You are on page 1of 11

a?

Sooietyof Pddwll afgirlec?rs

SPE 26668
Compressibility Factors for Naturally Occurring Petroleum Gases

L.D. Piper, Texas A&M U.; W.D. McCain Jr., S,A, Holditch & Assocs. Inc.; and J.H, (lorredor, Inters Petroleum Production Div. SPE Members

COpyrighl 1993, Sc@efy of Petroleum Englneam Inc. Thta paper was prepared for presentation at the 66fh Annual Technical Conferenw and Exhibition of the $ocie!y of Petroleum Engineers held In Houston, Texas, 3-6 October 1993. Thle paper was selected for presentation by an SPE Program Committee following review of information contelnad In an abstrect submitted by the author(a). Contents ot the paper. as praaantad, have not been ravlewad by the Soclafy of Petroleum En@eara and are eublect to C-Jrrecfionby the author(a). The material. as Preee~ted. doee not necessarily reflect MY poaitlon of the SocIefy of Petroleum Engineere. IISoffiwra, or members. Pepara preeonled al SPE maatin?lsare eub]act to publication review by Editorial Commlftaos of the Soclaty of Petroleum Enginaare. Permieelonto coPy lareetricfed to an abstract of not more than 3@ worde. Illuslratione may not be copied. The absfrdcf should contsln conspicuous acknowledgment of where and by whom tha paper is praeantad. Write Librarian, SPE, P.O. Box S33836, Richardson, TX 76083-3S36. U.S.A. Talex, 1S3246 SPEUT.

The Sutton gas specific gravity correlation gives values of pseudocritical properties which, when used with the Dranchuk and Abou-Kassem (DAK) representation of the Standing and Kak (SK) chtW currentiy provide the most accurate estimatesof compressibility factors for naturally occurring petroleum gases. However, other correlations must be used to account for the presenceof acid gases. A new gas specific gravity correlation is presented which takes into account the effects of the acid gases and nitrogen. The new correlation provides more accurate estimates of the compressibility factor than can be obtained by current methods and also elimimtes the need for involving additional correlations to comet for the presence of acid gases and nitrogen. The new correlation was developed using a set of 1482data points, ranging in composition flom lean sweet to rich acid gases.

correspondingstates, Kayspseudocriticalpointi and the SK chart are commonly used. If the composition of the gas is known, the pseudocriticaltemperature and pressure may be calculated using Kays rules--molar averages of the critical properties of the mixturescomponents. Otherwise,the pseudocriticaltemperature and pressure may be estimated using correlations based on gas ;pecific gravity. Then, the reduced temperature and pressure nay be calculated and the SK chart or its representation by the MK equationof state maybe used to determinethe z factor. 3utton2 presented more accurate methods for both cases, His nethod for calculating the pseudocritical temperature and pressurewhen the composition of the gas is known is based on theStewti Burkhard4and Voo (SBV) equationsgiven by TP=+nd~=r where,

. . . . . . . . . . ..(la)

Knowledgeof the pressure-volume-tempemture(PVT) behavior of natural gases is necessary to solve many petroleum engineeringproblems. Gas reserves, gas metering, gas pressure gradients, pipeline flow and compression of gases are some of the problems requiring the gas compressibtity factor, or z factor. Typically,the z factor is determined by laboratorymeasurement. Howevex,laboratory data is only applicable for the compositions and conditions investigated. When conditions of interest are different from those of the laboratory studies or data is not available,correlationsmust be used. The basic methods for esthnating the gas compressibility factor are relatively simple and well known] The principle of

His gas specitic gravity correlation for estimating the pseudctcritkal temperatureand pressure when the compositionof the gas is known, based on 634 compositions from 275 PVT reports, is given by TP = 169.2-t 349,5ys - 74.Oy;, and ~,=756.8 - 131.0yg - 3.6y;. . o o (z)

Referencesand illustrations at end of ~aper. 661

SPE 26668 2 COMPRESSIBILITYFACTORSFOR NATURALLYOCCURRINGPETROLEUMGASES mrect these deficiencies. For this study, we added 586 data If the gas contains hydrogen suikde or carbon dioxid;, the Wichert and &iz correlation: mints from 37 PVT reports from the literature5-13 and other )ources14-15.Table 1 shows the range of composition, physical rpc = TP -e, )roperties, and conditions of the resulting data base. Our where, ;xpanded data basu contains signitkrmtly more gases with .6 ipeciilc gravities ranging from 1.3 to 1.8. Additionally, it & = 120[(yms + ymf - (Yms+ Yc :ontains significantly more gases with impurities than the data 15(Msr - (yIt?sf, MM used by Sutton. While the maximum concentrations of [ ~y&ogen sulilde and carbon dioxide are quite large, only ten and, xment of the samples had an acid gas concentmtiongreaterthan ,welvepercent. ppcl-pc . . . . . . . ...6....(3)

d]

Updated Coefficients for Eqs. 4. Our previous arnlysis was repeated using the expanded data base to develop the new should be used to adjust the pseudocritical constants.2-3 wefficients for Eqs. 4 shown in Table 2. We then evaluated the However, Ref. 2 is unclear on how Eqs. 3 should be applied to WV rules, Suttonsmodilkation to the SBV rules (SSBV) and Eqs. 2. Eqs. la and 4 using the expandeddatabase. The averageabsolute wrors of the calculated compressibility factors were 2.23, 1.53, In an earlier pape~, we discussed Suttonsmodification to the md 1.07percentirespectively. These results were consistentwith SW rules in detail and presented a new modification which hose in Ref. 4 and are shown in Table 3, for four different takes into account the effects of the heprane plus fraction, acid wbsets of the data ranging from lean sweet gases to rich acid gases and nitrogen. TM correlation, having a form simii to the Bases,and Figs. 1 through 4. Figs. 2 and 4 show the distribution SBV equations, was based on 896 data points from 134 PVT ~f the errors with the experimental z factor. Higher emors reports and is given by mwrred at lower z factors. Even though the gases in Suttons database containedno hydogen sultlde and only limited amounts of carbon dioxide and nitrogen, Uwz factors calculated using his modification fitted the expanded data base very well. This fact gives a great deal of confidence in the theoretical basis of the formof the SBV equations. ~v~ and, To evaluate the current gas specific gravity correlations, we first assumed that the amount of impurites in the mixture was known. The technique given by Standing3 for applying the Wichert and Aziz correlation, Eqs. 3, was used to correct for the presence of acid gases. We evaluated !Mndingsreservoir gas correlationand P6Yc#f@ +P~Y#j Suttons comelation, Eqs. 2. The results of these calculations (4) using our data base are shown in Table 3 and Fig. 5. The + MYc@fc& average absolute error was 1.99 and 1.42 percent respectively. where yI G {~, yma YN2}J y] = {Ye],Yc2# o.*YDC6}s ad *e a: We then assumed that the amount of impurites in the mixture was unknown. As maybe seen in Fig. 6, the error was as large as 27 and pi were shown in Table 3 of Ref. 4. E@. 4, usti with Eqs percent and the maximum error varied linearly with the amount la and the DAK representation of the SK chrul provided mor~ of impuritiesin the rjxture. accurate estimates of the compressibtity factor, simplified tht ~ procedures,and included the effects of nitrogen.

PC = Tp + y~l

)@

= o+$fik%),+wd

H)] +

.,,...

This paper reports on further studies using a larger database. Wt present an update for the coefficients of Eqs. 4, based on UN expanded data base, and anew gas spec~lc gravity correlation Both Eqs. 4 and the new correlation elhnhm the need for E@ 3 and include the effects of nitrogev and can be used with Eqs la to calculate more accurate estimates of the compressibility factor.

Our objective was a method for estimating the pseudocxitical constants when composition is not known which, if used with the DAK representationof the SK cM@ more accuratelyreproduces the experimental compressibility factors. The data discussed above was used with the DAK equation of state and a minimization procedure to detexminethe inferred paeudocritkal constants. TLis set of inferred pseudocritical values was then used with multiple regression analysis to develop a new correlation for J and K to be used with Eqs. lain calculating values for the pseudocritical point, We later refer to the new Our previous work on gas compressibdity cormdations used I method as the proposed gas specificgravity correlation. data base with a limited number of high specific gravity gase and gases with high impurities content. The data set has bee] Procedure. A muhidimensional conjugate gradient algorithm16 expanded by about 60 %, with emphasis on adding gases u was used to find the point on the ~r-Tw sW= giv~ by the

SPE 26668

L. D. PIPER, W. D. MCCAIN, JR. AND J. H. CORREDOR

DAK representation of the SK chart which minimized the difference between experimental and calculated z factors. The experimental compressibility factor, pressure and temperature, and pseudocritical constants calculated using Suttons modification to SBV rules were used as initial guesses. The algorithm converged for all the data points and returned values for the inferred pseudociitical temperature and pressure. Based on our previous finding, that much of the scatter in compming calculated to inferred values of pseudodtical temperamre and pressure, ocurred at the last steps of a depletion study--a dtificult laboratory procedure, 121 data points were not used in our correlations. We attempted but were unable to correlate the infersedpseudocritkal tempemttureand pressurewith gas specitic gravity because of the large amount of impurities in the gases of OLU data base. Inferred Values of J and K. The 1482 remaining pairs of the inferred pseudocritkal constants and Eqs. la were used to find the inferred valuesfor the SBV parameters 1 and K, as shown below:

lkulte. To evaluate Eqs. la and 6, we again assumed that the unount of hnpurites in the mixture was known, Figs. 9 and 10 :ompare values of the pseudocritical constants calculated using Zqs. la and 6 with the inferred values. The results of z factor xdculations are shown in Table 3 and Fig. 11. The average ibsolute error of the calculated z factor was 1.30 percent using he proposed correlation. We then assumed that the amount of mpurites in the mixture was unknown. As indkated in Fig. 12, he error was again as large as 27 percent and the maximumerror wied linearly with the amount of impurities in the mixture. rable 5 shows a comparison of emors made in using the gas ;peciflc gravity correlations when the amount of impurities are mknown. Notice that the errors am relatively small if the gas is lean and sweet. However, the errors can be laxge if the gas xxttainsmore than five percent acid gas and is at a high pressure. I%eright half of Fjg, 12 shows results from several samples wntaining a large amount of impurities. The large errors are attributableto high concentrations of acid gas alone. The large ange in error at a constant compositionis attributableto variation [npressure, Generally, the larger errors occurred at the Wtgher pressures.
n

1. A set of z factors, temperatures, pressures, and gas compositions covering a very wide range of naturally occurring petroleum gases and nonhydrocarbon impurities After finding that the inferred values of J and K were strongly has been used to develop two new pseudocritical property correlations for use in calculating z factors. These related to the specific gravity of the gas mixture as can be correlations may be used with confidence for any naturally observed in Flge. 7 and 8, we decided to use a regression model occumingpetroleum gas with an acid gas content as high as similar to Eqs. 4, which was originally developedby Corredor17. 50 percentand ni$rogencontent as high as ten percent. Notice the data points in the lower right half of both figures, These two samples, which contain very high concentrations 01 carbon dioxide, obviously are omliers with respect to the 2. One proposed correlation, based on gas composition, is a modification of the SBV mixing rules, which does not relationships between J and K and specific gravity. The require the use of other correlations for the properties of the correlations can be improved by omitting them; however, they heptanes plus fraction or the effect of acid gas and nitrogen. were retained in the database because they were correlatable by This correlation resulted in z factors which fitted the data the mcdel discussedbelow. base with an average absolute error of 1.1 percent and a maximum error of 5.8 percent. Proposed Specific Gravity Correlation. Multiple regression techniques were used with the 1482 pairs of inferred J and K as dependent variables to empirically find a correlation 3. The other proposed correlation,based on gas speci!lcgravity and the amounts of nonhydrocarbon impurities in the gas, incorporating the fmt four terms of Eqs. 4 and the gas specific also does not require the use of other correlations for the gravity. The new cordations are given by E+. 6. effect of acid gas and nitrogen. This correlationresulted in z factors which fitted the data base with an average absolute emorof 1.3percent and a maximum error of 7.3 percent. 4. The presenceof nonhydrocarbonimpurities in a gas must be accounted for when using a gas specific gravity~orrelation. Errors in z factors as high as 27 percent occurred when high concentrationsof acid gas were ignored. ~re YiE {ysf$,yc~ yN2}, ad the Ui axld pi are shown in TabIc 4. Eqs. 6 directly account for the effects of hydrogem sulfide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen, eliuinatiug the need fol Eqs. 3. The new method for calculating the z factor uses onl~ Eqs. 1a and 6 and the DAK representationof the SK chart. Nott that the new method is simplier than current methods. Whik Eqs. 6 contains terms similar to those in Eqs. lb, the introduction of terms for nonhydmcarbongases is a departurefrom the currenl melhod. 663

J K MC: P
PG

= SBV parameter,OR/psia = SBV parameter,OR/psiaOS = molar mass, lb-mole = molar mass of heptane plus fraction,lb-mole = pressure,psia = aitical pressure,psia

4 % Ppr 1 Te Tpc TW YC7+ Yi z ai B, 7* E

COMPRESSIBILITYFACTORS FOR NATI = pseudocriticalpreSSIW,pSiZ = pseudoredwed pressure = correlationeoeffieierit = tempemtum, R = critical temperature, R = psemkwrkicaltemwfi !ure, R = pseudoreducedtemperature = mole fnwtion of heptane plus fraction = mole fractionof the i-th component = gas compressibilityfactor = cuftieients of the chelations for J = coefficientsof the correlationsfor K = qwciftc gravity of the gas mixture = Wichert and Aziupseudocriticaltemperature adjustmentparameter, R

ALLYOCCURRINGPETROLEUMGASES SPE 2666 PetroleumGases: paper SPE 24864 presentedat the SPB AnnualTechnicalMeeting and Exhibition, Washingtm D. C., Oct. 4-7,1992. 5. Wiche%E.: CompressibilityFactor of Sour Natural ~7~ MEng Thesis, The Universityof Calgary, Alberta 6. Metcalfe,R. S. and Raby, W. J.: PhaseEquilibriafw a Rich Gas Condensate-NitrogenSystem, FluidPhase Equilibria29 (1986) 563-73. 7. Fimozabadi, A., Hem Y. and Katz, D. L.: Resewoir DepletionCalculationsfor Gas CondensatesUsing ExtendedAnalyses in the Peng-RobmsonEquationof State,&M. Per.Tech, (Get., 1978)610-15. 8. Coats, K. H. and SmarLG. T.: Applicationof a Regression-BasedEOS PVT Program to LaboratoryData SPERE(MZy,1986) 277-99. 9. KenyonD.E. and Behie, A.: lldrdSPE Comparative Solution Projeec Gas Cycling of RetrogradeCondensate Resxvoirs: JPT (Aug., 1987)981-97. 10. Whiison,C. H. and Torp, S. B.: EvaluatingConstant VolumeDepletion Data: JPT (Ma@ 1983) 610-620. 11. Moses, P. L.: EngineeringApplicationsof Phase Behaviorof Cfude 011and CondensateSystems,JPT (July, 1986)715-23. 12. Coats, IL H; Simulationof Gas CondensateReservoir Performance: paper SPE 10512presentedat the Sixth SPE Symposiumon ReservoirSimulation,New Orleans, Jan. 31-Feb. 3,1982. 13. Kilgren, K. H..: PhaseBehaviorof a High-i%essure CondensateReservoirFluid; JPT (Aug, 1966) 1001-7. 14. Vrla, F.: personal communication,May 29,1992. 15. Holditch,S. A,: personal communication,June 7,1993 16. Press, W. H., FJannery,B. P., Teukolsky, S. A. and Vetterling,W. T.: Numerical Recipes,1st cd., Cambrklge UniversityPress, New York (1986) 301-7. 17. Corredor, J. H.: Compressibtity Factors for Retrograd Gases: A New Correlation, MS Thesis, Texas A&l IJniversity,College Station (191).

We thank Core Laboratories Inc. and S. A. Holditch & Associates,Inc. for providing data.

1. MeCain, William D., Jr; TheProperties ofPetroleum Fluids,2ndcd., PennWellBooks, Tulsa(1990) 104-22, 510-12. 2. Sutton, R. P; CompressibdityFactors for High MolecularWeight ReservoirGases, paper SPE 14265 presentedat the SPE Annual TechnicalMeeting and Exhibition,l-as Vegas,Sept. 22-25,1985. 3. Standing,M. B.: Volumetric andPhaseBehavwrof Oil FieidH@rocarbonSystems, 9th Riming, Society of Petroleumengineersof AIME, Dallas(1977) 122. 4. Corredor, J.H., Piper, L.D., and McCain, W.D. Jr.: CompressibilityFactors for Naturally Oceuming

TABLE 1--RANGE OF DATA Variable Hydrogen Sulfide Carbon Dioxide N~trogen Methane Ethane Propane iso-Butane n-Butane iso-Pentane n-Pentane Hmane HeptanePlus MC7+ 7c3#+ z T, T p, psia 7*(air= 1) Mean 2.45 3.38 1.87 71.15 8.21 4.04
0.90

Minimum
0.00 0.OO 0,00

Maximum 51.37 67.16 15.68 94.73 18.40 12.74 2,60 6.04 2,24 :% 14.94
29;.0 0.884

19.37 2.30
0.06 i% 0.00 0.00 w

1.55
0.64

0.88 0.65 4,28 135,2 0.779 0.989 243.8 3758.6 0.972


684

98.0 0.710 0.698 78.0 514.0 0.613

2.099 326.0 12814.0 1.821

L. D. PIPER,W. D, MCCASN, JR, ANDJ. H, CORREDOR TABLE 2-WPDATED COEFFICIENTS FOR EQS. 4 J i
o

K standard Error 8.8370E-03 2,3018E-02 2.1985E-02 4.1292E-02 1.5402E-02 Pi -3.9741E-01 1,0503E+O0 9.6592E-01 7.8569E411 9.8211E-01
standard

~ 5.2073E-02 1.0160E@0 8,6961E-01 7.2646E-01 8.5101E-O1

I&or 2.2271E-01 1.5428E-02 1,6132E-02 4.2227E-02 1,S134E-02

1 : 4

~2

0,981

0,979

TABLE 3--ACCURACY

OF COMPRESSIBILITY

FACTOR

CALCULATIONS

Psmdocritlcal

Property

Correlation

SEYSSBY
~ (0.61< yg c 0.99)-628 data points @C7,<4% & yH$+y~<5%) AvemgeErru -0.023 -:ol; M@mum Absolute13m3r 0.065 1:577 AverageAbsoluteError,% 2,508 4,582 MaximumAbsoluteError,% 6,668 ~ (0.63 c y~< 1,42)-369 data points @c7+<4% & YH2S+Y~>5%) Average13rm -0,002 -:,;: MaximumAbsoluteError :04; AverageAbsolute Error,% 1:627 6.467 6:518 Maximurn AbsoluteFaor, %
(0.84 c ygc 1.82)-439 data points (Yc7+Z4% ~ YIi2s+Yco2<5%) AverageBra -:.:;; 0.008 MaximumAlmolute Error :05; 2:556 Awage AbsoluteError,% MaximumAbsoluteWor, % 7.571 5:816

SmdinL?
0.001 0.054 1.040 5.831 -:jloo 1:293 5.882 0.001 0,079 1.304 6.371

-Wlol (/:(); 3:647

-;:;; 1:295 6.356

-:.:;; 1:163 6.450

-g.::;

1:176 4.386

BkkWWMM

0,003 0,053 1,173 4,410

-0.034 0.162 3,070 9,795

0.009 p)); 7:856

0.001 0.061 1.356 4.709

~ (0.84< Yg e 1.82)-167 data points ti~~+~4% & yn#+yC0225%) AverageErnx 0,011 -:ol; MaxirmunAbsoluteEmor 0.057 AverageAbsoluteWor, m 1.689 1:656 MaximumAbsoluteEmoL, m 7.719 5.789 ~m~l~hta points -::;: MaximurnAbsoluteEaror AverageAbsoluteEmor,% MaximumAbsoluteError,% 2:230 7.5.. 665 -0.003 0,067 1.526 7.719

0.001 0.048 1.069 3.674 0.001 (/.()): 5:831

-;.;;; 3:307 9.829 -:.::: 1:990 9.829

-:00; 1:715 6.786 0.002 ::;; 7:856

-0,002 0.043 1.235 5.350 0.001 0.076 1.304 7.230

COMPRESSIBXLITY FACIXIRSFORNATUW4LLY OCCURRINGPETROLEUM GASES


TABLE 4==PROPOSED GAS SPECIFIC GRAVITY CORRELATION

SPE 26668

Standard Error 1.1582E-01 -4,582QE-01 -9.0348E-01 -6.6026E=-01 7.0729E-01 -9.9397E-02 0,979 7.4SOE-03 1,3616E-02 1.5387E-02 3.9664E-02 1.3878E-02 6.055E-03 3.8216E+O0 -6.5340E-02 -4,21 13E-01 -9.1249E-01 1.7438E+-01 -3.2191E+O0 0.975

Sta&rcd \:\\,XE-O: 1.0812Ek2 4,I073E-02 3.1914E-01 1.3925E-01

o 1
4

TABLE 5--ACCURACY OF GAS SPECIFIC GRAVITY CORRELATIONS WHEN IMPURITIES ARE UNKNOWN

I
i
YC7+<4 % Is

YH*S + YcO~ <$ % utton I MS. 6

I I 1

yH2S + YC02 ~5% Sutton I ~S. 6

YC7+24%

666

WE 26668

L. D. PIPER, IV. D. MCCAIN, JR AND J. H. CORREDOR

2.0-

2.01 i
...... .... 1 t ...........*..... ...................+........ i:! ~ I t ...........T..+ ....... 1 ......... ...

1.81.6kl ~

I
1.4-

1. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ...+ . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . !5 1.6-j g . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .+.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N 1.4- . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . ...+.... ! l.o-0.8= . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . .

1*2 !:

1.0 . . . . . . . 0.130.6 0.6 0.S 1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

Eapsrimcntal z

Factor

Expcrimentsl z

Factor

Fig. I=-Calculated z Factor using Suttons Modification to SBV Rules

Fig. 3-.Calculated z Factor using Proposed Modification to SBV Rules

........................ ......................... ............ ......... i;; +1 +j


1

-..*..I..
+1

+l~i
,.

i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..{ ..... +~+~~ 1; ?*! : : !

l! ~

+ +:
1

+ ........

t ... ... 0:6 0:8 1:0 1:2 1:4 1:6 Espcrimsntal z Factor z Factor using Suttons

@ . .. .

0:6

0:8

1:0

1:2

1:4

1:6

Expcdmental z Factor

Fig. 2--Error ID Calculated Modification to SBV Ruka

Fig. 4-.Error in Calculated z Factor using Proposed Modification to SBV RUISS

COMPRESSIBIIIIY FACTGRSFOR NATURALLYOCCURRINGPETROLEUMGASES

SPE266S8

........ !%l-l~#i-i
2.0 . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ..o . . ..o..\ . . . . . . . . . ..i . . . . . . . . . . . ..."".....".. i* ;
. . . . . . . . ..i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. L............j............\......+..F ...........i.....i la-t . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . ...!..... ...4..*

P r-l ! I W(
1

I
I

.........../............................. ............ .......... .


} ++ ;;...:! + ,+ I I + *1+ ............ ........... 4+: r 4 :4*

[$ . ..+..+.
i i i I ............ .... ~ i } ~ ~ ...........*... .. ~ ! i --i1.S

.........

Tj 1.28

. . . . . . . . . . 1.o- . . . . . . . o.s- . 0.6 0.6 :


1
!

0.8

S.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.s

2.0

Experimental z Factor

1.6 3.4 1 (%s Specific Gravity 1.2

Fig. S--Calculated z Factor using Suttons Specific Gravity Correlation with Impurities Known

.24

........... .................... .................................... ... ..... ........ :+:: I.....: }:: {1::: ;+1 j;: I :::: @ ....... . ............... . ........... . ........ . .. . ....... . .... . .......+.?. ...y ...t : I!! i:; . i i: . ........ .....~ ................... ... ................. ..................., ....;... ~*!*: :. ..: E 16!wi: i!:\ fl n ..l.~ ....y" . ...... ...f ....~...j.$ .. ....*...~ 3 a12i [~.:::; ....... ....................................+.. ............ ............................... [i:+::~; ..1...........+..... ......................... ...... ..... ............ ...... ...... ..; ... 31 4
20 ..~..l~ . .
8 . .... .... . ... .. .. 1 .... ,. . ....+.....

:{; i; l~i \ ...~


1
:?!

Fig. 7--Variation of the Inferred Value of J with the Specific Gravity of the Gas Mixture

26 i

.....\ .....j .....j.....i .....j.....\ .....! .....j .....l.....i...~...~ ...........~ .....l


..... .....+............j............y ...~.................. .....f..... {~: ; ~ ;: j..:+j

I. i. I. . . . . . . . . . . . ..l* . . . . . . . . . ..~..... 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . , 24- . i 1 I h.$k $ i i 1 I i ~1 1. ""'""\ "."""~""""{"".""~".."""i""-"";"""""i""""'!"""4".".';"""[.*"~""'"j"""""! . . . . . . . . . ...!.... . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . + 22- . t ~ !~ ,4 j ...!..... 20- . . . . . . . . . . . .. I . . . . . . . . . . . . ..! . . . . . . ..*4

M..i .. .......... ..........

R&.!...........+.... P#)

I
I

q. ........t..~.-.;...:.. \.-...
:-q4 ........j. ......$... +....

-.&

4..+F+;f

ILL:
~iil;ilit~+~~:
... ..... ................................. ..... ...... ....+..... i ..\ ......r .....~....J .....j .....f ....t ....\ ..........j ......

14.

~:~i P .:: .....+ ...........................L .............I.............~.....


f ;
i i !

-r.. ............... ............ ~Ji ...... ........................ i!; :: +~l~j::: ~: .........!..... ...... .... ........... \ ................... :+,:~~i h i; . . . . . . . . ........ i ,.. ..?. . . . . . . . . ..1...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 5. 1 11 [ I B I 1 I

12
10

?.
I

!. L. . . . . . . . . . ..l . . . . . . . . . . ..i . . . . . . ..2... *.4 .. . . . . . . . ..j . . . . . . . . . . . ..i . . . . . . . . . . . . . i~~ 1 11


i ? i
1

0:0

0:1

9:2

0:3 0;4 0:S YSM + Y- + YNJ

0:6

0:7

Gs8 Sedtlc Gravity

Fig. 6--Error in Calculated z Factor using SUttds Specific Gravity Correlation with Impurities Unknown

Fig. 8--Variation of the Inferred Value of K with the SpecMic Gravity of the Gas Mixture

,,

SPE 2666J

L. D. PIPER,W, D,MCCAIN, JR, AND J, H. CORREDOR

E . . . . . . ..+ iyj I I
I

. . . . . . . ..+ j ;

. . . . . . . . ..j :

. . . . . . . . . ..{ . . . . . . . . . ..+ . . . . . . . . ...*..... ; ~ :

0.6 foo t

!:
I 0:6 I 0:8 I 1:0

3oa

3io

4Q0

4s0

Soo

550

I 1 1:2

! I

j I

~: I

I
I

1:4

1.6

1.8

2.0

Inferred Pscudocritlcal Temperature, R

Experimental z Factor

Fig. 9.=Calculated I%opoeed Specific

Pseudocritical Temperature Gravity Correlation

using

Fig. n--Calculated z Factor using Proposed Gravity Correlation with Impurities Known

Specific

.................

...........! ......... .................] .........................................I*.4

\ ........ 1/
f i

.. .! ......".."""""~
+* ! :

I \

;+* +

.................. .............
+

.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . t

i
i

........... $

$ . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

-.

..L..................................................
j i.

ti~
Soo

I;I!

; :0:0 0:1 0:2

.........& .................i .... *; .....&


0:3 0:4 0:5 YIW + h: + yNa 0.6 0.7

900 800 7tio Pressure, psla Inkrrcd PseodocrMcal


600

Fig. 10--Ctdcu1ated Pseudocriticai Pressure Proposed Specific Gravity Correlation

using

Fig, 12--Error in Calculated Specific Gravity Correlation

z Factor using Proposed with Impurities Unknown

SPE266i8

.,, ...... ~:= ~iH~:H


~ as a ~Unction

of Gas Specific Gravity and Amount of Impurities

10

20

10

20

10

20

Mol % H2S

Mol % COa

Mo1 % A,

1.1

::

1.o-

9 g : 1! g z
~ -

o.9-

......f ....... ........}.......i............. :.......

006

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.S

1.6

1.7

1.8

l.~

Gas Specific Gravity

Burkharcit and Voo equations, T pC=~dkppC=


K2

=to J

estimate Tpc &

Ppc*

See Piper, McCain, & Corredor, Compressibility Factors for Naturally Occurring Petroleum Gases, SPE 26668, presented at the 1993 WE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition in Houston, Texas, October 345, 1993.
670

,,W

SPE26668
K as a Function of Gas Specific G~avity and Amount of Impurities

. . . . . . . . ,;H ,8=
0

,:M,
10 20 0 10
Mo] % Na

10
Mol % IIJ?

20

Mol % C03

26

i
24

I 9

&

I I

12 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 l-l ~02 l-s 104 Gas Spcclfh! Gravity I*5 1*6 1*7 108 1*9