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Topic 8 Writing Proposal 1. What is a research proposal? (p.

.109) It is intended to convince others that you have a research project worth doing and that you have the skills and competency to success ully complete it and should contain in ormation a!out all the key elements involved in the research. ". What are the #uestions to !e addressed !y research proposals? (p.109) i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. What are you studying? Who is it or? What do you wish to do? What do you hope to accomplish? Why do you want o do it? $ow are you going to do it?

%. &ist down the elements o a research proposal.(p.111) i. ii. iii. ' cover page( with the su!ject heading( your name as the writer( the degree you are working or( and the name o the institution con erring it ' problem statement( i.e. the idea or research area investigate that you propose to

Limitations of study. )ou need to de ine the limits o your research project in terms o scope( sampling( #uestions asked and methods employed ' literature review o important works already carried out in the ield so as to give your readers *state+o +the+art, perspective ' detailed research plan( with an outline o appropriate research methods ' time line or the various stages o the research ' statement on the type and availa!ility o resources you intend to use or your research

iv. v. vi. vii.

-. What are the things to consider when writing a research proposal?

i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii.

.eep iltering and rede ining your title /alk a!out your ideas to your riends or supervisor. Write !rie notes especially on your area o interest. 0ead through your proposal and put it aside or a while( then come !ack to it and reread it1 re lect on it. .eep and take notes 2ull over the write+up !ecause you might ind things you wish to change. 3ort out the various su!+topics so that they are in order. 4arry out re erencing so that you acknowledge other people5s work.

6. 7ame two other types o proposals. i. A formal proposal +su!mitted !y or through an organisation such as a school( college( university( non+pro it organisation or museum to an organisation such as a oundation( unding agency or corporation +written in a !usiness+like manner( straight orward( direct and precise + It in orms readers a!out the purpose( aims and !ene its accruing rom the study

ii. An informal proposal +written neatly in a structured manner like the ormal proposal !ut on a smaller scale and normally carries less weight than a ormal proposal. Topic 7 !eport Writing 1. &ist down the steps in good report writing. (p.90) i. ii. iii. iv. v. 8athering the data 'naly9ing and sorting the results :utlining the report Writing the dra t 0evising the dra t

". What are the important stages in revision? (p.9;) i. 4heck or material to ensure all data( statistics( opinions are included. ii. 4heck or organi9ation( mechanics and conventions. iii. 4heck or language.

%. What are the important things in report writing? (p.9<) i. ii. iii. iv. 4lear 4oncise 3mooth+ lowing Written rom an o!jective point o view

-. $ow do you make the report clear to the readers?(9=) i. ii. iii. iv. In the introduction( tell them what you are going to tell them in the rest o the report. In the !ody( tell them what you want to tell them. In the summary or conclusion( tell them what you have told them. 't the end o the section( tie all your parts together !y telling them what you want to do ne>t.

6. $ow to make sure that the report is !eing accepted !y people? i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. $ave a catchy title. Include an a!stract Write a good introduction. 3tate the su!ject 3tate the purpose 3tate the scope and organi9ation

vii. viii. i>. >. >i. >ii.

3tyle and length ?ormat 'rrange report systematically 4ite re erences 4ontent and style Writer5s checklist

T"P#$ % P&!'(A'#)& W!#T#*+ ,ill in the following table with brief e-planation. * Term . 0easons or and purposes o persuasive writing @eductive reasoning &-planation /o in luence or change your readers5 thoughts and actions and appeal to your readers5 sense o reason( emotions and good character. Introduces a general principle or premise and draws a speci ic conclusion rom it. 3upports a general conclusion !y looking at speci ic acts or evidence 'rgument is a conscious and deli!erate action using logic to make others agree( clear on own stand /he irst element o a good argument. )ou 2A3/ have evidence which is valid( relia!le( su icient( trustworthy and can !e veri ied When using acts( data and statistics o any sort( use them ethically and accurately

Inductive reasoning

1 2 %

'ppeal to 0eason 4onvincing evidence Broper evaluation o statistics Bersuasive 3trategies a. Cmphasing readers5 Dene its !. 'ddressing readers5 concern

$ow readers will !ene it rom taking the position or purchasing the products and stress on organisational o!jectives and growth needs Bredict readers5 responses so that negative thoughts or arguments could !e counteracted

c. 3howing sound reasoning d. Bresenting relia!le evidence

Dest weapon as it persuades readers that the decisions or actions recommended will !ring !ene its and e>plain why Cvidence readers are willing to accept( depends on situations( use common sense to determine type o evidence

8 /he reasoning process a. /he writer5s claim Bosition( !oth writer and readers want to accept !. /he evidence 4onsists o o!servations( acts and other in ormation

T"P#$ 2 TA$3L#*+ &''A4' 1. @e ine a paragraph ' paragraph is a group o sentences that is sel +contained and ocuses on a particular idea or point to develop the topic( +made up o a topic sentence( supporting sentenceEs and a concluding sentence. ". What is plagiarism? When turning in someone elseFs work as your own( copying words or ideas rom someone else without giving credit to the person concerned. %. What does citing sources re er to? It is simply acknowledging that certain material has !een !orrowed and providing your audience with the in ormation necessary.

T"P#$ 1 T4P&' ", &''A4' 1. a. Drie ly e>plain the % structural styles in e>planation essay5 Temporal se6uential where points o the essay are written in linear way and time markers are used to !egin each paragraph to show the processes involved

b. c.

$yclical when the main points are presented in a cyclical manner( $ause and effect to e>plain the cause o a phenomena and the e ect or eg. Why lash happen re#uently in the city.


What are the types o evidence that can !e used in a discussion essay? i. 7uotes 4omments rom a credi!le source. 0emem!er not to overuse this. ii. "pinion of e-perts :pinion rom e>perts in the su!ject o your writing. iii. Anecdotes 3hort accounts o interesting or humorous incidents. /hese can liven up a !oring academic essay. iv. $harts89iagrams @rawings or illustrations can !e used to clari y comple> concepts in our writing.

T"P#$ 0 W:AT A!& &''A4'5 1. 1. i. &ist down the stages involved in Cssay writing Bre+writing ii. @ra t iii. Cditing iv. ?inal dra tEessay

". What happens during the Cditing 3tage5 0eread the essay and edit it( check accuracy o content( clarity o e>pression( grammar( voca!ulary( other aspects such as spelling( punctuation( ormat and so on. %. 3tate the % di erent types o essay and !rie ly e>plain each type? i. &-planation &ssay which starts with a general statement( ollowed !y e>planations to support the statement ii. Argumentative essay which is persuasive in nature( !egins with thesis statement( the writer5 s opinion is argued iii. and restated in the conclusion

9iscussion essay which is similar to argumentative essay !ut discusses !oth sides o the issue and lets readers decide.


-. ;riefy e-plain which are discourse mar<ers and give en e-ample of a sentence.

' discourse marker is a word or phrase used in a conversation to signal the speakerFs intention to mark a !oundary or eg GAnyway( that5s all I can say or now.,.

6. What is the unction o cause and effect mar<ers and give an e>ample? /o connect sentences which show cause and e ect eg. I was sick( so I could not come to class.

;. What is the unction o the introduction paragraph? It introduces the su!ject matter o the essay( the topic( contains the topic sentence or thesis statement( gives understanding o the essay whereas the supporting sentences comprise evidence to support( veri y( or provide meaning to the topic sentence (sometimes( with e>amples) and ends with a concluding sentence that sometimes includes in ormation on what comes ne>t.

T"P#$ / $"==(*#$AT#"* ="9&L' A T:&"!&T#$AL P&!'P&$T#)& 1. What is o primary importance in $laude 'hannon>s =odel and what is secondary in importance? B.1< /he primary importance is encoding and decoding message whereas o secondary importance are the reasons or composing messages.

". What does the model on (lric *eisser>s Work stress on?p."0 Bsychology o cognition H perception 4ycle o learning which is e>ploratory H recursive C>plore the world( guided !y needsEdesiresEideas.

%. /he model !ased on 2ichael Bolanyi5s Work stresses on a person>s needs to be actively engaged in the process of <nowing and highlights the importance of ?tacit <nowledge. @pp./AB/.C

Topic . #ntroduction to $ommunication 1. There are three things to consider when you want to get your message across. What are they? Bp."+% i. ii. iii. /he message /he audience or receiver $ow the message is likely to !e received

". List down the factors that affect communication. (pp.%+6) a. 3tatusErole I di erences may a ect e ectiveness o communication

!. 4ultural di erences+ within or outside organi9ation c. 4hoice o communication channels according to purpose

d. &ength o communication+ serves the purpose and is appropriate( not too !rie or too long e. . Ase o language+ choice o words and sentence structure @isa!ilities such as impaired sight( dysle>ia( poor mental health+ !arriers to communication

g. .nown or unknown receiver I known receiver understands message !etter h. Individual perceptionsEattitudesEpersonalities i. j. 'tmosphereE noiseEdistraction Isurroundings 4larity o message

k. &ack o eed!ack+con irmation o understanding %. Why is it necessary to communicate in written form? Bp.;+< i. /he message is or posterity+ others can read it again and again

ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii.

In ormation can !e stored and trans erred rom individual to individual( group to group .eep a!reast o development in projects and provides avenue or presenting and de ending viewpoints ?orm o acknowledgment $elps to clari y thoughts and thinking processes 'ny idea( logic( argument or phraseology must !e documented 2aterial need to !e acknowledged and cited

-. List down the four errors that you need to avoid when writing. Bp. 9+11 i. ii. iii. iv. 4on using language I mislead readers and cause miscommunication Jer!osity I using too many words that inter ere with understanding Boor sentence structure Ileads to ragmented writing and choppy sentences that impede understanding In ormation overload I too much in ormation leading to con usion

6. What are the three stages in writing process? B.= i. ii. iii. Blanning Writing Cditing

;. 3tate the reasons why people do not respond to our written messages. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. too much in ormation in the te>t too many grammatical errors !arriers !etween sender and receivers message is not clear or precise wrong choice o delivery channel past e>perience eg. /reatment received documents not structured or messy or not laid out well


poor writing skills

4ontinuation o #uestions on colla!orative writing. d. *ame the '&)&* necessary processes for the management of effective writing.@7DC

c. /here are many stages in colla!orativeK invention( dra ting and revision. In dra ting stage( there are three models. @escri!e the /$0CC models. @%DC