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40K Bunker Tutorial

Welcome to the second in my scenery tutorial series. This time were going to build a 40K style bunker. The tutorial will
include the following tasks:
• Planning the model
• The materials involved
• The build.
• Painting, Texturing and Weathering
Music to work by (Very important this)! I always listen to different styles of music while sculpting and modeling 40K
and out roll slipknot – soil – taproot - fear factory and similar.

OK so onto the build, yank up the music and lets get cracking!

This is the goal....good modeling!

Planning the model:


• The Initial Sketch, sketch out your basic designs, at this stage you don't need to worry about dimensions just put
down the basic shape, or if your copying a magazine or something else make sure you keep it handy.

My pathetic sketch!
Size, as they say is actually important! Most miniatures are 3cm ish in height, bare this in mind when planning
the model, you try walking up steps that are 2 meters high!

• Time to get your idea into a usable plan. I use grid paper but anything will do. Remember those dimension, keep
one of your figures nearby to lay next to the two dimensional plan, (I use an old chaos marine I've had for years….
Freds his name, and he stars in a lot of my work) anyway's……the last thing you need is to have your model unable
to see through the murder holes!

• At this stage the more observant of you will have noticed that I have apparently missed of the roof! You will see
why a bit later! For now cut out the basic structural shape and place to one side

• That's about all the actual paper work you need to do, the fun of modeling is how organic it is, don't restrict your
work with complete schematic plans, get the basic sizes down and leave it at that, the rest is down to your
imagination.

The dimension of my model are:

Front: 10cm Wide x 6cm High


Side: 7.5cm Wide x 6cm High

May be obvious but remember to make 2 sets, front and back!

The materials involved (most of them)


For this build I'm going to use two primary materials:
• Art Board (I bought 5 decent size sheets for £6.00 ($11.00 from my local art supply store, more than enough
for 10 – 15 model projects)
• ¾ inch high density foam, this is a little more difficult to source, insulation material is made from this,
however blue foam is just as good and can be bought direct from the internet, type in blue foam, or high
density foam into the following Google search box to find a supplier near you.
The other products I use are
• PVA Glue (Hobby or art store, very cheap)
• Blackboard Black paint is the best, but any black paint will do.
• Hot wire cutter (Mine is a games workshop model)
• Games workshop fine grade flock.
• Modeling Mulch, A mixture of different grade of flock, sand and small rubble.
• Balsa Wood (Any hobby shop)
• Knife (Very sharp)
• GW Scorched Brown, for making the grass muddy)
• Shadow Gray (For first dry brush coat)
• Fortress Gray (For second dry brush coat)
• Skull White (For final highlight dry brush coat)
• Boltgun Metal (For the door and escape hatch)
• Resin plaster, plaster of Paris or reconstituted stone (Stocked at any hobby store)
That's it, once you have these product you will be able to make around 60_ of the models and structures included in
the following tutorials and master classes.

Kit of parts:
You now have enough parts to assemble the basic bunker shape, but before you get gluing lets add a little modeling
magic!
Your bunker would look a little boring with basic flat sides, you will notice on the photo of the finished article the walls
look as though their covered in battle damage and bullet holes, to get this effect is really simple.
Art board is made up of a sandwich of low density foam placed between two thin sheets of card, by removing one of
the sheets of card we have a surface that is easy to weather. Peel of one side of all your kit parts.
• Peel of one layer of card, leaving one layer to add stiffness to the finished model.
A full kit of parts

Get your modeling knife and dig out small holes and generally mess up your walls. If you run your knife around in a
circle at a 45 degree angle you will get very realistic shell and bullet holes.
Assembly

• Get your PVA and glue the pieces together, it takes a little time to dry so try using some pins to hold it together.
• Once you have glued it together place your model in side and check the dimensions, as you can see from the
picture, Fred's head and torso is clearly visible, more than enough to bring a rifle to bare on the enemy!

The Roof:

Time to grab the foam.


• Cut your foam into a square 12cm x 10cm using your hot knife.
• Place your model onto its roof, resting on top of the cut out foam, make sure its more of less central then
trace around the inside (Not the outside) with a pencil.

• With your knife cut around the pencil mark, don't discard the middle; simply push it around 70_ through as in
the photo, do not glue at this time!
• You now not only have a roof, but one that won't slip of and will be removable so your figures can fit into the
bunker! However you may notice that it won't quite push down into the base because of the overhang from
the murder hole. Cut a recess and it should then fit snugly.

The Roof Continued:

• At this stage it looks a little blocky, get your hot knife and add a 45 degree angle all the way around as in the
picture.
After hot knifing

• Then add chips and battle damage as before.


• Next c ut a hole into the left hand side to accommodate the entry way at the top of the stairs.
• Finally glue the centre in by running glue around the inside and pinning.
Ok bar a few additions you have pretty much finished the bunker, wasn't so hard was it? Time to make a base, build
the steps and add an entrance.

The Base and steps:


Back to the Foam again, this time I will leave the size of the base up to you, however make sure you leave
enough room for the steps and entrance way in the back.
• I have cut out a base around 17cm by 14 cm, you will notice I have made the edges quite jagged to
represent rock.
Checking everything for size.

• The dimensions of the step piece is 8 ½ cm x 3cm wide.


• I have sketched the shape of the steps onto the foam and cut it out using my hot knife.
• Glue the steps onto the model.
• Place model onto the base and carve in the remaining steps all the way to the floor.
• Finely glue the model to the base and leave to dry.
• Next I need to make my steps, this is where your carving skills come in, by cutting a roughish set of steps
from a piece of foam

The bunker entrance:


This fortified bunker would look out of place with anything less than a seriously robust door.
• For the door I have broken out the bits box and found a suitable piece of plastic, you can either make your
own from card or simply paint it on! The games workshop modeling book has some great ideas for door
making.

Cool, Our structure is complete, here are a few shots to show you what mine looks like at this stage.
Adding Textures :

Wow… were nearly there! The base is almost complete, don't worry if your model has gaps and parts that don't
quite fit together properly, finishing is where we take care of those parts.
The next steps are to add terrain detail and rubble around the base of the structure where the walls have
collapsed from the shell damage.
For this we break out what I call (The mulch) this pot is full of sand, cork pieces, flock and any other lumpy
material I can find.

• Take your base and add glue spots around the base (As in the picture) then press the mulch into the glue.
• Thoroughly press the Mulch into the glue and then drain it off. Leave for at least 2 hours to dry.

Turning foam into real rock!


Now we apply the next of our clever techniques and convert our soft foam into real rock. This is a messy job so
be sure to lay down some news paper.
• Get your plaster, resin or reconstituted stone (Used on this model) and mix with water, don't make it to
runny, it should just about stick to your brush (definitely use an old brush).


• Make sure your bunker roof is on top, and then paint every part of the model, roof, walls stairs and base, the
plaster will help set the Mulch solid and when dry will give you a really solid, fantastic surface on which to
apply the paint!
OK……….model finished, only the painting to go! Its really important that at this point you leave the model to
thoroughly dry, depending upon the plaster you have used, it may be best to wait until the following day.

Painting, Texturing and Weathering

For many of you this is the best part! Its certainly the most satisfying as this is where your model finally takes
shape. For most this is also the most intimidating as the perception is that you could ruin your model, those
that lack confidence just remember that you can always paint it black and start again. We all make mistakes
and trial an error is part of the game.
A simple tip is to paint a plain block of foam with your plaster and practice on that before turning to your model!.
OK here goes.

• Paint the entire model black, inside and out. I am sure that nobody can get this bit wrong, if your using
Games Workshop sprays make sure that you have covered every inch of your foam with plaster or else your
going to end up with a heap of molten foam.

Painted and very wet!


A note about my choice of black paint:
For years I used Games Workshop chaos black spray, one day I ran out and as it was Sunday afternoon and as I
live in a village I went to my local hardware store which was still open. The only black they had was
Blackboard Black, so in desperation I bought it. I have used nothing else since. The result is of the most dry,
dull looking black possible which is perfect for representing the background of something that is permanently
outside, when dry brushed the effect it simply stunning. For painting scenery, nothing beats it.

Time to dry brush!

Over the years I have shipped models to more than 25 countries and for some reason (And I haven't got a clue
why!) I have shipped more products to Belgium than anywhere else! Anyway's, I have had many requests
from this country in particular for a better understanding of dry brushing scenery. Dry brushing is a skill that
needs to be practiced, and many of you will be quite familiar with dry brushing your miniatures.
Dry brushing scenery is no different; the real secret I believe is two fold.
Have hardly any paint on the brush
Don't worry about how the end result will turn out.

There aren't many modeling practices that suggest complete disregard to quality but this is one. Move your
brush really fast and all over the piece. Don't concentrate on any special areas just go quickly all over the
model. Its almost like strumming a guitar, fast and furious, trying to skim your models surface.

The slight scrape of paint in the above picture represents how much paint each stroke actually releases.

• Ok, the first paint to step to the plate is Shadow Gray, get your favorite dry brush and dip it in, take of the
excess using kitchen or toilette roll!
• You will notice mine is a fat poster paint brush, these are great for big areas, the light smear on the paper
reflects how hard a push on the model. This model took me 60 seconds max to dry brush the base coat!

That's about it for the first coat! the black has now turned a blue colour.
Painting continued:

Brushing Continued:

• Base brushing done, its time to move onto our Fortress Gray, start of really light this time and remember
your not trying to colour in the model, allow the brush bristles to pick out only the rough bits. It should now
be starting to look really cool!

• Finally the Skull white, make sure this is your lightest coat, only brush the edges and not the main walls, this
will represent wear and tear, as well as weathering.

I'm now going to paint my door and escape hatch with Boltgun Metal, same technique for dry brushing just on a
smaller scale! And with a smaller brush, I'm using a GW Citadel Small Dry brush

Flocking the base:

Home straight! Time for the final bit flocking the base. I'm using Games Workshop flock.
• Get an old paintbrush and paint PVA around the models base as in the photo, leave most of the rubble
showing at the base of the models sides, remember this would have fallen on top of the grass not the other
way around, although time has seen a little grass growing up onto the rubble.

• Pour the flock onto the base and then push down with your fingers before tipping it onto the newspaper,
remember to pour the remaining flock back into the container (Its expensive stuff)!
Were done! If you stuck with it all the way through hopefully you now own a really cool looking bunker, and more
importantly the skills to convert all those ideas you have about other projects into real life, professional
looking war-game scenery.
I've really enjoyed putting together this tutorial and hope you have enjoyed reading it, I would love to see photos
of the work you have completed based on this article, I may even put them into a readers gallery.
I will be planning many new tutorials from loads of different war-game genres, if you would like me to build a
particular piece then please email me direct at mark@maffo-models.com please enclose you name and the
piece you are interested in seeing a tutorial on.
Thanks
Maffo
I have used the techniques you have just learned to complete many projects, these are just a few!

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