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Heat Recovery Applications Biomass Applications Geothermal Applications Solar Thermal Applications Aftermarket Services

Organic Rankine Cycle Technology

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About Us Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Technology & Applications ORC Main Components Available ORC Models Heat Recovery Applications Biomass Applications Geothermal Applications Solar Thermal Applications Aftermarket Services Performance Data

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About Us
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI), a diversified Fortune Global 150 company with more than $30 billion in annual revenues and 40,000 employees worldwide. MHI is an international leader in the design and supply of energy, aerospace, machinery, transportation, and environmental systems and equipment.

PW Power Systems
PW Power Systems, Inc. (PWPS) formerly Pratt & Whitney Power Systems, now a subsidiary of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. is committed to providing clean, efficient, and reliable power within the renewable energy market. PWPS has a vast array of product lines and services, including industrial gas turbine engines, aftermarket services and repairs, and Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) technology. Its ORC product line harnesses heat from a variety of sources, including biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, and industrial waste heat, to generate electricity. PW Power Systems is a world leader in developing and manufacturing energy solutions for power generation, transportation, and mechanical-drive applications. We are committed to providing high-quality solutions for the distributed energy market that increase energy productivity, energy reliability, and operational savings for our customers. Turboden, a PWPS subsidiary, is a leading ORC manufacturer based in Italy with more than 30 years of experience. Turboden was founded in 1980 in Milan by Mario Gaia, former professor of energy at the Polytechnic of Milan. Today, Turboden focuses its activity on the design and the production of ORC systems for distributed generation in renewable energy applications and industrial heat recovery.

Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Technology & Applications


PW Power Systems expertise in Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) technology is proven in the design, manufacture, installation, and maintenance of more than 300 ORC units around the world. Our ORC turbogenerators utilize heat from several sources, including biomass, industrial processes, reciprocating engines, gas turbines, geothermal, and solar thermal plants. Electric power output ranges between 1 MW and 10 MW.

Applications:
Heat Recovery
ORC units produce electricity by recovering heat from sources such as industrial processes, reciprocating engines, and gas turbines.

Biomass
ORC units allow simple and efficient generation of electric power and heat from biomass.

Electric Power

Geothermal
ORC units can produce electricity from geothermal resources with medium-to-low-temperatures, generally ranging between 195 F - 355 F (90 C - 180 C).

Heat

Solar Thermal Power


Concentrating solar power systems with Turboden ORC units allow conversion of heat harnessed by solar collectors into electricity through an efficient thermodynamic cycle.

Thermodynamic Principle behind the Organic Rankine Cycle


ORC technology is similar to a traditional steam turbine, but with a single, important difference. Instead of using water vapor, the ORC system vaporizes a high-molecular-mass organic fluid, resulting in excellent electric performance and several key advantages: slower turbine rotation, lower pressure, and no erosion of metallic parts and blades. The ORC unit is preassembled onto one or more skids and can be easily transported. The ORC turbogenerator uses medium-to-high-temperature thermal oil to preheat and vaporize a suitable organic working fluid in the evaporator (8,3,4). The organic fluid vapor rotates the turbine (4,5), which is directly coupled to the electric generator, resulting in clean, reliable electric power. The exhaust vapor flows through the regenerator (5-9), where it heats the organic liquid (2,8) and is then condensed in the condenser and cooled by the cooling circuit (9,6,1). The organic working fluid is then pumped (1,2) into the regenerator and evaporator, thus completing the closed-cycle operation.

Turbine

Advantage of Turboden ORC Turbogenerators


Technical Advantages
High cycle efficiency Very high turbine efficiency Low turbine mechanical stress due to low peripheral speed Low turbine rpm, allowing the direct drive of the electric generator without gear reduction in many applications No erosion of blades, thanks to the absence of moisture in the vapor nozzles

er Th
Temperature

lO ma

il

Electric Power Generator Thermal Oil Evaporator Regenerator Water

Water Entropy

Condenser Pump

Why a High-Molecular-Mass Working Fluid Instead of Water?


High-Molecular-Mass Organic Fluid
Very large flow rate Larger-diameter turbine No wear of blades and metal parts

No water consumed

Operational Advantages
Simple start-stop procedures Automatic and continuous operation No operator attendance needed Quiet operation High availability (typically 98%)

Water
Small, fast-moving molecules Erosion of blades and metal parts Multistage turbine and high mechanical stress

Partial load operation down to 10% of nominal power High efficiency at partial load Lower maintenance cost Long life

ORC Main Components

The power plant modules are preassembled and prequalified to facilitate ease of installation and startup. Each contains standardized components designed and integrated according to proven processes to ensure high quality.

Condenser-Regenerator

ORC Turbine

Electric Generator

ORC Heat Output (Hot Water)

Preheater

Evaporator
Electric Cubicles

Feed Pump

ORC Heat Input (Thermal Oil)

Available ORC Models


ORC products are configured for either electricity-only applications where heat sources are captured to produce electric power or combined heat and power (CHP) applications that produce both electricity and hot water for use as space or industrial process heating.

HRS: Electric-Only, High-Efficiency Units HR: Electric-Only, Standard-Efficiency Units CHP: Combined Heat & Power Units

HRS

HR

CHP

Electric Output

24%

20%

20%

100% Thermal Power from Thermal Oil

ORC Unit

Heat Output

74%

78%

78%

Thermal Losses

2%

2%

2%

ORC Partial Load Efficiency


Partial load operation down to 10% of nominal load. Maintains 90% of the cycle efficiency down to 50% loading.
ORC Actual Efficiency / ORC Nominal Efficiency
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Cooling Water Temperature Effect on Cycle Efficiency


26% Design Point

Gross Electric Efficiency

24% 22% 20% 18% 16% 14% 12% 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65

Actual Load / Nominal Load

Water Outlet Temperature from Condenser (C)

Even with variable flow rates or slight fluctuations in temperature, the ORC continues to operate down to 10% of nominal power. This is a significant advantage over steam turbines.

Heat Recovery Applications


Turboden ORC units can produce electricity by recovering heat from industrial processes, reciprocating engines, and gas turbines. The electric power range in heat recovery applications is generally from 1 MW to 10 MW. Capable of utilizing a wide range of temperatures, an ORC power plant produces reliable electricity from a variety of heat sources. The electricity is often available 24/7 and without the need for additional fuel expense.

Typical Applications
Gas Cement Glass Oil & Gas Chemicals Liquid Steam/Vapor

PW Power Systems/Turboden ORC units can recover energy from relatively low-to-moderate-temperature heat sources with excellent efficiency. HR units offer up to 20% efficiency and HRS units up to 25% efficiency. In gas turbine/engine heat recovery applications, the overall efficiency of the combined system can be significantly increased.

Steel / Nonferrous Pulp & Paper Food Waste Treatment Thermal Oxidizers Power Generation

Example of ORC Waste Heat to Power Applications


Electric Power Output Air Cooler or Cooling Towers Sources of Waste Heat
(Reciprocating Engine and Gas Turbine Exhaust, Cement, Steel, Glass Industries, Etc.)

Heat Carrying Loop External Heat Exchanger

Biomass Applications
Biomass is an extremely important renewable energy source, available nearly everywhere. It can be stored for a long time and is often economically viable. Biomass is best utilized in combined heat and power plants, particularly when the power system is built near the heat consumer.

Applications
District heating networks Timber drying in sawmills Sawdust drying in wood pellet factories Air preheating in MDF factories Greenhouses, swimming pools, hot springs Refrigeration

CHP Units for Cogeneration from Biomass


Cogeneration plants with Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) products produce both heat and electrical power from biomass efficiently and in a user-friendly manner. The generated power ranges between 1 MW and 3 MW. ORC split systems allow maximization of electric power production for a given biomass consumption due to a more efficient utilization of thermal power from the boiler, while nonsplit systems maximize electrical efficiency. ORC units can be fed by thermal oil, saturated vapor, or superheated water.

Fuels
Wood biomass: sawdust, wood chips, bark, treated wood Other biomass: dried sewage sludge, straw, green cuttings, rice husks, etc. Waste material

HRS Units for Electricity Generation from Biomass


Turboden has developed new models of HRS ORC units capable of high electrical efficiency. HRS models can operate both in dissipative condition, maximizing the electrical output, and in cogeneration mode, with the ability to provide heat with water temperature up to 140 F (60 C) while adjusting for seasonal thermal load and maximizing the utilization of the biomass. The ORC units can be fed by thermal oil or saturated vapor. Sizes range from 1 MW to 7 MW for a single unit.

Example of a CHP ORC in Biomass Applications


Electric Power Output District Heating Biomass Power Boiler
(Sawdust, Wood Chips, Bark, Rice Husks, Dried Sewage, Sludge, Straw, Etc.)

Drying Thermal Oil Loop

Refrigeration

Heat Sink

Geothermal Applications
ORC Turbogenerators for Geothermal Heat Sources
Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) turbogenerators are designed to generate electric power efficiently from low-medium-enthalpy geothermal sources with water temperatures ranging between 195 F - 355 F (91 C -180 C). PWPS /Turboden ORC units offer an excellent solution for newly discovered geothermal resources or bottoming of existing flash steam facilities.

Key Features and Benefits


Hot water resource between 195 F - 355 F (91 C - 180 C) Size from 3 MW to 10 MW Scalable for larger plants High cycle efficiency Enhanced cycle efficiency with two-level cycles Low O&M requirements

Due to the relatively low vapor point and noncorrosive properties of the organic working fluid, the turbine operates under lower pressures, lower peripheral speeds, and no erosion of turbine blades. Example of ORC Plant in Geothermal Applications
Electric Power

Wide range of working fluids can be used Simple and unattended operation EPC capability Brine and steam bottoming cycles to flash steam plants

Water Condenser

Cooling Tower

Air Cooler

Cooling

* Multiple cooling sources can be used.

Geothermal Heat Source

Thermal User (If Required)

River/Sea Water

Air CondenserEvaporative Condenser

Low-TemperatureHeat User

Solar Thermal Applications


ORC Units for Electric Power Generation from Solar Energy
ORC units convert the heat collected by solar concentrators into electricity through an efficient thermodynamic cycle. Concentrating solar power (CSP) systems along with our Organic Rankine Cycle units improve cost-effectiveness of power-generation systems in the range between 1 MW and 10 MW.

Key Features and Benefits


High flexibility Lower operating temperatures Lower solar collector costs Higher solar collector performance Scalable for larger plants

ORC power plants can produce electricity without any fossil-fuel consumption, hence, without the production of any greenhouse gas, NOx, SOx, carbon monoxide, or any other undesirable pollutant.

Use of low-cost, nonhazardous heat carrier fluid both in the collector field and in energy storage systems Simple and unattended operation Reduced investment costs Simplified permit and authorization process

Example of ORC Solar Thermal Power Applications


Electric Power

Cooling System Collector Field * Thermal Storage * Additional Source Thermal User

* Optional

Aftermarket Services
A Service Plan to Meet Your Needs
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, ltd. is a name the industry knows and trusts. PW Power Systems Aftermarket Services offers a complete portfolio of services that can be tailored to meet your needs, anywhere in the world. From simple preventative maintenance to comprehensive service agreements, PWPS gives you reliable, on-time services. Our integrated, flexible network can respond with part repair, site maintenance services, spare-part sales, and remote monitoring services to reduce operating risk, maximize equipment availability, and minimize overall lifecycle costs. Our goal is to maximize customer asset value through peak power plant reliability and availability. PW Power Systems provides around-the-clock monitoring via our remote monitoring service. Our customized system provides capabilities for data trending and reporting, alerting the operator about power plant issues, and performing advanced diagnostics and troubleshooting. With our strong technical team, this all leads to rapid identification and resolution of issues to keep the power plant running at its best.

An ORC power plant is automatically controlled and does not require continuous operator presence. Typically, three to five hours of weekly operation and maintenance are required, primarily to validate operational parameters. The plant can be remotely monitored and does not divert significant manpower away from the mission of the enterprise.

Maintenance Plans
RMS Standard Premium

Automated remote monitoring 24/7/365 Real-time data views Alarm notification Standard business hours CSM Extended business hours CSM Annual PM Software upgrades Dedicated CSM

Additional Aftermarket Services


Customer training Spare part sales Technical support and administration Contracted maintenance service

Unplanned maintenance Troubleshooting assistance Emergency advisory support


Notes: RMS Remote monitoring service CSM Customer service manager PM Preventive maintenance

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Performance Data
Combined Heat & Power Units
Standard Sizes and Typical Performance
TD 10 CHP Input Thermal Oil Nominal temperature HT loop (in/out) C Overall thermal power input kW 300/240 5140 572/464 17.54 300/240 6715 572/464 22.91 300/240 9790 572/464 33.40 300/240 12020 572/464 41.01 310/231 17571 590/448 59.95 TD 14 CHP TD 18 CHP TD 22 CHP TD 30 CHP

Nominal temperature HT loop (in/out) F Overall thermal power input Output Hot Water Hot water temperature (in/out) Thermal power to hot water circuit Hot water temperature (in/out) Thermal power to hot water circuit Performance Gross active electric power Gross electric efficiency** Captive power consumption Net active electric power** Net electric efficiency Electric generator* kW kW C kW F MMBtu/hr MMBtu/hr

60/80 4081 140/176 13.92

60/80 5313 140/176 18.13

60/90 7834 140/194 26.73

60/90 9601 140/194 32.76

65/95 14499 149/203 49.47

1016 19.8% 48 968 18.8% 50Hz, 400V 60Hz, 480V

1339 19.9% 58 1281 19.1% 50Hz, 400V 60Hz, 480V

1863 19.0% 79 1784 18.2% 50Hz, 660V 60Hz, 4160V

2304 19.2% 97 2207 18.4% 50Hz, 660V 60Hz, 4160V

3143 17.9% 197 2946 16.8% 50Hz, 6kV 60Hz, 4160V

Note: Performance data is indicative only. Actual performance is dependent upon and can be optimized for specific project conditions. * Induction or synchronous, higher voltage available upon request. If reduction gear is required, efficiency is reduced about 1.5%. ** Ratio between electric power output and thermal power input. Electric efficiency depends on several factors, primarily heating and cooling source temperatures and thermal media. Our sales specialists will support you to develop optimized solutions, evaluating specific heat source features (thermal oil, steam, pressurized water, exhaust gas) and cooling devices (dry/wet water loops, CHP, air condensing).

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Performance Data
High-Efficiency Units
Standard Sizes and Typical Performance
TD 12 HRS Input Thermal Oil Nominal temperature (in/out) Thermal power input Nominal temperature (in/out) Thermal power input C kW F MMBtu/hr 305/206 4817 581/403 16.44 310/212 9634 590/414 32.87 310/214 13075 590/417 44.61 300/184 22500 572/363 76.84 315/190 25376 600/375 86.67 TD 24 HRS TD 32 HRS TD 55 HRS TD 65 HRS

Output Hot Water Cooling water temperature (in/out) Thermal power to cooling water circuit Cooling water temperature (in/out) Thermal power to cooling water circuit Performance Gross electric power Gross electric efficiency** Captive power consumption Net active electric power output Net electric efficiency** Electric generator* kW kW kW 1188 24.7% 49 1139 23.6% 50Hz, 400V 60Hz, 480V 2336 24.2% 92 2244 23.3% 50Hz, 6kV 60Hz, 4160V 3193 24.4% 125 3067 23.5% 50Hz, 6kV 60Hz, 4160V 5700 25.3% 250 5450 24.2% 50Hz, 6kV 60Hz, 4160V 6348 25.0% 348 6000 23.6% 50Hz, 6kV 60Hz, 4160V C kW F MMBtu/hr 25/35 3632 77/95 12.39 24/37 7310 75/99 24.94 25/40 9897 77/104 33.77 32/42 16900 90/108 57.71 24/34 18968 75/93 64.78

Note: Performance data is indicative only. Actual performance is dependent upon and can be optimized for specific project conditions. * Induction or synchronous, high voltage available upon request. If reduction gear is required, efficiency is reduced about 1.5%. ** Ratio between electric power output and thermal power input. Electric efficiency depends on several factors, primarily heating and cooling source temperatures and thermal media. Our sales specialists will support you to develop optimized solutions, evaluating specific heat source features (thermal oil, steam, pressurized water, exhaust gas) and cooling devices (dry/wet water loops, CHP, air condensing).

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Heat Recovery Units


Typical Range of Operation and Performances
TD 10 to 14 HR Range of Reference Case Operation TD 10 HR Input* Thermal Oil Thermal oil inlet temperature C Thermal oil outlet temperature C Thermal power input MW 240-310 170-120 5.0-7.0 464-590 338-248 17.06-23.88 290 145 5.54 554 293 18.90 240-310 170-120 8.0-12.0 464-590 338-248 27.30-40.95 285 120 11.21 545 248 38.25 250-315 170-120 13.0-22.0 482-599 338-248 44.36-75.07 315 130 21.4 599 266 73.02 240-310 150-110 24.0-50.0 464-590 302-230 81.89-170.61 280 140 49.8 536 284 169.92 TD 18 to 24 HR Range of Reference Case Operation TD 22 HR Split TD 27 to 40 HR Range of Reference Case Operation TD 40 HR Split TD 50 to 100 HR Range of Reference Case Operation TD 100 HR

Thermal oil inlet temperature F Thermal oil outlet temperature F Thermal power input MMBtu/hr

Output** Cooling Water Typical cooling water temperature (in/out) C 25/35 4.0-5.0 26/38 4.4 25/40 6.0-9.5 22/40 9.0 20/45 10.0-17.5 22/54 17.2 25/40 19.2-40.0 32/47 39.4 Thermal power to condenser MW Typical cooling water temperature (in/out) F 77/95 13.65-17.06 79/100 15.01 77/104 20.47-32.42 72/104 30.71 68/113 34.12-59.71 72/129 58.69 77/104 65.51-136.49 90/117 134.4 Thermal power to condenser MMBtu/hr Performance Gross electric power Gross electric efficiency*** Captive power consumption 9620 Net electric efficiency*** Electric generator**** Cooling systems 16-21% 50Hz, 400V 60Hz, 480V 19% 50Hz, 400V 60Hz, 480V 16-21% 50Hz, 660V 60Hz, 4160V 18% 50Hz, 660V 60Hz, 4160V 16-20% 50Hz, 6kV 60Hz, 4160V 18% 50Hz, 6kV 60Hz, 4160V 16-21% 50Hz, 6kV 60Hz, 4160V 19% 50Hz, 6kV 60Hz, 4160V kW Net active electric power output kW 900-1600 17-20% 36-70 kW 1108 20% 46 850-1550 1700-2500 17-22% 60-100 1062 2120 19% 80 1650-2400 2600-4500 17-21% 100-200 2040 4000 19% 200 2500-4000 4800-10500 17-22% 200-800 3800 10400 21% 780 4500-9800

Closed-loop water cooling or wet tower Closed-loop water cooling or wet tower Closed-loop water cooling or wet tower

Wet tower or air condenser

Note: Performance data is indicative only. Actual performance is dependent upon and can be optimized for specific project conditions. * ** Turboden units up to TD 40 HR can be equipped with the Split System, a heat exchanger allowing additional low-temperature heat recovery to increase the power production. The Split System heat exchanger may use thermal oil / pressurized water as heat transfer fluid. Cooling water temperatures are selected taking into account specific site requirements; e.g., average air temperature, water availability (to use either dry or wet heat dissipation system), possibility of CHP mode (in specific cases water up to 90 C can be generated by the ORC).

*** Ratio between electric power output and thermal power input. Electric efficiency depends on several factors, primarily heating and cooling source temperatures and thermal media. **** Induction or synchronous, high voltage available upon request. If reduction gear is required, efficiency is reduced about 1.5%. Our sales specialists will support you to develop optimized solutions, evaluating specific heat source features (thermal oil, steam, pressurized water, exhaust gas) and cooling devices (dry/wet water loops, CHP, air condensing).

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PW Power Systems, Inc. 628 Hebron Avenue, Suite 400 Glastonbury, CT 06033 1-866-PowerAll (1-866-769-3725) www.pwps.com

Turboden via Cernaia, 10 25124 Brescia, Italy +39.030.3552.001 Fax: +39.030.3552.011 www.turboden.com

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