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You are on page 1of 6

Jun Yang

1,3

Kota Sata

2

Junichi Kako

2

Akira Ohata

2

Tielong Shen

3

1

Department of Electrical Engineering, Yanshan University,

Qinhuangdao, China

2

Power Train Control Div. Toyota Motor Corporation, Shizuoka,

Japan

3

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sophia University, Tokyo,

Japan

Abstract: To attenuate the cyclic variation of the residual gas mass, a feedback regulator for

the residual gas mass is designed based on a dynamic model with stochastic property. The

dynamic model is developed in accordance with the physics, where the residual gas fraction

(RGF) as a crucial system parameter is modeled as a stochastic process with Markov property.

The regulator is given by utilizing control design technology for the discrete-time jump system.

The performances of closed-loop system with the proposed controller, which is presented by the

experiments conducted on a full-scaled gasoline engine test bench, show that the residual gas

mass has narrower dispersion under two dierent working conditions.

Keywords: Residual gas mass, stochastic regulation, residual gas fraction.

1. INTRODUCTION

The residual burned gas has great inuence over the fuel

economy, pumping loss reduction and emission reduction.

A certain amount of the residual gas as the internal ex-

haust gas recirculated improves the combustion eciency

and reduces the emissions of carbon monoxide([1, 2]).

However, undesired cyclic variation of the residual gas will

cause the cyclic dispersion of combustion state. As a result,

the engine performance is damaged by the variation of

residual gas. Therefore, to guarantee the residual gas mass

at a desired level is a signicant issue for improving the

engine performance.

Several approaches have been proposed to solve the resid-

ual gas mass uctuation attenuation problem by modeling

the RGF and/or designing control law. For example, a

dynamic model of the in-cylinder gas including the in-

formation of the residual gas mass is developed in [3],

where the cyclic uctuation of combustion state caused

by the residual gas mass is described as a random number

with Gaussian distribution in expression of the RGF. The

developed dynamic model in [3] is used to design a feed-

back control law in [4] by the neural network technique to

reduce the cyclic variation at lean combustion and in [5]

by backstepping approach to achieve the stable operation

at extreme lean combustion. Moreover, modeling the RGF

is investigated by the method with measurement in [6, 7]

and by the physics-based method in [8, 9], respectively.

For the physics-based model, in [8] the RGF is described

as a function of the engine speed, the inlet pressure, the

exhaust pressure, the valve-overlap factor, the compres-

sion ratio and the air-fuel ratio, while in [9] the RGF is

characterized as a function of the cylinder pressure, the

fresh charge temperature and the engine speed.

In this paper, the regulation problem is investigated for

the residual gas mass of the gasoline engine. First, the

statistical property of the RGF is noted that the RGF has

Gaussian distribution and the RGF of the current cycle has

a great eect on that of the next cycle. This observation

motivates that the RGF can be treated as a discrete-

time Markov chain in light of the description principle

of Markov chain in ([10, 11]). The statistical property

and the transient probability matrix are established to

represent the stochastic model of the cyclic RGF. Based

on this statistical model, a physics-based dynamic model

is developed, which characerizes the cyclic variation of the

residual gas mass with the RGF described as a discrete-

time markov jumping parameter. Furthermore, a feedback

controller is designed by utilizing the stability theorem

for discrete-time linear systems with Markovian jumping

parameters ([12, 13]). The boundness of the L

2

-norm of

the regulation error is shown by theoretical analysis and

the validation of the feedback controller is demonstrated

on a full-scaled gasoline engine test bench.

2. PHYSICS AND STATISTICAL PROPERTIES

2.1 RGF and measurement

The in-cylinder gas mass transition diagram of internal

combustion engines with four strokes is shown in Fig. 1,

where a cycle is dened from the beginning of the exhaust

stroke to the end of the combustion stroke, i.e., the k th

cycle is the period from BDC

e

(k) to BDC

e

(k + 1). As

shown in Fig. 1, not all of the gas are discharged outside

at the end of the exhaust stroke. The residual gas mass

M

r

(k) which is remained in the cylinder includes air, fuel

and combustion products, and it will mix with the fresh

7th IFAC Symposium on Advances in Automotive Control

The International Federation of Automatic Control

September 4-7, 2013. Tokyo, Japan

978-3-902823-48-9/2013 IFAC 594 10.3182/20130904-4-JP-2042.00144

C

y

l

i

n

d

e

r

p

r

e

s

s

u

r

e

(

b

a

r

)

I

n

c

y

l

i

n

d

e

r

g

a

s

m

a

s

s

(

g

)

k k+1

BDCe(k) TDCe(k) BDC(k) TDC(k) BDCe(k+1 TDCe(k+1) BDC(k+1) TDC(k+1) BDCe(k+2)

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0

Mr(k)

Mn(k)

Mr(k+1)

Mn(k+1)

Cylinder

pressure

Gas mass

Fig. 1. In-cylinder gas transition diagram.

gas mass M

n

(k) which contains fresh air and fresh fuel

in the following induction stroke. Since the thermal state

of the residual gas is quite dierent from the fresh gas, it

has a great inuence in the following combustion stroke.

The cyclic variation of the combustion strokes are in turn

aected by the uctuation of the residual gas mass. Hence,

the residual gas mass is one of the factors causing the

cyclic variation of the in-cylinder combustion process. As

a index to reect the variation of the combustion state, the

cylinder pressures of compression and combustion strokes

are exhibited in Fig. 2.

C

y

l

i

n

d

e

r

p

r

e

s

s

u

r

e

(

b

a

r

)

Fig. 2. Cylinder pressure variations.

The RGF of the k th cycle r(k) is the ratio of residual gas

mass of the k th cycle M

r

(k) and the total in-cylinder gas

mass of the k 1 th cycle M

t

(k 1) as follows:

r(k) =

M

r

(k)

M

t

(k 1)

. (1)

r(k) is calculated based on the cylinder pressures at

BDC

e

(k) and TDC

e

(k) as follows [14]:

r(k) =

1

P

TDC

e

(k)

P

BDC

e

(k)

1

n

, (2)

where is the eective compression ratio and n is the

polytropic constant. The principles of ideal gas equation

and mass conservation law are the foundation of (2), which

are also used in [15] to devise a mean-value measurement

model of the RGF.

2.2 Statistical properties of RGF

The RGF sample collection process is conducted on a test

engine which is provided by Toyota Motor Corporation.

The engine is installed in a test cell and connected to

a dynamometer. The electronic control unit (ECU) runs

as a standard commercial controller and accepts throttle

position command, fuel injection command, spark ad-

vance command and variable valve timing command from

dSPACE (DS1106) by CAN interface. The sampling exper-

iments are conducted by cutting o the ECU feedback and

setting the fuel injection, the VVT and the spark advance

commands to be constants. The statistical properties of

the RGF sample are exhibited in Fig. 3 with the engine

speed 1000[rpm] and the external load 30[Nm]. For the

O.O68 O.OJ O.OJ2 O.OJ4 O.OJ6 O.OJ8 O.O8 O.O82 O.O84 O.O86 O.O88

O

O.1

O.2

O.8

O.4

O.6

RGF

P

r

o

b

a

b

i

l

i

t

y

d

e

n

s

i

t

y

f

u

n

c

t

i

o

n

=O.OJJ6,=O.OO42

(a) Probability density function of RGF sample

O 1 2 8 4 6 6 J 8 9 1O 11 12 18 14 16 16 1J 18

O.6

O.8

O.1

O.1

O.8

O.6

O.J

O.9

1

Lag

A

u

t

o

c

o

r

r

e

l

a

t

i

o

n

(b) Autocorrelation function of RGF sample

Fig. 3. RGF sample and statistical properties of A

purpose of revealing the general characteristics of the

RGF, other more experiments are also conducted with

the various working conditions shown in Table 1. The

statistical properties of RGF resulting from the various

operating conditions are displayed in Fig. 4 and Fig. 5.

From the probability density function of the RGF, it can

IFAC AAC 2013

September 4-7, 2013. Tokyo, Japan

595

be obtained that the RGF has Gauss distribution and

the corresponding distribution parameters and are

available. The autocorrelation functions explain that the

autocorrelation of one-step is bigger than other steps.

Consequently, it can be assumed that the RGF has Markov

properties.

Table 1. Working conditions

Engine speed[rpm] External load[Nm]

A 800 60

B 1000 60

C 1200 60

D 1400 60

E 1600 60

F 1200 30

G 1200 60

H 1200 90

I 1200 120

3. MAIN RESULTS

3.1 Statistical model of RGF

By the statistical property obtained above, the RGF can

be modeled as a discrete-time Markov chain. Next, the

Markovian predictive model of the RGF will be shown.

Given the state space S and the one-step transition prob-

ability matrix P of the RGF as shown in Section 3.3, the

one-step prediction model of the RGF at (k + 1)-th cycle

is obtained as follows:

r(k) = E[r(k + 1)|r(k) = s

i

] =

N

j=1

s

j

p

ij

, (3)

where r(k) is the model output in the k-th cycle. From

(3) it follows that r(k) is the one-step predictive value of

r(k + 1) in the mean value sense.

3.2 Controller design

Based on the physics, the dynamic equation of the residual

gas mass is given rstly. Since M

t

(k) consists of residual

gas M

r

(k), fresh air M

an

(k) and fresh fuel M

fn

(k), i.e.,

M

t

(k) = M

r

(k) +M

an

(k) +M

fn

(k). (4)

By substituting (4) into (1), a dynamic equation is given

as follows:

M

r

(k + 1) =(M

an

(k) +M

fn

(k) +M

r

(k))r(k + 1), (5)

which reects the cyclic variation of the residual gas mass.

Noting that r(k+1) is not available at the kth cycle, the

predictive value r(k) should be used in (5). Substituting

(3) into (5), we get

M

r

(k + 1) =(M

an

(k) +M

fn

(k) +M

r

(k)) r(k)

=(M

r

(k) + M

fn

(k)) r(k)

+(M

an

(k) +

M

an

(k)

d

) r(k), (6)

where M

fn

(k) denotes a part of M

fn

(k) for the purpose

of residual gas mass uctuation attenuation, and

M

an

(k)

d

A

B

O

D

L

O.O498

O.O669

O.O826

O.O991

O

O.1

O.2

O.8

O.4

O.6

Working conditions

RGF

P

r

o

b

a

b

i

l

i

t

y

d

e

n

s

i

t

y

f

u

n

c

t

i

o

n

A( m=0.0804, s =0.0037) B( m=0.0785, s =0.0049)

C( m=0.0792, s =0.0062) D( m=0.080, s =0.0079)

E( m=0.0797, s =0.0099)

(a) Probability density functions

A

B

C

D

E

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

1

0.5

0

0.5

1

Working conditions

Lag

A

u

t

o

c

o

r

r

e

l

a

t

i

o

n

f

u

n

c

t

i

o

n

(b) Autocorrelation functions

Fig. 4. Statistical properties of RGF under cases A-E

denotes another part to maintain the air-fuel ratio.

Therefore, we can obtain the following proposition 1.

Proposition 1. For system (5), by choosing appropriately

design parameters {(s

i

) > 0, s

i

S} and satisfy

(0, min

s

i

S

(s

i

)), (7)

N

j=1

(s

j

)p

ij

r

2

(k) (s

i

) + > 0, (8)

there exist M

fn

(k) as

M

fn

(k) =

N

j=1

(s

j

)p

ij

r

2

(k) (s

i

) +

N

j=1

(s

j

)p

ij

r(k)

(M

r

(k) M

r0

) +

1 r(k)

r(k)

M

r0

, (9)

such that

lim

k

E(M

r

(k) M

r0

)

2

D, (10)

where

D

M

an

(k) r(k)(

d

+ 1)

min

s

i

S

(s

i

)(1 )

d

, (11)

IFAC AAC 2013

September 4-7, 2013. Tokyo, Japan

596

l

G

H

!

O.O661

O.O82J

O.11O8

O

O.O6

O.1

O.16

O.2

O.26

O.8

O.86

O.4

Working conditions

RGF

P

r

o

b

a

b

i

l

i

t

y

d

e

n

s

i

t

y

f

u

n

c

t

i

o

n

l| =O.OJ98,=O.OO66)

G| =O.OJ92,=O.OO62)

H| =O.OJ9J,=O.OO69)

!| =O.OJ92,=O.OOJ8)

(a) Probability density functions

F

G

H

I

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

0.5

0

0.5

1

Working conditions

lag

A

u

t

o

c

o

r

r

e

l

a

t

i

o

n

f

u

n

c

t

i

o

n

(b) Autocorrelation functions

Fig. 5. Statistical properties of RGF under cases F-I

= 1

max

s

i

S

(s

i

)

. (12)

Moreover, the right hand side of (10) can be regulated by

{(s

i

) > 0, s

i

S} and .

Proof 1. Dene the stochastic Lyaponov function to be

V (k, r(k) = s

i

) = (s

i

)(M

r

(k) M

r0

)

2

. (13)

By (13), we have

E[V (k + 1, r(k + 1))/r(k) = s

i

] V (k, s

i

)

=

N

j=1

(s

j

)p

ij

( r(k)(M

r

(k) + M

fn

(k) +M

an

(k)

+

M

an

(k)

d

) M

r0

)

2

(s

i

)(M

r

(k) M

r0

)

2

j=1

(s

j

)p

ij

( r(k)(M

r

(k) + M

fn

(k)) M

r0

)

2

+

1

4

N

j=1

(s

j

)p

ij

r

2

(k)(M

an

(k) +

M

an

(k)

d

)

2

(s

i

)(M

r

(k) M

r0

)

2

. (14)

Introducing u(k) and D(k) as follows:

u(k) = r(k)M

fn

(k) (1 r(k))M

r0

, (15)

and

D(k) =

1

4

N

j=1

(s

j

)p

ij

r

2

(k)(M

an

(k) +

M

an

(k)

d

)

2

. (16)

Substituting (15) and (19) into (14), we have

E[V (k + 1, r(k + 1))/r(k) = s

i

] V (k, s

i

)

=((

N

j=1

(s

j

)p

ij

r

2

(k) (s

i

) +)

1

2

(M

r

(k) M

r0

)

+

N

j=1

(s

j

)p

ij

r(k)

(

3

j=1

(s

j

)p

ij

r

2

(k) (s

i

) +)

1

2

u(k))

2

+

( (s

i

))

N

j=1

(s

j

)p

ij

r(k)

N

j=1

(s

j

)p

ij

r

2

(k) (s

i

) +

u

2

(k)

(M

r

(k) M

r0

)

2

+D(k). (17)

Based on (7), (8) and (9), we get

E[V (k + 1, r(k + 1))/r(k) = s

i

] V (k, s

i

)

(M

r

(k) M

r0

)

2

+D(k)

=

(s

i

)

V (k, s

i

) +D(k)

max

s

i

S

(s

i

)

V (k, s

i

) +D(k), (18)

where

D(k) =

1

4

N

j=1

(s

j

)p

ij

r

2

(k)(M

an

(k) +

M

an

(k)

d

)

2

. (19)

By using the same line in [12], we can obtain

EV (k, r(k))

k

V (0, r(0)) +

k1

i=0

ki1

D(i)

=

k

V (0, r(0)) + (1

k1

)D. (20)

Since (0, 1), by letting k , we get

lim

k

E(M

r

(k) M

r0

)

2

D. (21)

Noting that D is a function of {(s

i

) > 0, s

i

S} and ,

therefore, D can be regulated by choosing dierent values

of {(s

i

) > 0, s

i

S} and .

3.3 Experimental validation

The purpose of the experiment is to verify that the cyclic

variation of the residual gas mass by using the proposed

feedback controller is became smaller. Working conditions

A and B are considered in the experiments. In A, the

engine speed is 1000rpm, the external load is 30Nm,

and the water temperature is 353K, the throttle angle

is 3.4deg., spark advance is 27.5deg., the new fuel intake

M

fn

(k)[mmL] is constrained in an interval [9, 12.5], M

r0

is

0.0017g. In B, the engine speed is 1200[rpm], the external

load is 60Nm, and the water temperature is 353K, the

throttle angle is 5.6deg., spark advance is 26.5deg., the

new fuel intake M

fn

(k)[mmL] is constrained in an interval

[14, 20], M

r0

is 0.0025g. The state spaces and one-step

transition probability matrices of A and B are given as

follows:

IFAC AAC 2013

September 4-7, 2013. Tokyo, Japan

597

S

A

= {s

1

, s

2

, s

3

} = {0.0852, 0.077, 0.0687}, (22)

P

A

=

0.37 0.32 0.31

0.33 0.30 0.37

, (23)

S

B

= {s

1

, s

2

, s

3

} = {0.0858, 0.0793, 0.0723}, (24)

P

B

=

0.27 0.31 0.42

0.43 0.31 0.26

. (25)

Open-loop controller and feedback controller denote M

fn

(k)

is 0 and feedback controller (9), respectively. For the feed-

back controller (9), we choose = 0.499 and (s

1

) =

(s

2

) = (s

3

) = 0.5. The control performances of the

feedback controller and the open-loop controller are exhib-

ited in the following. The response curves of residual gas

O 2O 4O 6O 8O 1OO 12O 14O 16O 18O 2OO

1.4

1.6

1.8

2

2.2

2.4

Cycle

R

e

s

i

d

u

a

l

g

a

s

m

a

s

s

M

r

(

k

)

Open-loop controller

Feedback controller

1O

-2

(a) Residual gas mass samples of A

O 2O 4O 6O 8O 1OO 12O 14O 16O 18O 2OO

9

1O

11

12

18

14

16

Cycle

F

r

e

s

h

f

u

e

l

m

a

s

s

M

f

n

(

k

)

Open-loop controller

Feedback controller

(b) Fresh fuel of A

Fig. 6. Control performances of A

mass and fresh fuel mass by using the open-loop controller

and feedback controller are given in Fig. 6. From the

corresponding probability density functions as shown in

Fig. 7, we can see that the feedback controller decreases the

dispersion of residual gas mass as observed in (a), although

the dispersion of fresh fuel mass is slightly increased as

shown in (b). Based on Fig. 8 and Fig. 9, we can obtain

that the control performances of B has similar behavior to

A. The performance indexes of A and B are given in Table

2, where

J(N) =

N

k=1

(M

r

(k) M

r0

)

(M

r

(k) M

r0

). (26)

From Table 2, we have that the dispersions of residual gas

mass with the feedback controller are all decreased more

than 10%.

O.O21 O.O19 O.O16 O.O18

O

O.1

O.2

O.8

O.4

O.6

O.6

O.J

Residual gas mass M

r

(k)

P

r

o

b

a

b

i

l

i

t

y

d

e

n

s

i

t

y

f

u

n

c

t

i

o

n

Open-loop controller

Feedback controller

(a) Probability density functions of residual gas mass of A

18 12 11 1O

O

O.1

O.2

O.8

O.4

O.6

O.6

O.J

O.8

Fresh fuel M

fn

(k)

P

r

o

b

a

b

i

l

i

t

y

d

e

n

s

i

t

y

f

u

n

c

t

i

o

n

Open-loop controller

Feedback controller

(b) Probability density functions of fresh fuel mass of A

Fig. 7. Probability density functions of control performances of A

Table 2. Performance Indexes of A and B

J(N) of A J(N) of B

Open-loop controller 1.8E 03 4.3E 03

Feedback controller 1.6E 03 3.6E 03

4. CONCLUSION

The regulation problem of the residual gas mass is ad-

dressed in this paper for improving the engine perfor-

mance. With the help of the experimental data analysis

for the statistical properties of RGF, a stochastic dynamic

model of the residual gas mass is developed for the design

of the control law. A feedback controller derived from

the stability theorem for discrete-time linear systems with

Markovian jumping parameters achieves the attenuation

for the residual gas mass regulation error. Unfortunately,

it follows from the experimental results that the disper-

sion of the residual gas mass is decreased by the feed-

back controller, whereas the dispersion of the fresh fuel is

slightly increased. Moreover, the feedback state variable,

the residual gas mass that can not be directly measured,

is calculated by the manifold temperature instead of the

unavailable cylinder temperature. The improved control

technique and enhanced control performance at these as-

pects will be our future works.

IFAC AAC 2013

September 4-7, 2013. Tokyo, Japan

598

O 2O 4O 6O 8O 1OO 12O 14O 16O 18O 2OO

1.6

1.8

2

2.2

2.4

2.6

2.8

8

8.2

8.4

Cycle

R

e

s

i

d

u

a

l

g

a

s

m

a

s

s

M

r

(

k

)

Open-loop controller

Feedback controller

1O

-2

(a) Residual gas mass samples of B

O 2O 4O 6O 8O 1OO 12O 14O 16O 18O 2OO

14

16

16

1J

18

19

2O

21

22

28

Cycle

N

e

w

f

u

e

l

i

n

t

a

k

e

M

f

n

(

k

)

Open-loop controller

Feedback controller

(b) RGF samples of B

Fig. 8. Control performances of B

REFERENCES

[1] S. Dodi, M. Fox, S. Q. Huang, and Z. Yang, Internal

EGR Systems for NOx Emission Reduction in Heavy-

Duty Diesel Engines John Schwoerer - Jacobs Vehicle

Systems, SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-1315, 2004.

[2] F. Millo, F. Mallamo, L. Arnone, M. Bonanni, and

D. Franceschini, Analysis of Dierent Internal EGR

Solutions for Small Diesel Engines, SAE Technical

Paper 2007-01-0128, 2007.

[3] C. S. Daw, M. B. Kennel, C. E. A. Finney, and

F. T. Connolly, Observing and Modeling Nonlinear

Dynamics in An Internal Combustion Engine, Phys.

Rev. E, vol.57, no.3, pp.2811-2819, 1998.

[4] J. Davis, C. S. Daw, L. A. Feldkamp, J. W. Hoard, F.

Yuan, and T. Conolly, Method of Controlling Cyclic

Variation Engine Combustion. U.S. Patent 5, 921221,

1999.

[5] P. He and S. Jagannathan, Lean Combustion Sta-

bility of Spark Ignition Engines Using Backstepping

Scheme, Proceedings of the IEEE conference on

control applications, pp.167-172, 2003.

[6] F. Galliot, W. K. Cheng, C. O. Cheng, M. Sz-

tenderowicz, J. B. Heywood, and N. Collings, In-

Cylinder Measurements of Residual Gas Concentra-

tion in A Sparkignition Engine, SAE Paper 900485,

1990.

[7] P. Giansetti, G. Colin, P. Higelin, and Y. Chamail-

lard, Residual Gas Fraction Measurement and Com-

putation, Int. J. Engine Res., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 347-

364, 2007.

[8] J. W. Fox, W. K. Cheng, and J. B. Heywood,

A Model For Predicting Residual Gas Fraction In

O.O2 O.O28 O.O2J O.O8

O

O.1

O.2

O.8

O.4

O.6

O.6

O.J

Residual gas mass Mr(k)

P

r

o

b

a

b

i

l

i

t

y

d

e

n

s

i

t

y

f

u

n

c

t

i

o

n

Open-loop controller

Feedback controller

(a) Probability density functions of residual gas mass of B

18.6 1J.6 16.6 16.6

O

O.1

O.2

O.8

O.4

O.6

O.6

O.J

O.8

O.9

1

Fresh fuel M

fn

(k)

P

r

o

b

a

b

i

l

i

t

y

d

e

n

s

i

t

y

f

u

n

c

t

i

o

n

Open-loop controller

Feedback controller

(b) Probability density functions of fresh fuel mass B

Fig. 9. Probability density functions of control performances of B

Spark-Ignition Engines, SAE Paper 931025, 1993.

[9] M. Mladek, and C. Onder, A Model for the Esti-

mation of Inducted Air Mass and the Residual Gas

Fraction using Cylinder Pressure Measurements, SAE

Paper 2000-01-0958, 2000.

[10] V. G. Kulkarni, Modeling, Analysis, Design, and

Control of Stochastic Systems, Berlin: Springer, 1999.

[11] X. Zhang and K. G. Shin, Markov-Chain Modeling

for Multicast Signaling Delay Analysis, IEEE/ACM

Trans. Networking, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 667-680, 2004.

[12] Y. Ji, and H. J. Chizeck. Jump Linear

Quadratic Guassian Control: Steady-State Solution

and Testable Conditions. Control-theory and Ad-

vanced technology, vol. 6, no. 3, 289319, 1990.

[13] O. L. V. Costa, Stability Result for Discrete-Time

Linear Systems with Markovian Jumping Parameters,

J. Math. Anal. Appl., Vol. 179, No. 1, pp. 154-178,

1993.

[14] J. Yang, T. L. Shen and X. H. Jiao, Model-

Based Stochastic Optimal Air-Fuel Ratio Control

with Residual Gas Fraction of Spark Ignition En-

gines. submitted to IEEE Trans. Contr. Syst. Tech-

nol., 2012.

[15] G. Tsutomu, Thermal eect upon air capacity of

the four-stroke engine(1st report, Thermodynamical

analysis method), Bulletin of JSME, Vol. 12, No. 53,

pp. 1163-1179, 1969.

IFAC AAC 2013

September 4-7, 2013. Tokyo, Japan

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