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Statistical Model and Control of Residual

Gas Mass in Gasoline Engines


Jun Yang
1,3
Kota Sata
2
Junichi Kako
2
Akira Ohata
2
Tielong Shen
3
1
Department of Electrical Engineering, Yanshan University,
Qinhuangdao, China
2
Power Train Control Div. Toyota Motor Corporation, Shizuoka,
Japan
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sophia University, Tokyo,
Japan
Abstract: To attenuate the cyclic variation of the residual gas mass, a feedback regulator for
the residual gas mass is designed based on a dynamic model with stochastic property. The
dynamic model is developed in accordance with the physics, where the residual gas fraction
(RGF) as a crucial system parameter is modeled as a stochastic process with Markov property.
The regulator is given by utilizing control design technology for the discrete-time jump system.
The performances of closed-loop system with the proposed controller, which is presented by the
experiments conducted on a full-scaled gasoline engine test bench, show that the residual gas
mass has narrower dispersion under two dierent working conditions.
Keywords: Residual gas mass, stochastic regulation, residual gas fraction.
1. INTRODUCTION
The residual burned gas has great inuence over the fuel
economy, pumping loss reduction and emission reduction.
A certain amount of the residual gas as the internal ex-
haust gas recirculated improves the combustion eciency
and reduces the emissions of carbon monoxide([1, 2]).
However, undesired cyclic variation of the residual gas will
cause the cyclic dispersion of combustion state. As a result,
the engine performance is damaged by the variation of
residual gas. Therefore, to guarantee the residual gas mass
at a desired level is a signicant issue for improving the
engine performance.
Several approaches have been proposed to solve the resid-
ual gas mass uctuation attenuation problem by modeling
the RGF and/or designing control law. For example, a
dynamic model of the in-cylinder gas including the in-
formation of the residual gas mass is developed in [3],
where the cyclic uctuation of combustion state caused
by the residual gas mass is described as a random number
with Gaussian distribution in expression of the RGF. The
developed dynamic model in [3] is used to design a feed-
back control law in [4] by the neural network technique to
reduce the cyclic variation at lean combustion and in [5]
by backstepping approach to achieve the stable operation
at extreme lean combustion. Moreover, modeling the RGF
is investigated by the method with measurement in [6, 7]
and by the physics-based method in [8, 9], respectively.
For the physics-based model, in [8] the RGF is described
as a function of the engine speed, the inlet pressure, the
exhaust pressure, the valve-overlap factor, the compres-
sion ratio and the air-fuel ratio, while in [9] the RGF is
characterized as a function of the cylinder pressure, the
fresh charge temperature and the engine speed.
In this paper, the regulation problem is investigated for
the residual gas mass of the gasoline engine. First, the
statistical property of the RGF is noted that the RGF has
Gaussian distribution and the RGF of the current cycle has
a great eect on that of the next cycle. This observation
motivates that the RGF can be treated as a discrete-
time Markov chain in light of the description principle
of Markov chain in ([10, 11]). The statistical property
and the transient probability matrix are established to
represent the stochastic model of the cyclic RGF. Based
on this statistical model, a physics-based dynamic model
is developed, which characerizes the cyclic variation of the
residual gas mass with the RGF described as a discrete-
time markov jumping parameter. Furthermore, a feedback
controller is designed by utilizing the stability theorem
for discrete-time linear systems with Markovian jumping
parameters ([12, 13]). The boundness of the L
2
-norm of
the regulation error is shown by theoretical analysis and
the validation of the feedback controller is demonstrated
on a full-scaled gasoline engine test bench.
2. PHYSICS AND STATISTICAL PROPERTIES
2.1 RGF and measurement
The in-cylinder gas mass transition diagram of internal
combustion engines with four strokes is shown in Fig. 1,
where a cycle is dened from the beginning of the exhaust
stroke to the end of the combustion stroke, i.e., the k th
cycle is the period from BDC
e
(k) to BDC
e
(k + 1). As
shown in Fig. 1, not all of the gas are discharged outside
at the end of the exhaust stroke. The residual gas mass
M
r
(k) which is remained in the cylinder includes air, fuel
and combustion products, and it will mix with the fresh
7th IFAC Symposium on Advances in Automotive Control
The International Federation of Automatic Control
September 4-7, 2013. Tokyo, Japan
978-3-902823-48-9/2013 IFAC 594 10.3182/20130904-4-JP-2042.00144
C
y
l
i
n
d
e
r

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
b
a
r
)
I
n

c
y
l
i
n
d
e
r

g
a
s

m
a
s
s

(
g
)
k k+1
BDCe(k) TDCe(k) BDC(k) TDC(k) BDCe(k+1 TDCe(k+1) BDC(k+1) TDC(k+1) BDCe(k+2)
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
Mr(k)
Mn(k)
Mr(k+1)
Mn(k+1)
Cylinder
pressure
Gas mass
Fig. 1. In-cylinder gas transition diagram.
gas mass M
n
(k) which contains fresh air and fresh fuel
in the following induction stroke. Since the thermal state
of the residual gas is quite dierent from the fresh gas, it
has a great inuence in the following combustion stroke.
The cyclic variation of the combustion strokes are in turn
aected by the uctuation of the residual gas mass. Hence,
the residual gas mass is one of the factors causing the
cyclic variation of the in-cylinder combustion process. As
a index to reect the variation of the combustion state, the
cylinder pressures of compression and combustion strokes
are exhibited in Fig. 2.

Crank angle (deg.)


C
y
l
i
n
d
e
r

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
b
a
r
)
Fig. 2. Cylinder pressure variations.
The RGF of the k th cycle r(k) is the ratio of residual gas
mass of the k th cycle M
r
(k) and the total in-cylinder gas
mass of the k 1 th cycle M
t
(k 1) as follows:
r(k) =
M
r
(k)
M
t
(k 1)
. (1)
r(k) is calculated based on the cylinder pressures at
BDC
e
(k) and TDC
e
(k) as follows [14]:
r(k) =
1

P
TDC
e
(k)
P
BDC
e
(k)
1
n
, (2)
where is the eective compression ratio and n is the
polytropic constant. The principles of ideal gas equation
and mass conservation law are the foundation of (2), which
are also used in [15] to devise a mean-value measurement
model of the RGF.
2.2 Statistical properties of RGF
The RGF sample collection process is conducted on a test
engine which is provided by Toyota Motor Corporation.
The engine is installed in a test cell and connected to
a dynamometer. The electronic control unit (ECU) runs
as a standard commercial controller and accepts throttle
position command, fuel injection command, spark ad-
vance command and variable valve timing command from
dSPACE (DS1106) by CAN interface. The sampling exper-
iments are conducted by cutting o the ECU feedback and
setting the fuel injection, the VVT and the spark advance
commands to be constants. The statistical properties of
the RGF sample are exhibited in Fig. 3 with the engine
speed 1000[rpm] and the external load 30[Nm]. For the
O.O68 O.OJ O.OJ2 O.OJ4 O.OJ6 O.OJ8 O.O8 O.O82 O.O84 O.O86 O.O88
O
O.1
O.2
O.8
O.4
O.6
RGF
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

d
e
n
s
i
t
y

f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n


=O.OJJ6,=O.OO42
(a) Probability density function of RGF sample
O 1 2 8 4 6 6 J 8 9 1O 11 12 18 14 16 16 1J 18
O.6
O.8
O.1
O.1
O.8
O.6
O.J
O.9
1
Lag
A
u
t
o
c
o
r
r
e
l
a
t
i
o
n
(b) Autocorrelation function of RGF sample
Fig. 3. RGF sample and statistical properties of A
purpose of revealing the general characteristics of the
RGF, other more experiments are also conducted with
the various working conditions shown in Table 1. The
statistical properties of RGF resulting from the various
operating conditions are displayed in Fig. 4 and Fig. 5.
From the probability density function of the RGF, it can
IFAC AAC 2013
September 4-7, 2013. Tokyo, Japan
595
be obtained that the RGF has Gauss distribution and
the corresponding distribution parameters and are
available. The autocorrelation functions explain that the
autocorrelation of one-step is bigger than other steps.
Consequently, it can be assumed that the RGF has Markov
properties.
Table 1. Working conditions
Engine speed[rpm] External load[Nm]
A 800 60
B 1000 60
C 1200 60
D 1400 60
E 1600 60
F 1200 30
G 1200 60
H 1200 90
I 1200 120
3. MAIN RESULTS
3.1 Statistical model of RGF
By the statistical property obtained above, the RGF can
be modeled as a discrete-time Markov chain. Next, the
Markovian predictive model of the RGF will be shown.
Given the state space S and the one-step transition prob-
ability matrix P of the RGF as shown in Section 3.3, the
one-step prediction model of the RGF at (k + 1)-th cycle
is obtained as follows:
r(k) = E[r(k + 1)|r(k) = s
i
] =
N

j=1
s
j
p
ij
, (3)
where r(k) is the model output in the k-th cycle. From
(3) it follows that r(k) is the one-step predictive value of
r(k + 1) in the mean value sense.
3.2 Controller design
Based on the physics, the dynamic equation of the residual
gas mass is given rstly. Since M
t
(k) consists of residual
gas M
r
(k), fresh air M
an
(k) and fresh fuel M
fn
(k), i.e.,
M
t
(k) = M
r
(k) +M
an
(k) +M
fn
(k). (4)
By substituting (4) into (1), a dynamic equation is given
as follows:
M
r
(k + 1) =(M
an
(k) +M
fn
(k) +M
r
(k))r(k + 1), (5)
which reects the cyclic variation of the residual gas mass.
Noting that r(k+1) is not available at the kth cycle, the
predictive value r(k) should be used in (5). Substituting
(3) into (5), we get
M
r
(k + 1) =(M
an
(k) +M
fn
(k) +M
r
(k)) r(k)
=(M
r
(k) + M
fn
(k)) r(k)
+(M
an
(k) +
M
an
(k)

d
) r(k), (6)
where M
fn
(k) denotes a part of M
fn
(k) for the purpose
of residual gas mass uctuation attenuation, and
M
an
(k)

d
A
B
O
D
L
O.O498
O.O669
O.O826
O.O991
O
O.1
O.2
O.8
O.4
O.6
Working conditions
RGF
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

d
e
n
s
i
t
y

f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
A( m=0.0804, s =0.0037) B( m=0.0785, s =0.0049)
C( m=0.0792, s =0.0062) D( m=0.080, s =0.0079)
E( m=0.0797, s =0.0099)
(a) Probability density functions
A
B
C
D
E
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
Working conditions
Lag
A
u
t
o
c
o
r
r
e
l
a
t
i
o
n

f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
(b) Autocorrelation functions
Fig. 4. Statistical properties of RGF under cases A-E
denotes another part to maintain the air-fuel ratio.
Therefore, we can obtain the following proposition 1.
Proposition 1. For system (5), by choosing appropriately
design parameters {(s
i
) > 0, s
i
S} and satisfy
(0, min
s
i
S
(s
i
)), (7)
N

j=1
(s
j
)p
ij
r
2
(k) (s
i
) + > 0, (8)
there exist M
fn
(k) as
M
fn
(k) =

N
j=1
(s
j
)p
ij
r
2
(k) (s
i
) +

N
j=1
(s
j
)p
ij
r(k)
(M
r
(k) M
r0
) +
1 r(k)
r(k)
M
r0
, (9)
such that
lim
k
E(M
r
(k) M
r0
)
2
D, (10)
where
D
M
an
(k) r(k)(
d
+ 1)
min
s
i
S
(s
i
)(1 )
d
, (11)
IFAC AAC 2013
September 4-7, 2013. Tokyo, Japan
596
l
G
H
!
O.O661
O.O82J
O.11O8
O
O.O6
O.1
O.16
O.2
O.26
O.8
O.86
O.4
Working conditions
RGF
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

d
e
n
s
i
t
y

f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
l| =O.OJ98,=O.OO66)
G| =O.OJ92,=O.OO62)
H| =O.OJ9J,=O.OO69)
!| =O.OJ92,=O.OOJ8)
(a) Probability density functions
F
G
H
I
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
0.5
0
0.5
1
Working conditions
lag
A
u
t
o
c
o
r
r
e
l
a
t
i
o
n

f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
(b) Autocorrelation functions
Fig. 5. Statistical properties of RGF under cases F-I
= 1

max
s
i
S
(s
i
)
. (12)
Moreover, the right hand side of (10) can be regulated by
{(s
i
) > 0, s
i
S} and .
Proof 1. Dene the stochastic Lyaponov function to be
V (k, r(k) = s
i
) = (s
i
)(M
r
(k) M
r0
)
2
. (13)
By (13), we have
E[V (k + 1, r(k + 1))/r(k) = s
i
] V (k, s
i
)
=
N

j=1
(s
j
)p
ij
( r(k)(M
r
(k) + M
fn
(k) +M
an
(k)
+
M
an
(k)

d
) M
r0
)
2
(s
i
)(M
r
(k) M
r0
)
2

j=1
(s
j
)p
ij
( r(k)(M
r
(k) + M
fn
(k)) M
r0
)
2
+
1
4
N

j=1
(s
j
)p
ij
r
2
(k)(M
an
(k) +
M
an
(k)

d
)
2
(s
i
)(M
r
(k) M
r0
)
2
. (14)
Introducing u(k) and D(k) as follows:
u(k) = r(k)M
fn
(k) (1 r(k))M
r0
, (15)
and
D(k) =
1
4
N

j=1
(s
j
)p
ij
r
2
(k)(M
an
(k) +
M
an
(k)

d
)
2
. (16)
Substituting (15) and (19) into (14), we have
E[V (k + 1, r(k + 1))/r(k) = s
i
] V (k, s
i
)
=((
N

j=1
(s
j
)p
ij
r
2
(k) (s
i
) +)
1
2
(M
r
(k) M
r0
)
+

N
j=1
(s
j
)p
ij
r(k)
(

3
j=1
(s
j
)p
ij
r
2
(k) (s
i
) +)
1
2
u(k))
2
+
( (s
i
))

N
j=1
(s
j
)p
ij
r(k)

N
j=1
(s
j
)p
ij
r
2
(k) (s
i
) +
u
2
(k)
(M
r
(k) M
r0
)
2
+D(k). (17)
Based on (7), (8) and (9), we get
E[V (k + 1, r(k + 1))/r(k) = s
i
] V (k, s
i
)
(M
r
(k) M
r0
)
2
+D(k)
=

(s
i
)
V (k, s
i
) +D(k)


max
s
i
S
(s
i
)
V (k, s
i
) +D(k), (18)
where
D(k) =
1
4
N

j=1
(s
j
)p
ij
r
2
(k)(M
an
(k) +
M
an
(k)

d
)
2
. (19)
By using the same line in [12], we can obtain
EV (k, r(k))
k
V (0, r(0)) +
k1

i=0

ki1
D(i)
=
k
V (0, r(0)) + (1
k1
)D. (20)
Since (0, 1), by letting k , we get
lim
k
E(M
r
(k) M
r0
)
2
D. (21)
Noting that D is a function of {(s
i
) > 0, s
i
S} and ,
therefore, D can be regulated by choosing dierent values
of {(s
i
) > 0, s
i
S} and .
3.3 Experimental validation
The purpose of the experiment is to verify that the cyclic
variation of the residual gas mass by using the proposed
feedback controller is became smaller. Working conditions
A and B are considered in the experiments. In A, the
engine speed is 1000rpm, the external load is 30Nm,
and the water temperature is 353K, the throttle angle
is 3.4deg., spark advance is 27.5deg., the new fuel intake
M
fn
(k)[mmL] is constrained in an interval [9, 12.5], M
r0
is
0.0017g. In B, the engine speed is 1200[rpm], the external
load is 60Nm, and the water temperature is 353K, the
throttle angle is 5.6deg., spark advance is 26.5deg., the
new fuel intake M
fn
(k)[mmL] is constrained in an interval
[14, 20], M
r0
is 0.0025g. The state spaces and one-step
transition probability matrices of A and B are given as
follows:
IFAC AAC 2013
September 4-7, 2013. Tokyo, Japan
597
S
A
= {s
1
, s
2
, s
3
} = {0.0852, 0.077, 0.0687}, (22)
P
A
=

0.30 0.38 0.32


0.37 0.32 0.31
0.33 0.30 0.37

, (23)
S
B
= {s
1
, s
2
, s
3
} = {0.0858, 0.0793, 0.0723}, (24)
P
B
=

0.29 0.39 0.32


0.27 0.31 0.42
0.43 0.31 0.26

. (25)
Open-loop controller and feedback controller denote M
fn
(k)
is 0 and feedback controller (9), respectively. For the feed-
back controller (9), we choose = 0.499 and (s
1
) =
(s
2
) = (s
3
) = 0.5. The control performances of the
feedback controller and the open-loop controller are exhib-
ited in the following. The response curves of residual gas
O 2O 4O 6O 8O 1OO 12O 14O 16O 18O 2OO
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
2.2
2.4
Cycle
R
e
s
i
d
u
a
l

g
a
s

m
a
s
s

M
r
(
k
)


Open-loop controller
Feedback controller
1O
-2
(a) Residual gas mass samples of A
O 2O 4O 6O 8O 1OO 12O 14O 16O 18O 2OO
9
1O
11
12
18
14
16
Cycle
F
r
e
s
h

f
u
e
l

m
a
s
s

M
f
n
(
k
)


Open-loop controller
Feedback controller
(b) Fresh fuel of A
Fig. 6. Control performances of A
mass and fresh fuel mass by using the open-loop controller
and feedback controller are given in Fig. 6. From the
corresponding probability density functions as shown in
Fig. 7, we can see that the feedback controller decreases the
dispersion of residual gas mass as observed in (a), although
the dispersion of fresh fuel mass is slightly increased as
shown in (b). Based on Fig. 8 and Fig. 9, we can obtain
that the control performances of B has similar behavior to
A. The performance indexes of A and B are given in Table
2, where
J(N) =
N

k=1
(M
r
(k) M
r0
)

(M
r
(k) M
r0
). (26)
From Table 2, we have that the dispersions of residual gas
mass with the feedback controller are all decreased more
than 10%.
O.O21 O.O19 O.O16 O.O18
O
O.1
O.2
O.8
O.4
O.6
O.6
O.J
Residual gas mass M
r
(k)
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

d
e
n
s
i
t
y

f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n


Open-loop controller
Feedback controller
(a) Probability density functions of residual gas mass of A
18 12 11 1O
O
O.1
O.2
O.8
O.4
O.6
O.6
O.J
O.8
Fresh fuel M
fn
(k)
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

d
e
n
s
i
t
y

f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n


Open-loop controller
Feedback controller
(b) Probability density functions of fresh fuel mass of A
Fig. 7. Probability density functions of control performances of A
Table 2. Performance Indexes of A and B
J(N) of A J(N) of B
Open-loop controller 1.8E 03 4.3E 03
Feedback controller 1.6E 03 3.6E 03
4. CONCLUSION
The regulation problem of the residual gas mass is ad-
dressed in this paper for improving the engine perfor-
mance. With the help of the experimental data analysis
for the statistical properties of RGF, a stochastic dynamic
model of the residual gas mass is developed for the design
of the control law. A feedback controller derived from
the stability theorem for discrete-time linear systems with
Markovian jumping parameters achieves the attenuation
for the residual gas mass regulation error. Unfortunately,
it follows from the experimental results that the disper-
sion of the residual gas mass is decreased by the feed-
back controller, whereas the dispersion of the fresh fuel is
slightly increased. Moreover, the feedback state variable,
the residual gas mass that can not be directly measured,
is calculated by the manifold temperature instead of the
unavailable cylinder temperature. The improved control
technique and enhanced control performance at these as-
pects will be our future works.
IFAC AAC 2013
September 4-7, 2013. Tokyo, Japan
598
O 2O 4O 6O 8O 1OO 12O 14O 16O 18O 2OO
1.6
1.8
2
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8
8
8.2
8.4
Cycle
R
e
s
i
d
u
a
l

g
a
s

m
a
s
s

M
r
(
k
)


Open-loop controller
Feedback controller
1O
-2
(a) Residual gas mass samples of B
O 2O 4O 6O 8O 1OO 12O 14O 16O 18O 2OO
14
16
16
1J
18
19
2O
21
22
28
Cycle
N
e
w

f
u
e
l

i
n
t
a
k
e

M
f
n
(
k
)


Open-loop controller
Feedback controller
(b) RGF samples of B
Fig. 8. Control performances of B
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