 2.5acres of land that is 6km away from Wardha & of 200mts away from Wardha Nagpur road. A campus consists of a demonstrative agriculture plot, this plot is used for the demonstrations of organic farming, use of Vermicomposting, Nadep composting, Herbal Pesticides. A Sanitation Park is installed with all practical models of toilets, eco-sanitation, composting, waste water management & solid waste management etc.

The whole campus is covered with rainwater harvesting systems in which demonstration of roof top rainwater collection, recharging of bore well & well innovative technology demonstration to various percolation systems of rainwater, Nala bunding etc. A campus is full with various floriculture & organic fruit plantation. A campus is located in between Vinoba & Gandhi Ashram. Sant Vinoba's Ashram is 3 km & Mahatma Gandhi's Ashram is 7km away from our campus.

Father of Institution :-

Dr. Devendra Kumar | Pastoral scientist Dr. Devendra Kumar was the originator of the centre of science for villages, to act as a conduit between the researches labs to village mud huts. His intend to take innovative technologies from the research lab to the rural poor of the village and vice versa. The intention was that the scientists can understand the requirements of the villagers. He was spiritual by nature and a scientist by temperament. He truly believed that Small is not simply beautiful and possible but actually the only way for survive of world. Devendra proclaimed: The world forces have influenced universally an in process brought the human family closer & made the world a global village where each is affected by the other. The most negative aspect of this phase of development is that commercialism is leading to increase in the element of conquest controlling other peoples lives. Industrialism of generated consumerism encouraging greater indulgence. Technological advancement is creating an increase in the tempo of life & living, increase in the frictions that were present & thus making tensions of all kinds more pronounced. Ultimately the truly scientific age where long ranges unbiased use of the knowledge gained over the ages becomes the base of the society, in consonance with the law of nature & the law of society. This last factor called ecology & amity, means a resolution of conflicts between the interest of man & nature of which he is a component & the individual person & the collective society which he constitutes this I understand is the Gandhian model of development." The Centre of Science for Villages will be a humble step towards this ecology & amity.

Even after the sad demise of Devendra on 31st August 1999, his team of dedicated scientists & artisans are carrying his mission under the guidance of Shri Sameer Kurvey, to take the benefits of science & technology to mud huts, as homage to the true Gandhian.

Mud Housing
LOW-COST RURAL HOUSING Mud building technology is eco-friendly and cost effective as compared to the conventional building practices like RCC or burnt bricks; the material being locally available and embodied energy being lower than other building materials. The CSV mud house allies local availability of mud with the resistance and thermal properties of locally produced terra-cotta. The innovative walling system combines sun-dried mud blocks with lining terra-cotta tiles integrated into the block, aiming to protect the wall from rain and moisture, thus increasing the life span of the wall. The wardha house model consists of conventional stone foundation, with a frame structure of brick columns and RCC beams. The infill wall material consists of walling system of mud blocks in mud mortar as described above. The conical tile roof rests on the RCC beams supported by the brick columns. The usual span of these roofs is 12 feet and can be multiplied over larger lengths. Greater stability and efficient structural design have also been achieved by laying the RCC beams in an arch profile thereby creating double curvature. The inside surfaces of thewalls are coatedwithmud plaster withminimumstabilization. The overall earthy appearance has a unique aesthetic charm. The cost of a house varies from 300-550 rupees/sq.ft. A 200 sq.ft house can be completed in 3 weeks with 2masons and 4 labourers. The roofing system is based on a self-bearing structure achieved by a catenary vault in tapering terra-cotta tumblers. This structure doesnt require any understructure thus preventing deforestation. The tumblers which compose the vault can be produced locally. Insulation is optimal owing to the air chambers created by the tumblers and also due to insulating properties of the materials used both for the roofing andwalling systems. Each component of this building systemis studied in order to reduce the environmental impact of these houses and give maximum comfort to the users without having to rely on subsidiary cooling systems. There are following innovations in house construction materials and techniques: Design Criteria: reducing cost of construction, particularly walling and roofing, making the best use of locally available material, tapping existing skill sets, consuming low energy, climatically responsive and disturbing the environment to the Wardha House Model least possible extent. Traditionally, half-cut locally burnt conical tiles (kavelu) were laid adjacent to each other to form the roof on an under structure of bamboo mat, bamboo purlins and wooden rafters. This was not durable and would break in case of sudden load, specifically of the monkeys in the region. As a result, both maintenance cost and time required would be high. Therefore, the practice has been rapidly replaced by conventional roofs like RCC. This had a dual adverse impact on both livelihood of local potters and also the prevalence of high energy consuming

construction which would not always guarantee durability. Additionally, themonetary cost of construction has also increased. Roof:Aconical tilewhich is a tapered burnt clay tumbler forms a unit for roof construction. The tiles are laid in the profile of a reverse catenary arch, forming a load bearing vault and joined together by locking one conical tile into another. The formwork for the arch comprises of fabricatedMS trusses over which bamboo poles are fixed as support along the length of the vault. After laying the conical tiles for the entire roof, the formwork is removed in 24 hours. The roof is finished with a cement concrete layer and topped with broken chinamosaic tiles which act as both waterproofing and a heat reflective skin for the roof. The roofing alternative affords the following benefits: No under structure needed especially wooden rafters which are expensive. Livelihood generation for local potters. Appropriate for weather extremes of hot and dry climate - the conical tile has an air cavity and the broken china skin reduces heat ingress. Cost effective Rs.65 per square feet till 12 feet span which is around 75%of conventional option. Durable, stable and monkey proof load carrying capacity of 1500 kg per sq.m. Wall Infill construction technique using manually moulded earth blocks with a burnt tile on the walls exterior face to resist deterioration by water. The earth blocks are un-stabilized for affordability and make good use of the local black cotton soil which is expansive in nature. Production is on-site. The blocks cost Rs.3 per piece, including Rs.2 for the tile, 50 paisa for soil and 50 paisa for labour. The block size is 9X9X4.The volume of blocks is equal to 3 bricks. The depletion of building resources like timber, bamboo has progressively made the village house

Habitat scene: The seventies in Wardha


Geo-climatic Lying nearly in the physical centre of the country, the Wardha district is located on the Deccan plateau. The climate of the region is hot and dry for most parts of the year. Almost the entire year's precipitation is concentrated in the three months of July, August and September. As for temperature variation, only December and January prescribe the warmth of the house interiors, while the months of May and June proscribe it. A graph showing the ambient temperature & rainfall through the year can be seen at appendix 1. Economics The region is fairly fertile and prosperous one on the agricultural side. It has been particularly well-known or production of high quality cotton. The economy was ably supported by artisan tradition in the past, but nonagricultural occupations account for negligible number of work opportunities now. This has resulted in lesser real incomes on per capita basis. Building Technologies & Materials Timber The region once prided in its dry deciduous forests with a high incidence of teak and bamboos in its wealth of great building timbers. But the district has seen an extra rapid decline of its forests in the recent past and timber has moved out of the purchase reach of the average rural home builder. Mud The great (past) fortune of good timber would have remained incomplete without good building mud for walls as well as burnt ware. Of the soils naturally available in the region, none answers the requirements of a sound building mud. Nonetheless, all over the Deccan Plateau, the older houses and numerous mud fortresses, i.e. Garhis have been built in an excellent white soil. But the last such Garhi as built in 1858 after which they were perhaps found to serve no purpose. With such old, dilapidated / redundant mud fortresses (also houses) coming handy as 'above ground' mines of excellent building mud, nobody needed to make fresh mud - for more than a century - and the technology of making that mud has been thus lost to history. With the thinning and ultimate flattening of such sources, the home builders have to make do with inferior soils which crack and crumble so easily. Lime The district has no lime resources worth mentioning but the district had a tradition of using lime nodules found on river beds as we as on open fields. However the system has died out with the arrival of Portland cement as the principle mortar material on the scene.

The Lacunae in rural building traditions Roof

In spite of the adorable insulation and ventilation qualities of the Kumhari pan tile, The following score points continued. Monsoon Leaks

The tiles are simply placed on the sloping understructure. They stay in place by sheer mechanical friction. Even heavy winds and (Short of storm) dislodge them easily. This made annual pre monsoon repairs mandatory in tradition. The economically marginalized poorer villagers could not afford and usually gave a 'pass' to this item. The problem became much more acute in regions with wild monkey menace. The wild monkey menace has been on the rise with the decline in forest qualities, forcing the people to live with leaking roofs, damaged stores and distributed nights.

INNOVATION INITIATIVES - CSV WARDHA HOUSE What is now known by the name 'Wardha House' is a culmination of several research efforts. The readers of this manual would find the story both interesting and instructive. Evolution of Wardha Blocks Good durable walls had become difficult and expensive to build, particularly for points away from Garhi sites. The locally available soils i.e. Black Cotton (B.C.) soil as well as murum were unsuitable for the purpose. Whereas it was impossible to build a mud wall in murum, the ones built in B.C. soil could not last. (Ref. - Appendix 2 for a note on local soils) Intermediate phase Initially CSV tried to solve the problem by providing a tough, non-erodable Terra-Cotta skin to the existing vulnerable walls built by the people with the locally available soils. Towards this objective, CSV selected an approach that would benefit the local artisan, in the process of achieving the technical bjective of making the wall last longer. STEP ONE

Terra - Cotta skin to mud walls The problem was attempted to be solved by providing a potter made tile lining to mud walls, protecting them from rain and moisture. The potters were asked to make 150x150x15 (6" x 6" x 5/8") tiles with grooves at the back. These tiles were found to cost INRs 20/- per 100 pieces in 1984.These tiles were fixed with mud mortar and pointed in cement mortar. The life of the treatment was estimated at 5 years. However the skin gave way much sooner at 50 percent trial sites, because of factors like weak and unstable base wall, base wall surface too uneven. STEP TWO Wardha Wall Tiles The work of saving the old walls had to be given up. CSV started applying the principle to new structures where this skin would be better anchored to a stronger backing. The approach led us to making our own blocks. After trying a large number of proportions CSV decided the following one to be the best for making the blocks. It is necessary to note here that these proportions have a strictly local validity. In case of poorer soils of our own an different admixtures may have to be developed. The facing surface of the block has to be a burnt clay tile, keyed into the block at the green stage itself. Dovetail shape as shown in the picture here was found to meet the requirements of sturdiness. The sizes indicated above can be varied as per the application needs. For example, for thicker walls, the depth of the block can be increased to 340 mm. One can also cast half bats, quoins etc. as desired. The Burnt Brick Pillars Being weak, the soils inWardha region cannot be trusted to make load bearing structures even in the improved block form. To avoid the use of timber as the load carrying framework, we resorted to brick pillars in cement mortar with panels of tile faced mud block. Good load bearing soils naturally found in many parts of the world (e.g. the Ganga basin in India) would render the use of brick pillars unnecessary. Wardha Tumbler (Roof Tile) Replacement of timber without resorting to steel and at the same time generating greater work opportunities for local artisans, had been a cherished twin objective of CSV research team. The roof was an acid test for this objective. Arch/Dome/Vault were the major alternatives of attention. Wardha tumbler is a half round roofing tile. Dr. Devendra Kumar, the founder of CSV was convinced that a roof vault in tapering terra cotta pipes/ tumblers would meet our objective.

A similar type of vaulted roof (out of 'ceramic fuse') had also been reported from Gujarat, reinforcing his belief. He pursued the matter vigorously. The half round roofing tiles were traditionally made by halving a tapering pipe as shown here. The new roof tile (which subsequently came to be known as WARDHA ROOF TILE) was the tapering pipe/tumbler in whole form. Shape of the Vault and the Ring Bean CSV started with the rather simplistic premise that a semicircle was a totally safe tension free shape. After a small mishap the realizatioin dawned that it was not so. Besides, the high-rise vault was criticized by the common villager for the tunnel like effect. A lower rise was achieved by resorting to a catenary shape, simultaneously reducing tensile stresses with a ring beam. Obviously, the ring beam as a side thrust arrest or becomes unnecessary when two vaults spring from the same base. THE BUILDING COMPONENTS Making of Wardha Tumblers Making the Face Tile 1. Start the operation with potters clay. Make lumps and carry them near the wheel.

2. Throw the lump on the plotter's wheel. Making the tumbler in two stages.

3. Throw the mass into a tumbler shape and allow it to semi-dry for 2-3 hours and turn the

tumbler upside down and pierce open the top.

4. They have to account for a shrinkage of 12mm through the process of drying and burning each, depending upon the nature of local soils. The tumbler shown here is in its final size. Now you

may get those tumblers burnt in the traditional to your area. IMPORTANT I. A skilled potter and helper can make 1000-12000 tumblers per day. II. Energy cost : 250:275 Kg of firewood to burn 1000 tumblers. III. It takes 110 tumblers to cove 1 sq. m. of plain area. Cost of 1000 tumblers INRs. 900 (Wardha 1998) The Mould box The mould box should have clear internal dimensions 231 x 106 x 26 so as to ultimately get burnt tiles 225 x 100 x 20 in size. 1. Place the wooden scantlings in the position and poweded ash liberally each time before use, to facitale clean ejection. 2. Place the prepared mud mass with sufficient force inti the mud so that the voids get filled. 3. Tamp further mud mass onto the mould to fill it upto the brim. Cut the excess eith wire to bring the top in level, obtaining a smooth finish with wet sponage. 4. Place the mould, up side down, directly on the drying platform ( In shade). Ease off the mould box by applying thumb pressure on the scantiling through the holes. Dig a suitable sized pit and put the component soils into it. Add water and shovel the mass upside down to make a homogeneous mass.Allow this mass to soak under water. Pug the mass at regular intervals to obtain a plastic mass of optimum consistency to be moulded into blocks.

BUILDING THE WARDHA HOUSE FOUNDATION Obviously your dream project cannot be any safer than its foundation.

Take care to secure a sound foundation for your dream. Select a site with a hard and reliable strata near the surface to cut on foundation costs. The weight of the whole structure above is, in-turn, transferred to the walls. The load is distributed to the soil through gradually widening plinth wall - thus enabling the soil to cope up with the load without sinking under it. Alternative Foundation HARD STRATA 1. Fill and Ram Method If however your site happens to have deep cover of soft soil, take trail pits to find out the depth of soft cover. For soft depths under 1.8 meters, the fill and ram method is a low cost alternative. Boulders and soil are rammed in layers 200 mm, well watered, to fill up the depth below the top 450 mm. 2. UNDER - REAMED PILES (for Deep Black Cotton Soils) In case of soft soil covers greater than 1.8 metres, piling method proves relatively more economical. The hand bored piles may be further strengthened by providing a ream or two. The reams prevent up-down movement as also share a considerable portion of the load. * Check for right angles * AC should be equal to BD * Reinforcement-Main 3 x 12 mm dia., * Stirrups 6 mm dia. @ 15 cm c/c. Diameter of the piles 25 cm. CAUTION : The piles are to be topped by plinth beams above ground to carry weight of walls, columns and roof above. Be careful in keeping these beams clear off the ground to keep safe upwards thrust caused by wetted soil. FOUNDATION OF WARDHA HOUSE 1. Set out the foundations of the twin unit as in the figure here with centre lines cutting across at 5100 x 3310. Check for right angles, AC should be equal to BD. Note : Dump the excavated earth inside the rectangles so that plinth filling costs are reduced. 2. Excavate the trenches 600 wide & 450 deep.

3. After watering and ramming the bottom of the trench to hardness, place 1:3:6 plain cement concrete, 150 thick. 4. Lay uncoursed rubble masonry 450 mm thick upto plinth level. 5. Carry the brick piers upto the lintel height 1.80 m. 6. Fix pre cast door blocks in the brick piers, 2 nos. per door. Finish the mortar joints with flush pointing simultaneously 7. Fix up shuttering for ring beam and cast the 1:2:4 ring beam 525 x 75 thick all around. 8. Make the sure to have chajjahs slope towards outside. 9. Lay brick masonry chair at spring points for plcaing Wardha tumbler now. FABRICATION OF M.S. CENTERING TRUSSES Making of a Catenary 1. A catenary is a much more efficient arch profile than circle segments. A link chain allowed to suspend freely between two points assumes a catenary form under the force of earth gravity. 2. Suspend a chain from nails A and B, driven into the wait at the Span distance apart. Let the lowest part of the chain touch the crown C of the desired vault rise. The curve A C B will be the desired profile of the centering truss. Centering Truss Fabrication Main Tie - M.S. Angles 25x25x5-2 nos. All other members - 15 x 15 x 3 Ties/Struts Cotd M.S. flat 30 x 6 U bolts, As loops 10 Nos. x 8 dia. Base plate 2 Nos. 250 x 100 x 10 ROOF CONSTRUCTION Laying the Centering 1. Rest the base plate on the beam, with wooden spacer block in between, to adjust final height. Level the trusses. 2. Push the G.I. pipe runners through the U bolt loops. Couple the pipe in length between the loop support to facilitate their subsequent. 3. Tamp wedges under the pipe runners inside the U bolts. Tie together the main ties of all the trusses with a long bamboo to make the structure more rigid. Laying the roof tiles

4. Keep in mind that the tumblers are usually laid 4-5 pieces socketed together. The bows at the two extremes of the vault are tied securely to the centering truss with m.s. binding wire. This facilitates the dry assembly of the bows contained in between. 5. The operation requires three individuals, one from the inside on a scaffolding at lintel level and two helpers at the two ends outside the vault line. The alternate bows are socketted in reverse way (like 1 & 2 ) to reduce the gaps to the minimum. Laying the roof tiles 6. Go on laying the Wardha tumblers, bow by bow, as well packed as possible. At about 110 tumblers per sq. meter of plan area and accounting for breakage / rejection, it takes about 4000 pieces to make a twin unit (2000 pcs. per house). 7. Thoroughly wet the dry vault just before the application of cement mortar, By sprinkling water. Make a rather dryish cement mortar 1:4 with good clean sand, to fill up the joints. Work the mortar throughly into the voids and tumbler joints, as a first operation. Remove the centering support within 12 hours of motor filling. Removal off Centering 8. Removal of centering is a very, very important operation towards a leak-free performance of our roof. Start removal before the mortar sets, which takes approx. 12 hours. Remove wooden spacer blocks from under the truss ends. Remove wedges under the pipe runners. Uncouple the pipe runners. Pull in the runners smoothly, with minimum of vibration / jerks on either side. 9. The roof may sink slightly, enabling the Wardha tumblers to socket into each other to the fullest extent. untie the bamboo runner in the centre of the trusses. With the load removed,slight lifting of the end will enable you to pivot out the base plate. Lower the trusses carefully and keep them out of way. 10. After removal of centering and sufficient hardening of the mortar joints, lay 1:4 cement plaster to a true and smooth curve. Roughen the surface by trowel markings to enable a good bond with the topping coast. 11. Finish the roof top with china mosaic in neat cement slurry. Broken glazed tiles, being large sized, enable faster completion of work but the individual pieces should be small enough to ensure a smooth curve. 12. After initial drying, wash off the excess cement from the surface of the tiles, with a swab cloth.

Inside View of Roof Under Construction DOS DONTS OF ROOF CONSTRUCTION 1 Use only sound and undamaged tumblers. 2 Wet the dry vault thoroughly before applying mortar. 3 Use clearn (clay free, preferably washed & dried) sand for making mortar (1:4) 4 Mix cement thoroughly in dry state before adding water. 5 Use lower water cement ration for mortar. 6 Work the mortar vigorously into the valleys and voids. 7 Remove the centering with 12 hours of laying the mortar. 8 Lay the mortar layer to cover the entire shell with a minimum crown cover of 12 mm. 9 Lay the mortar to an even curve but take care to keep it rough so as to offer good bond to the neat cement topping coat. 10 Do not walk on the green shell till it hardens sufficiently, to save it from damage. 11 Lay broken glazed tiles in neat cement slurry. Cure well at each stage. 12 At the point of joining of the two roofs a valley is formed and a gutter becomes necessary. Keeps the valley clean, physically removing the polythene bags, twigs etc. just before the rains start? This will allow the rainwater to flow down the pipe instantly, minimizing leakage/seepage nuisance, Installation of the drainpipe, although expensive, saves the wall from disfigurement. SEVEN WONDERS OF WARDHA ROOF SEVEN WONDERS OF WARDHA ROOF (THE AIR INSULATED ROOF.) 1. Keeps the heat and cold out. 2. Has no understructure, yet can bear weight upto one tonne per sq.m., including the jumping monkeys. 3. The roof can be erected and centering removed within 3 days, leaving the space under the roof available for use-in case of emergency shelters, it can be built at an incredibly low cost of INRs.300/per sq.m. 4. Requires no repairs and has a service life of more than 50 years. 5. Rain, hailstorms do not affect it. 6. Being light in weight (135 kg./sq.m.) and securely framed, the vault roof is safe even in earthquakes.

7. Unlike the tiled roof (including the machine made ones), the Wardha vault is safe against house breaking.

Bomboo House :-

HELTER is one, among the basic necessities of life S-Roti, Kapada aur Makaan. Millions of people wor ldwide, f rom var ied socio-economic background, face the shortage of shelter. Every Nation today is looking for efficient housing solution, that is economically feasible and socially acceptable, to fulfi this shortage.

Apart from the other materials already in practice, bamboo as a building construction material for this problem is very promising, as it is highly energy efficient and most environment friendly. Construction in bamboo has come a long way where people have exploited its properties,intuitively and scientifically. /> The Bamboo Crete House Project at NIRD (National Institute of Rural Development, Hyderabad), is a part of RTP (Rural Technology Park), where a campus is developed to showcase the Appropriate Building Construction Technologies, from various parts of India.

THE BUILT SPACE is designed for a complete family (DESIGN XIII / RTP). It consists of - entrance verandah, multifunctional room - 3 No., kitchen, store and nahani. SPATIAL PLANNING is developed on a grid measuring 1200 mm x 1550 mm, keeping in view the structural efficiency of bamboo. The beauty of grid planning is flexibility, where additions and subtractions required for different needs and functions are easily possible. Such methodology is very helpful for a prefabricated system of construction whenever large scale demand arises.

DESIGNATTRIBUTES loudly speak of bamboo. Care is so taken that bamboo is clearly visible as structure, walling, flooring, door, window, window dressing, lighting, ceiling and roofing. are consciously taken in a manner that the structure and the built space itself,

THE STRUCTURE is very light, essentially made up of bamboo culms.

The elements of structure are - column, lintel beam, roof beam, roof truss.

Columns are made up of bamboo culms taken in a group.

All intermediate columns are of three bamboo culms, nut bolted to each other, every two feet, with a spacer nut in between. The bamboo in the centre is meant to take members of wall and finally get embedded during wall plaster. Out of rest two, one is outer bamboo, the other one is inner bamboo.

The columns made in such a manner act as I-sections and resist deformation, commonly observed in bamboo structures.

The corner columns are made up of five bamboo culms, nut bolted in L-shape, which additionally resist the deformation of bamboo structure.

All the bamboo used are adequately treated against pesticides, the outer bamboos are additionally treated to take weathering actions. Columns are bitumen coated at the bottom and secured in 230 x 250 x 760 in-situ concrete block. Lintel ring beam, placed at 2100 mm from floor level, consist of a pair of bamboo culms. Roof ring beam, also consists of a pair of bamboo culms. The light weight bamboo structure is essentially helpful in making the foundation less elaborate. THE FOUNDATION: As the site is rocky, sloping, on a hillock, uncoursed rubble masonry with boulder murum filling is laid to prepare a flat ground for the structure. Ground level to plinth level work (380 mm) is in brick masonry and concrete blocks. Bamboo columns are erected in these in-situ concrete blocks.

At plinth level, 100 thickRCCDamp Proof Course is provided, to counter Earthquake movements. Sill level is purposefully taken at 380 mm and is a combination of brick masonry to support bamboo crete walls and concrete blocks to support bamboo columns. The foundation is so designed that it effectively will resist the earthquake and wind forces and protect the bamboo structure from the year around weathering agents. HEWALL Solid bamboos 25mmthick are inserted between columns, horizontally, every one foot. This forms the basic structure of wall and gives bamboo wall the required structural stiffness. Through these horizontal bamboo culms vertical weaving is done by split bamboo strips. chicken mesh is attached to both sides of the bamboo weaving and finished with cement mortar 1:6 on both sides to a thickness of 12mmeach.

The walls so made are resistant to weathering agents and are aesthetically similar to any other plastered brick wall or plastered mud block wall. As an alternative, it can be plastered by stabilized mud and finished by lime wash or cow dung paste, from inside.

FLOORING is IPS (Indian Patent Stone) finished in brick red colour, with green separating band at door positions. Alternatively, flooring can also be, mud or terracotta tile or stone tile, finished. DOOR WINDOW frames are integrated into walling system. Frames are made in the composite of bamboo and teak wood. Window grills are fabricated in mild steel and shutters are in bamboo mat board.

WINDOWDRESSis done in pull-up woven bamboo mat blinds. It absorbs heat and keep the interiors cool and greatly enhance the ambience of house. LIGHTING Battens are provided over the wall and lintel and points are strategically placed to illuminate the built space. Lighting fixtures in bamboo, add to the beauty of house. THE ROOF is a combination of trusses in twin bamboo culms, structurally connected with gusset plates in bamboo mat board and nut bolted. Purlins of twin bamboo are nut bolted to the truss and then bamboo mat corrugated roofing sheets are secured on purlins with the help of J-bolts. These sheets are an ideal replacement of G.I. and asbestos sheets. (Asbestos is environmentally hazardous and banned byWHO) The centre space of the roof has a covered gap of 300 mm. This helps hot air to escape and in case of high speed wind, this opening in the roof resists the uplifting force. ITS APPROPRIATENESS: Bamboo Crete House is ideal for earthquake and hurricane prone zones.

The beauty of Bamboo Crete House is that people from all socio-economic background like it. Affluent section of society likes its aesthetics and it comes with-in the budget of diligent. So bamboo need not be looked upon as poor mans timber but it can be exploited in the areas of application like urban houses, resorts, farmhouses, dabha, and meditation room, gymnasium and roof top pent houses. Bamboo Crete Housing Solutions are economical and acceptable to all the Cultures on Earth and as it is highly energy efficient and environment friendly, it can be ideal for all the Nations to fulfil the demand of basic shelter with it. Bamboo use, save wood plantations and forest. It stops soil erosion and helps reversal of global warming and climate change.

CSV at a Glance :Rural Housing & Sanitation Housing with locally available material & local artisans Latrine model with minimum use of water under Total Sanitation programe

Rain Water Harvesting Purification of Drinking water Waste water and Solid waste management

Non Conventional Energy Solar Energy Equipments & their maintenance Biogas Construction, Maintenance and Supervision

Ecology Environment & Agriculture Watershed Management & Cover Management Organic Compost Manure Emitter irrigation Herbal Pesticides Improved Agricultural Tools

Rural Industries Honey Bee Apiary & Honey Production by Nonviolent Method from Rock bee Handmade paper & Banana Fiber Board Technology Low Cost Spirulina Production Technology Rural Pottery Ambadi Juice & Other Ambadi Products, Gum Products Women Technology Propagation & Training of Different Women Technologies Training & Extension of Modern Science Training in Appropriate Rural Technologies Research and Development Publication