Introduction to Tactical Data Links

© 2012 IBM Corporation

Course Objectives

§ Provide Pre-delivery instruction to training development, POC, engineering and information development teams, in: –Link-11 theory and operations –HCM-specific data link operations –Link-11 to Link-16/Link-22 translations –Link-11 test and debugging techniques –Configuring and starting data link operations –Training and Simulation of data link

INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY

© 2012 IBM Corporation

V1 January 2012

Introduction to Tactical Data Links

© 2012 IBM Corporation

Maritime and Ground Environments INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .Course Objectives § An introduction to Tactical Data Links –For those who have little or no previous exposure –Intended to bring team members from unaware to basic understanding of the purpose. delivery and operational impacts of tactical data links –Briefly covers the history of Canadian and Allied data link systems –Provides a glimpse of Canadian Data Link systems –Applicable to Airborne. development. personnel. testing.

Segment Outline

§ Reasons for TDLs § History of TDLs § Platforms using Links § Different types of Links – Link-1 – Link-4 – Link-14 – Link-11/11B – Link-16 § Future Links – Link-22 – Link-21 § Others – ATDL – TACFIRE – Link-10 – VMF

§ Link operations § TDL Development § TDL Integration § TDL Migration strategies § Interoperability assurance § Testing § Training § Future Projects § Link Vendors § Message Standards – Roles – STANAGs – ADatP – MIL-STDs § International Cooperation – DLWG – NILE
– MIDS

– Int. Data Link Society

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© 2012 IBM Corporation

Instructor

§ Jeffrey Jobb § Military Data Links experience – Link-11 – Link-16 – Link-22 Standards Development – NATO Data Link Working Group(s) 1987-1996 § Data Link Systems experience – ADLIPS, Halifax-CCS, Iroquois-CCS, AOR-TDLS, RSAOC, Aurora, & MHP – IBM’s DLPS for Halifax Class Modernization (since Apr 2011) § Message definition, requirements analysis, design, code, test and interoperability analysis

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© 2012 IBM Corporation

Sources

§ Data Link Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) – ADatP-11, ADatP-16, ADatP-22, ADatP-33 § Data Link Message Standards – STANAG 5511, STANAG 5516, STANAG 5522 – STANAG 5616, STANAG 5601, STANAG 5602 § Canadian Forces Document – CFCD 111 § US Documents – CJCSM-6120.01C - Joint Multi-TADIL SOP – USMC Ref Pub 3-25C - Intro to TADIL & Quick Reference – MIL-STD 6011, MIL-STD 6016 § Vendor Documents – LMS-11PC User Guide (NG-MS) – MDM-2002 DTS User Manual (Rockwell-Collins) – Understanding Link-11 (NG-MS)
INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY
© 2012 IBM Corporation

AAP-6 INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation . and specifically with regard to the employment of weapons” .AAP-6 § Data Link –“the layer of network operations most concerned with bit-oriented data. error checking and marshalling” ISO/IEC-74981:1994 OSI Network Model § Interoperability –“the ability of Allied forces to employ services and work together to achieve the mission” . packet manipulation.Terms & Definitions § Tactical –“particular to the local operations of a force.

in one fight.” § Recent experience – OP TELLIC –“the main factor in our success was that we were able to function as one team.The Reason for Tactical Data Links § NATO mandate . to provide for command and control of forces. dissemination of the common operational picture and resolution of information differences. with one data link network. without loss of meaning or impact.” • Air Vice Marshall Dalton – RAF speaking at IDLS 2003 INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .ADatP-31 –“To achieve the highest level of information exchange possible using standard radio and telecommunications services.

Brief History of Tactical Data Links § Before TDLs (1920-1949) –Still using Visual Signalling –Morse Code – CW –New UHF Voice radios § RATT (1938-present) –Originally perforated tape Morse printers –Became 5-bit Baudot code INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .

Before Data Link .Manual Plotting § Local radar and voice reports plotted in grease pencil § Based on Voice radio reporting procedures § Required strict radio discipline § Cannot exchange “the picture” § Operators had to write backwards INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .

Before the data links… INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .

What does the data link do? – Automation of Information Exchange INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .

Unknown) § What (is it) (Air. Foe. Surface. –Isn’t someone attacking it? INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .Basic Tactical Data Exchange § Who (is the contact) (Friend. Land) § Where (is it) § When (was it detected) § Whither (is it going) § Why …. Sub.

Technology limited § Pre-1970 Combat Operations were Pre-planned and Units Operated Autonomously § Cooperative Tactics Limited § Available Data Limited and Often Outdated § Data Obtained By: –Text message reports –Voice (Radio) Communications –Visual Observations § Voice Communications Subject to Misinterpretation § Inter-service and International Operations Limited and Lacked Coordination INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .

1961 – U.S. Enterprise – UNIVAC computer •Weight 308 lbs – Translated radar plot data into teletype link – Became NATO Link in 1967 •Link-14 – Fitted in RCN Tribal Class – 1970 •CCS-280 – Required manual plotting when received INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .First Automatic Data Link § NTDS WD Link .S.

Computer Technology Assisted § 1970’s brought Computer control of modem and radios –First NATO Standard protocols –Based on same procedures as voice and teletype exchange § Automatic plotting of local radar and link track positions § “Campfire” Displays –ADLIPS-STACOs shown in service in Portuguese Navy INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .

Computer Assisted Data Link Plotting § Canadian-built CCS-280 system one of NATO’s first fully capable link systems – Link-14 transmit – Link-11 transmit & receive § Automatic Data Link Plotting System (ADLIPS) – 1978 § Halifax CCS 330 – 1989 -> INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .

until recently. as in NATO. TADIL-B = 11B INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation . referred to as TADILs (Tactical Digital Information Link) plus message designator –example TADIL-A = Link-11.Modern Tactical Data Links § TDL used to refer to most Bit-Oriented Radio Links integrated with Weapons control or Command systems § In Canada. referred to by NATO Designator – example Link14 § In US.

software. INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .What are TDLs? § A TDL is an automated. interoperable information exchange method used by allied units to provide data of tactical import for use in situation appreciation and Command and Control. message standards. § A TDL system is comprised of computer hardware. sensors and operators. encryption devices. standard operating procedures. media (radio). controllers.

What Makes a system Interoperable? INTEROPERABILITY Sta nda rdi za tion a ftw So re s ure d e c Pro Tra in ing INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .

Choosing the Right TDL § Platform Type § Concept of Operations (CONOPS) – Determines what warfare areas the system will participate in § Information Exchange requirements – Determines what data links and messages the system will use INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .

Different Types of Links § Some Links are Real-Time.commonly teletype data links INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .. –no appreciable delay between sensor report and TDL update § Some Links are Non-Real-Time –where the time-of-report and time-of-observation are required for appreciation of the quality of the information ..

NATO’s In-Service Links § NRT Links –Link-1 –Link-14 (End 2010) § Phasing Out –Link-10 (End 2002?) § RT Links –Link-11/11B –Link-16 –Link-22 (IOC 2011) § Phasing Out –IJMS (End 2005) –Link-4A/4C § Others –ATDL-1 –HAWK INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .

1200. § Recently been provided to NATO PfP Nations in Mobile CRCs (USAF). It is not crypto secure and has a message set (S-series) limited to air surveillance and link management data. It was designed in the late 60s to cater for point-to-point data communication by wire. Denmark INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation . § exchange of air surveillance data between Sector Operation Centres (SOCs) and has a data rates of 600. 2400 bit per second (bps).Link-1 § Link 1 is a duplex digital data link primarily used by NATO’s Air Defence Ground Environment (NADGE). § Message Data – S-Series messages – 128 bit packet – 98 bits of Data § Uses Fixed and Unique Site Addresses – Example – Site #31 = ALBORG. § Documents are STANAG 5501 & ADatP 31.

Fitted in F-14. It is a netted.Link-4 (Phasing-out) § Link 4 is a non-secure data link used for providing vector commands to fighters. § Message Data – V & R Series messages – 36 bits of Data § Addresses assigned at Mission Load – 3 Number Octal § MIL-STD-6004 & MIL-STD-188-203-3 INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation . § It is planned that Link 16 will assume Link 4A's role in AIC and ATC operations and Link 4C's role in fighter-to-fighter operations. Link4A is not encrypted.000 bits per second. § Documents are STANAG 5504 & ADatP 4. F-18 and aircraft control units. § Link 4A is the controller to aircraft data link. Link 4C is a fighter-to-fighter data link which complements Link 4A although the two links do not communicate directly with each other. F-16. time division link operating in the UHF band at 5. However Link 16 is not currently capable of replacing Link 4A's ACLS function and it is likely that Naval aircraft will remain equipped with Link 4A to perform carrier landings. There are two separate "Link 4s": Link 4A and Link 4C.

§ Each nation within NATO has its own Link 14 transmission formats which are promulgated in ADatP-14. § provides the capability to broadcast picture compilation and status information for use in units unable to receive Link-11 transmissions either direct or via an interface.g. Message protocol is defined in STANAG 5514 § Message Data – Character-based sequences 4-40 characters § No addressing – Broadcast data § Source ID is IMO Call-Sign – Example HALIFAX is CGFN INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation . There are some auto-plot systems capable of receiving and charting the contacts. The Link can be either HF. e. VHF or UHF dependent on unit-communication fits.Link-14 § Link 14 is a broadcast teletype link for maritime units to transfer surveillance information from ships with a computer data processing capability to non-tactical data processing ships. nonTactical Data System (TDS) units.

§ Messages – M-Series – 48 bits of Data § Addresses assigned at Mission Load – 3 digit octal numbers INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation . Link-11 will be adapted to cater for Theatre Missile Defence information exchange requirements. a full duplex link operated in half-duplex mode.Link-11 § Link-11 is based on 1960s technology and is a relatively slow link which normally operates on a polling system with a Net Control Station polling each participant in turn for their data. In addition to this "Roll Call" mode. Link-11 may be operated in broadcast modes in which a single data transmission or a series of single transmissions is made by one participant. surface and subsurface tracks. However. EW data and limited command data among C2 units. § Within NATO Link-11 is primarily used as a Maritime Data Link. § Link-11 supports the exchange of air. satellite media or land-line (Link-11B fibre-optic has been tested). Link-11 is secure but not ECM-resistant. consequently Ground Based SAM Systems are or will be equipped with Link-11 (or Link-11B). Link-11 is. § Link-11 is designed for HF (300 NM) or UHF radios (25NM). therefore.

Within the US. France).Link-11B § Link-11B uses a dedicated. frequency-shift-modulated data link operating at a standard rate of 1200 bps with optional capabilities of 600 and 2400 bps.g. full-duplex digital data link using serial transmission frame characteristics. § Messages and Addressing as per Link-11 (with differences) § MIL-STD-6011 & MIL-STD-188-203-1A (MIL-STD-188-202 for L11B) INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation . point-to-point. Data is exchanged over a fully automatic. Link-11B is used as the primary data link for ground based TACS (e. full-duplex. phasecontinuous. and some other NATO Nations (e. § Message standards for both Link-11 and Link-11B are defined in STANAG 5511 while standard operating procedures are laid down in ADatP 11.g. § Within NATO Link-11B is used to integrate Ground Based SAM C&C and Fire Control Centres into the Air Defence Ground Environment using CRC SAM Interfaces (CSI). USAF MCE. and USMC TAOC).

UK E-3D and French E-3F. and the UK E-3D.came into existence because the hardware for JTIDS was available before the TADIL-J message standard (on which Link 16 is based). Provides an initial JTIDS operating capability for the USAF and was implemented in the NATO E-3A. while within NATO only limited IJMS capabilities have been implemented in NADGE CRCs. Same functionality as Link-11 but with a greater capacity and ECM-resistance. INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .IJMS (Phasing out) § Interim JTIDS Message Specification . Some US fighters have a dual IJMS/Link16 capability. § It is based on Link-11 messages packaged to fit into the JTIDS architecture. § IJMS is implemented in the UK ground environment for commonality with NATO E-3As.

Link 16 has been developed to meet the information exchange requirements of all tactical units. weapons assignments and control data. supporting the exchange of surveillance data. mission tasking. SAM Systems. IJMS and Variable Message Format (VMF).Link-16 § JTIDS and MIDS supports three message standards: Link 16. § Numerous platforms have been or will be equipped with Link 16 (Airborne Surveillance and Intelligence Systems. MIDS/JTIDS uses a Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) architecture on UHF radios or Satellite. § Messages – J Series – Variable Length using 75-bit packets § Dynamic Addressing and relay capability – 2 Alphanumeric. etc). § Link 16 optimizes the use of the MIDS/JTIDS architecture. Ships. C2 Systems. EW data.The Link 16 message standard uses J-series messages and completely meets the requirements for C2 functionality and aircraft control. 3 octal – AA001 § MIL-STD-6016 INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation . § Documents are STANAG 5516 & ADatP 16. Fighter and Bomber Aircraft.

inter-site message stream § Link-22 (also NATO Improved Link Eleven or NILE) – 2010+ –Fixed-length variant of Link-16 data elements. packet switched variant of Link-16 data elements. or LISA) – 2005+ –landline. adds HF wave-form for over horizon link § JRE (JTIDS Range Extension) – 2004+ –Satellite and alternate transfer of Link-16 data –MIL-STD-3011 protocol INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .NATO’s Developing Links § Link-21 (also Link in Support of ACCS.

EW. EW. FJ-Series UHF(Lx-Band) 54. Air Control Voice Functions No No 2 Secure Voice 126 Nets/Voice Spectrum System Throughput Access Protocol Jam Resistance Secure Beyond-Line-of-Sight Messages HF/UHF 1. 12. MM/WC Surveillance.8 UHF DTDMA Yes Yes Yes F. MM/WC. PPLI. EW.8 Kbits/Sec NCS Polling No Yes Yes (HF) M-Series INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY HF/UHF 2. PPLI. Position. MM/WC Surveillance.0 Kbits/Sec TDMA Yes Yes Yes (Relay) J-Series © 2012 IBM Corporation .2 Kbps HF.TDL Comparisons Feature Link-11 Link-22 Link-16 Data Functions Surveillance.

MBDL § HAWK Missile Battery Links –Ground-Link. Inter-Battery Link INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .PADIL § Missile Battery Data Link .Other TDLs in use (1) § Army Tactical Data Link-1 (ATDL-1) –Exchange of air and surface tracks in real time –Fire Control orders –B-series. 56-bit messages on multi-channel radio or land-line § PATRIOT Digital Information Link .

Belgium and Greece in 1970’s –Replacing with Link-11 (Finally) INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .Other TDLs in use (2) § TACFIRE – Army Air defense Artillery link – Character-based fire mission messages – Being phased out in 2008 by VMF message standard § VMF – Link-16 data elements in text or bitstream format – MIL-STD-6040 § Link-10 (NATO Phase out) –Link-14-like message set in a two-way radio communications system –Implemented by Netherlands.

7 MBps downlink § Tactical Common Data Link (TCDL) – Developed for Manned and UAVs . used for UAVs (Video.1995 – radar.7 Mbps over ranges of 200km § High Integrity Data Link (HIDL) – UK development for air and surface terminals to handle 100Kbps in jamming environments . video and other sensor information at rates from 1. imagery. secure 10. Infrared) § Requires multi-channel radios for uplink (sensor control) and downlink (data) § Common Data Link (CDL) – US standard since 1991.1999 INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .Sensor Data Links § Typically single or multi-sensor package data links.544Mbps to at least 10.

Data Link Operations § Basic theory of operations § System Architectures § Component examples § Messages and structure –Warfare areas supported INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .

Where.Basic Tactical Data Exchange § Automate the Sensor data exchange with Friendly forces – Who. When. Why § Extend the range of Situational Awareness by putting symbols on other unit’s displays § Send status information on Own Unit Sensors and Weapons § Coordinate Engagements ENGAGE 2 FIRING 0373 R 7701 BAD GUY 17:14:15Z INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation . What. Whither.

MHP Data Link Operations Course Day 1

Link-11 Theory, Architecture and Components

© 2012 IBM Corporation

Link-11 Network Operation

§ Net Control Station – polls PU sequence (Roll Call mode) – as per OPTASK msg § Participating Units – respond to poll § Other Modes – Broadcast, Short Broadcast – Radio Silent – Sync, Test

§ Single Hierarchy § all inclusive net § some addressed msgs (Commands) § not Jam resistant

INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY

© 2012 IBM Corporation

Link-11 Network (1)

Net Control Station (NCS) polls 1st Participating Unit (PU) PU transmits Own Location

INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY

© 2012 IBM Corporation

Link-11 Network (2) NCS polls next unit in sequence PU transmits track reports and supporting information INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .

Link-11 Network (3) NCS transmits its data and restarts the sequence INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .

Link-11 System Architecture § Includes Host Tactical Data system (TDS) or Data Link Processor (DLP). Crypto device. Data Terminal Set (DTS) § several commercial vendors of DTS § Some systems integrate DLP into Host TDS INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .

Link-11 Components § Host TDS – Embedded DLP (Aurora) – with ATDS interface card – Integrated into TDS – CCS-330 Halifax class CCS – New Halifax Class Modernization (HCM) project CCS (SAAB 9LV) § Data Link processor – Airborne DLP – Rockwell-Collins – MLP – Ultra – IBM Multi-Link DLPS § Encryption Device – KG-40A – Aurora.HCM § Link-11 Radio INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation . HCM – KG-40AR – Multi-Link Encryptor (MLE) .MHP § Data Terminal Set (DTS) – Rockwell Collins MDM-2202 Airborne Tactical Data Systems (ATDS) interface – DRS MX-512PV .

operations. multiple operator action – One UYK-507 processor dedicated to Link-11 configuration. diagnostics and monitoring – Reconfigurable to load software into a standby processor •Shedding load of ARP INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .Link-11 Host TDS § AOR CTDLS – COTS Item delivered for Gulf War – Combines Radar and Data Link processing in one console – Host and DLP combined – Small-scale system § Halifax Class CCS-330 – Host TDS built entirely around Link-11 tactical data – TDS with integrated data link processing – Distributed database.

Modernized Halifax Class CCS § New Multi-Function CCS Consoles § SAAB ACCS-9LV CCS System § New Radars. IFF and Fire Control systems § Harpoon Missiles Upgrade § ESM System Upgrade § Internal Communications system replaced § New Multi-Link Data Link Processor (IBM) § Infra-Red Search and Track system § Extended Sea Sparrow Missiles Upgrade INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .

Tactical Data System functions in TDL § Navigation data § Sensor data § Link Network operational parameters –DLRP –PU Numbers –Track Block –Filters § Display of tactical data § Correlation of local sensor data § Track release INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .

Link-11 Data Link Processor § DLP Functions – Encode and Decode of Link-11 messages – Support TDS tactical functions such as correlation. Identity conflict detection and resolution.Thales INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation . Gridlock – Link network monitoring – Terminal interfaces. some include terminal control § Airborne DLPs – ADLP-100 – Rockwell-Collins – MLP – Ultra § Ship DLPs – C2P – Northrop-Grumman – DLPS .IBM – DLIP .

DLP Functions in TDL § Correlation parameters – per STANAG § Gridlock reference unit § Gridlock mode § Released tactical data § Applies Local/Remote Correlation § Applies Filters § Applies Conflict rules INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .

functional replacement for NTDS devices – MLE – Ultra •Initial offering for MHP – ATDS •MLEp with RS-422 interface Candidate for TDE 3-box solution § Crypto Operator Entries – Keylist – Mode – Fill – Erase – Indicators INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .Link-11 Encryption Device § Encryption Device – KG-40A and Remote Control – Aurora •NTDS Parallel interface •ATDS Serial interface – KG-40AR Replacement •US Navy purchase – Ultra •Fit. form .

Link-11 Data Terminal Set (the modem) § DTS Functions – Tactical data systems interface control – Link protocol control – Signal modulation/demodulation – Generation of Link-11 protocol control codes – Error detection and correction – Doppler/RF Error Detection – Audio interface to radios – Keyline control § Airborne DTS – MDM-2202 – Rockwell-Collins (Aurora) – MDM-2202N – Rockwell-Collins (MHP) – MDM-2402 – Rockwell-Collins § Ship DTS – MDM-2002 – Rockwell-Collins – MX-512PV or USQ-125 – DRS (Halifax class) INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .

Diversity § Data Rate – Fast. Net Sync. Short Broadcast. Picket § Sideband Select – Auto.DTS Entries § Net Mode – Roll-call. USB. Broadcast. LSB. Off § Other Settings INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation . Slow § Doppler Correction – On. Net Test – Radio Silent § Station Mode – NCS.

Link-11 Radios § HF – 2 to 30 MHz § UHF – 225 to 400 MHz § UHF ARC-210 Multi-mode § Meet Link-11 Requirements – Switches quickly between Tranmsit and Receive – Audio bandpass is wider than voice bandpass – Transmitter keying required before data arrives at radio – Fast AGC attack and release times – Internal frequency standard – Multi-tone or single-tone capable – Restricted phase jitter and envelope delay tolerances INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .

MHP Data Link Operations Course Day 1 Link-11 Data Exchange © 2012 IBM Corporation .

frame switches add overhead § stringent Illegal value processing INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation . M.M-Series Messages 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 01 00 TRACK S QUALITY I 47 46 45 44 PRI AMP 43 42 ID 41 40 39 38 37 36 TRACK NUMBER 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 MESSAGE # 27 26 25 24 Y COORDINATE X COORDINATE § 48 bits of data in 2-24 bit Frames – Plus 6 EDAC Bits per Frame § sequences required to build data objects § T/R Acknowledgement and compliance rules § Message #.8.

Link-11 Identity Matrix (Air) Unknown (0) Friend (1) Hostile (2) Friend (3) Pending General No Statement Special Mission Unknown Helo - Strike / Support / Bomber Assumed Friend - - Interceptor / Fighter Suspect - - - INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .

ESM – Points (No Lines.Link-11 Mission Areas Supported § Participating Unit location & ID § Surveillance – Air. a few Areas) § ESM Parametric and Coordination § Mission status § Aircraft Handover § Command and Control § National Messages § Text Message INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation . Surface Subsurface.

4C § M.Link-11 Messages (1) § M.4D § M.3 § M.83 § M.4B § M.1 § M.85 ASW Secondary Message ASW Primary Acoustic Message ASW Bearing Message Special Points Position Message Special Points Amplify Message § M.5 § M.82 § M.2 § M.84C ASW Primary Acoustic Amplify Message § M.84D ASW Bearing Amplify Message § M.84A ASW Amplify Message INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .0 § M.81 § M.4A Test Message (NT/DM) Data Reference Position Message Data Reference Position Amplify Message Air Track Position Message Air Position Amplify Message Surface Track Position Message Surface Position Amplify Message ASW Primary Message § M.

Link-11 Messages (2) § M.6C Electronic Support Measures Parametric Message § M.6D Electronic Warfare Coordination and Control Msg § M.9F (AC=1) Area of Probability Secondary Message § M.9G Data Link Reference Point Position Message § M.89F(AC=0) Area of Probability Basic Amp Msg § M.86C Electronic Support Measures Parametric Amp Message § M.9F (AC=0) Area of Probability Basic Message § M.9C Management Message (Pointer) § M.9B Management Msg (Pairing/ Association/ Correlation) § M.86D Electronic Warfare Coordination and Control Amplify INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .9A Management Message (Information) § M.86B Electronic Support Measures Amplify Message § M.6A ECM Intercept Data Message § M.9D Management Message (Link 11 Monitor) § M.9E Management Message (Supporting Information) § M.6B Electronic Support Measures Primary Message § M.

2 US Navy National Message – M.811M EW/Intelligence Amplify Message § M.12.3 NATO Text Message – M.10A Aircraft Control Message § M.28 Canadian National Message § M.12.14 § M.Link-11 Messages (3) § M.11B Aircraft Mission Status Message § M.11M EW/Intelligence Message § M.15 Worldwide National Message Weapon/Engagement Status Message Command Message INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .12.11D IFF/SIF Message § M.12 National Message – M.12.13 § M.11C ASW Aircraft Status Message § M.31 Timing Message § M.2.

Link-16 © 2012 IBM Corporation .

encryption and radio functions into one device § Additional features added to JTIDS Class II and MIDS functions include digital Link-16 voice.Link-16 Development § Link-16 development started in mid-1980’s with message standard and Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS) Class I terminals § JTIDS and later Multi-Function Information Distribution System (MIDS) terminals combine network control. relative navigation. TACAN and IFF blanking features. so no Net Control station. jam resistant. § Terminals are initialized from pre-sets defined by Network planning systems § Link-16 operational features include TDMA. secure voice and increased data capacity over legacy data links INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation . frequency hopping.

Link-16 Network Operation § UHF. System Encryption INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation . Voice Capability § TACAN. Frequency Hopping § Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) § Automatic Relay.

TDMA Architecture INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .

Link-16 Relay § Usually based on Net Participation Groups (NPG) § May be divided by area – Configured at mission load or dynamically – Lengthens time slot assignments for relay units – Assigned by Frequency within time slots INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .

Link-16 Net Participation Groups § NPGs are stacked by time-slot allocations § May include Frequency hops § Usually assigned at Mission load – Air Control – Fighter – Air Control – Strike – Fighter Back-link – Ground Air Defence § Surveillance NPG is used by all INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .

DLPs do data forwarding INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation . § Called a C2P in the US § requires a system upgrade to interface to C2P § most C2Ps.Link-16 System Architecture § In most cases L16 requires a new Data Link Processor (DLP) inserted between the Host CCS and the JTIDS and L11 terminals.

Timing § 2 Voice channels INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .JTIDS Terminal Interfaces § JTIDS Class II Terminal § 3 variants – Shipboard (rack-mount) – Airborne High-power – Airborne § Host (or C2P) interface – 1553B for data and control § Discrete interfaces – Blanking. SAHRS. TACAN. IFF.

4 and/or 16 KBS) – Geodetic and Relative Navigation – Integral TACAN Current Applications •F-15 •F-14 •Tornado (UK) •JSTARS •Rivet Joint •MCE •USN Submarines INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .JTIDS Class 2 Terminal § JTIDS Class 2 Terminal – 200 Watts RF Output – Up to 238 KBS Data Throughput – Dual Antenna Ports with Dynamic Switching – 2 Channels Digital Voice – (2.

JTIDS Class 2M (Ground Terminal) • Single Unit with Integral • • • • Receiver Transmitter Data Processing X.25 Interface Cooling System • Same Performance as basic Class 2 except: • No Voice • No TACAN • Current Applications • FAAD • THAAD • Patriot INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .

4 and/or 16 Kbps – Geodetic and Relative navigation – 70 pound weight saving INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation . Less Costly – 200 watts – Up to 238 Kbps of data – Dual Antennae ports – 2 channel Digital voice •2.MIDS LVT 1 § MIDS Low Volume Terminal – Smaller.

MIDS-on-Ship § Shipboard variant of MIDS terminal § MIDS-LVT housed in 2nd lowest drawer § Power supply and conditioner § Interface unit § Control panel and indicators § Crypto and parameter fill ports § High-power RF amplifier and TACAN interface units .optional INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .

and uses spare card-slots § Retains existing MIDS capability § Adds two Software-Defined Radio modules – Programmable UHF channels § Enhances Link-16 digital voice channels § More robust power supply INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .MIDS-JTRS § Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) variant of MIDS-LVT § Removes and replaces legacy MIDS cards.

Voice not integrated but capable § SHAR Terminal – UK Sea King Whiskey AEW. Harriers INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation . Voice.Other Link-16 Terminals § MIDS LVT 2 – Fighter Data Link – 50 watt terminal. but no TACAN – Fitting in UK ASTOR. NIMROD. Tornado. Tanker. RAF Tornado – 200 watt RF output.

Link-16 Messages § 300-fold increase in information over Link-11 – System Information Exchange and Network Management – Precise Participant Location and Identification (PPLI) – Surveillance • Air. including Multi-segment shapes – Electronic Warfare Intelligence – Mission Management – Weapons Coordination and Management – Command & Control – Information Management – Precision Aircraft Control and Weapon guidance – Platform and Airfield status INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation . Land. Surface (Maritime). Electronic Surveillance • Points. Space. Lines and Areas.

J-Series Messages § 75 –bit Words (70 Data Bits.J 30 29 28 27 Word FMT 26 25 43 ß 74 73 72 71 70 69 SI I Alt SRC 68 67 66 Strength 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 Track Number 58 57 ID DI 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 Identity ID Confidence Track Quality Altitude INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation . 5 EDAC) § Extension Words provide additional amplifying data § Continuation Words provide optional data § Stringent error checking § Single message to establish track with attributes 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 SIM I 17 SP I 42 16 EMG I 41 15 FT I 40 14 PP 39 13 Ex I 38 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 01 00 ß 49 48 47 46 45 44 MSG Length 37 36 35 34 SubLabel 33 32 31 Label .

J-Messages – More Information Identity Pending Unknown Assumed Friend Amplifier § Can Report: –Platform Type •Values 0 – 62 –Platform Activity. or •Values 0 – 126 –Specific Type •Values 0 – 4095 § Air – UNK – Civil Air –Or § Air – UNK – 767 § Also Nationality Friend Neutral Suspect Hostile Faker. Joker INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .

LAT LON SPEED HEADING ALT ID INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .Link-16 Message Packing SLOTS 1 3 4 5 6 ID LAT LONG SPEED HEADING ALT FUEL ORDNANCE MISSION SOURCE TRACKING NO.

J-Series messages § Used in JTIDS and MIDS § Variable length messages § Add words to send all available info about a track (IFF.2 Extension – J3.J3. intelligence…) § Latitude/Longitude instead of Coordinate references § Example .2 Continuation § Data Precision and completeness – more than 10 Link-11 messages and amplifying messages INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .2 Air Track message can include: – J3.2 Initial – J3.

6. or 107.520 bits per second. depending on the data packing structure used. depending on whether the Standard. Packed-2.Packing and Data Rates § Effective tactical data rates of Link-16 are 26.880. throughput and time-slots available for relays.760. or 53. § Dense packing impacts data rate. or Packed-4 data packing (timing) structure is used. or 12 words can be transmitted in a time slot. INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation . § Either 3.

Link-22 © 2012 IBM Corporation .

with IBM’s DLPS INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation . the NILE system will require a new DLP or C2P interfacing with the NILE equipment and software § USN intends to implement as a sub-set of their Link-16 system interface with a C2P upgrade § NATO IOC date is 2010 § MHP and Aurora are designated Royal Canadian Air Force Link-22 growth platforms § Royal Canadian Navy is implementing Link-22 with the Halifax Class Modernization program.Link-22 Implementation § Link-22 is also known as NATO Improved Link Eleven (NILE) § Development started in late 1980’s as improvements to Link-11 § Created as a replacement for Link-11 using Link-16’s “J-series” message data. in fixed format messages needed for HF radio networks § As in Link-16.

Link-22 Operation § Dynamic Time-Division Multiple Access (DTDMA) § Up to 4 NILE Networks per Super-Network § Mission Area Sub-Networks can cross Network boundaries § Offers automated Relay and connection management features § NILE program delivering Software only. uses existing standard maritime radios INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .

Link-22 Architecture INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .

Link-22 Equipment (NCE) § NILE Communications Equipment –Could be a Data Link Processor (DLP) such as the Link-11 MLEmp -> –Upgraded with new DTS/SPC –Host the SNC Software –Host the DLP Software –Interface to LLC and Time of Day (TOD) INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .

IBM’s DLPS & Link-22 § IBM’s DLPS hosts the SNC Software § Interfaces to the crypto system (LLC) § DLPS performs Link-22 message exchange and Data Forwarding to other Links § IBM has been involved in Link-22 studies and development since 1996 INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .

Link-22 Messages § Like the Link-16 Messages –Using J-Series Data elements –Packed into 72-bit Data Words –Eight Words per Transmit Service Request (TSR) via the SNC –Packet Encrypted –Service Delivery Request • Normal Reliability • High • Guaranteed Delivery INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .

MULTI-LINK Operations © 2012 IBM Corporation .

MULTI-Link Operations § Forwarder .Multi-link system capable of automatic re-transmission of data from one link to another.Multi-link system capable of concurrently operating on both links. using local data. § Concurrent Operator . INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .

Link-11/11B to/from Link-16 § Forwarding Participating Unit (FPU) interfaces data from Link-11 to Link-11B units § Forwarding Reporting Unit (FRU) interfaces data from Link-11B units to others in a “Daisy-chain”. § Forwarding JTIDS Unit (FJU) interfaces data from Link-16 to Link-11 units § Typically used in Ground Air-Defence and Strike (Forward OBS) systems § STANAG 5616 Volume 1 INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .

Link-22. Link-16 and Link-11 § Forwarding between Link-16. so data translation schema will still be used between these two links § Some nations have expressed need to keep Link-11 in service with Link-22 § Halifax Class DLPS does Forwarding on All Links § Aurora and MHP have translation requirements for the DMS/MDMS INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation . Link-22 and Link-11 is defined in STANAG 5616 § Link-22 Data is based on Link-16 data elements.

Link-22. Link-16. Link-22. Link-22 INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation . JRE § JRE to Link-11. JRE § Link-11 to Link-16.IBM’s DLPS Data Forwarding § Controlled by Operator using Integrated Network Management (INMT) Software § Operator selects Forwarding using Graphical User Interface § Link-16 to Link-11. JRE § Link-22 to Link-11. Link-16.

Canadian TDL Platforms © 2012 IBM Corporation .

Canadian Platforms with TDL (1) § Navy – IROQUOIS Class Destroyers (4) –(photo right) •TRUMP-CCS – Link-11 •2 fitted with Stand-Alone Link16 •Since 1991 – HALIFAX Class Frigates (12) •CCS-330 – Link-11 •Link-14 removed •Since 1992 •Modernizing under HCM program INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .

1 •3 Since 1995 (photo left) § Air Force – NORAD – ROCC-AWACS Data Link (RADIL) – Since 1986 – Phasing Out – 2006? INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .Canadian Platforms with TDL (2) § Navy – Cont’d – PRESERVER – AOR •EDO NTDLS – COTS Systems •1991 .

Ashore – MULTOTS test system – Link-11 – Since 1995 INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .Canadian Platforms with TDL (3) § Air Force – CP-140 AURORA (18) •Link-11 •Since 1982 (photo right) § Army – ADATs Battery CP (4) •Link-11B •Acquired ADSI system from US Army •Since 2004 § Navy .

Link-22 INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .New Canadian TDL Systems § CH-148 Cyclone Maritime Helicopter – Mission system by General Dynamics Canada (photo left) – Link-11 System (DLP. embedded Crypto and DTS) by Ultra Electronics (UK) – Link-11 only – Future Upgrade to Link-22 § CP-140 Aurora Data Management System Upgrade – Mission System by General Dynamics Canada (photo next slide) – Link-11 DLP by Rockwell-Collins France •Embedded within DMS – Legacy Crypto and DTS – Future Upgrade to Link-16.

New CP-140 Aurora DMS INTERNAL IBM USE ONLY © 2012 IBM Corporation .

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