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MT (MAS)

LINEAR LAW
Back to Basic 1 : How To Find Gradient of a straight line A linear equation can be written in the form y = ! " c . Note that is the gradient of the straight line, and c is the y!interce"t. #ou can find by using the gradient formula $ %
Example 1 y

y& y' x& x'

(ind the gradient of the line A).


AB

A(&, .)

y& y' x& x'


. ' & -

B(-, ')
O

%
x

/ 0

%
Your turn to try ! #1$ (ind the gradient of *+.
y
&#

1&

% %

y& y' x& x'

*(', ,)

+(-, &) x

% % %
%

#%$ (ind the gradient of RS.


y
R'

S(/, -) 2(3, &)


O

Linear law

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MT (MAS)

Back to Basic % : How To Find y intercept and the equation of a straight line Ste" ' $ (ind gradient by using the gradient formula .

Ste" & $ 4rite the equation of straight line y = mx + c. Substitute your Ste" 5 $ (ind the y!interce"t c using any "oint on the line.
(ind the e()ation of the line A).
AB

Example 1

y& y' % x& x'


y =
So,

/ . ' % & 0

%*%

A(&, .)

mx + c 2x + c 2(2) + c 4 + c c

y 9 9 13

= = = =

B(-, ') x

Using A(2, 9 ,

So, equa ion o! "# is O", no# YO$ try !


+'. (ind the equation of &#$
&#

y = 2x + 1! .

y& y' x& x'

*(', ,)

+(-, &) x

6quation of *+ is 7777777777777..

+&. (ind the equation of R'$ y

R'

S(/, -) 2(3, &)


O Linear law

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MT (MAS)

%ore &a'ic exerci'e' (or you ))** to &oo't your con(i+ence! +uestion $ (ind the equation of *+ in each of the following cases $ ' y & +(0, .)

. X

y . *(3, -)

5
+(5, 3) x
O

. X *(3,')
.
O

8 y = &x + ' 9

8 y = & x + - 9 0

5 y

. ;

+(-, '/)

.*(', -) ; .+(:,&) ;

. ;
*(!',0)
O

Linear law

MT (MAS)

8y % &; < -9

8y % 1 ; < ,9

,o#, let u' 'ee #-at come' out in S.% 2//)) LINEAR LAW
&a+er 1, #1-, 11, 1% -r 1. /0 mar1'0 " &a+er %, #1 /1/ mar1'0
&a+er 1 : 'hort #)estion o 2s)all3 a linear 4straight line5 gra+h is gi6en o Also gi6en is a non7linear e()ation o 8o) will 9e ask to calc)late the 6al)es of two )nknowns 9ased on the infor ation gi6en H:W to answer this ()estion : 4rite the linear equation in the form 8 = ; " < . Note that is the gradient of the straight line, and < is the 8!interce"t. #ou can find by using the gradient formula $

y& y' x& x'

=f the line cuts the >ertical a;is, then c is easily obtained by reading the 8 ! interce"t. ?therwise use 8 = ; " < with the >alues of ; and 8. =: N:T use the non!linear equation for substitution of @ and #A

Example 1 S.% 2//! .aper 1, 21/ 3 x an$ y are related by the equation 3 = +!% " (!, where " and q are constants. A straight line is obtained by "lotting yB; against ; as shown in the diagram below. Calculate the >alues of " and q . mar%s9 84

Solution 3 Step 1& '(ange non linear e4uation y = )x & + qx to a linear equation

y = ) ( x) + q x
8 = Step 2& Step !& ; " <

*+y $i,i$ing +o ( si$es +y x !ollow $iagram-.

/in$ (e 5ra+ient &

p =

. ' = 2 &8 = *%; "( 1 = * %4>5 " (

/in$ (e Y0in erce) , using (6, 1 means ; = >, 8 = 1 :

Linear law

MT (MAS)

1 = * 1% " ( 1. = (

4 = 1!
Now is 3o)r t)rn to tr3 so e ()estions of the sa e t3+e, ok ?
Exerci'e 1 S.% /! , 78O,E 21 3 x an$ y are related by the equation 3 = h!% " k!, where h and D are constants. A straight line is obtained by "lotting yB; against ; as shown in the diagram below. Calculate the >alues of h and D . 84 mar%s9 y1x

(', ,)

(-, &)
O

Solution 3 Step 1& '(ange non linear e4uation y = (x & + %x to a linear equation $

S.% /! , 78O,E 22 3 x an$ y are related by the equation 3 = (! " +!%, where " and q are constants. A straight line is obtained by "lotting yB; against ; as shown in the diagram below. Calculate the >alues of " and q . 84 mar%s9 y1x Answer $

(/, -)
(3, &)
O

Linear law

MT (MAS)

Now, Eet us "ractise drawing 9t-e line o( &e't (it:3 '.' Fraw the line of best fit ' y &

;& ; 5 y& 0 log '3 y

log '3 ;

;o# a&out (in+in5 t-e e4uation repre'entin5 t-e line o( &e't (it <
'.& (ind the equation for the line of best fit of the following gra"hs. ' y
X X X

+(:,'5)

&

. X

y . *(3,0)
X X X X X

. X*(3,5)
. ; Gradient, m %

+(&,3)

Linear law

MT (MAS)

8 y = &x + 5 9

8 y = & x + 0 9

*(!',0) ;&

. ;

+(:,'-) . ;

.*(',/) ; ; ; ; .+(5,&) ;
;&

8y % &;&<-9

8y% !5;&<''9

=eter ine the non7linear relations fro


'

gi6en lines of 9est fit


& The diagram below shows the line of best fit ' for the gra"h of y& against . Fetermine x the non!linear equation connecting y and ;.

The diagram below shows the line of best fit for the gra"h of y& against ;. Fetermine the non!linear equation connecting y and ;.

y& X*(3,0)

y&
+(&,3) ;

+(&,'&) *(3,&)

Gradient, m % % C % Hsing So, 8 =


%

03 3&

' x

; " <,

8 = 3 , ; = !,

Linear law

MT (MAS)

8y&%!&;<09 5 The diagram below shows the line of best fit for the gra"h of 0

& 8 y = : + & 9 x

'

The diagram below shows the line of best fit


y
& for the gra"h of x against ;. Fetermine

y against ;. Fetermine the non! x&

linear equation connecting y and ;.

the non!linear equation connecting y and ;.

y x&
X

X+(-,'&)

y x&
(&,0) 3

(0, :)

*(5,3)

; ;

8 :

y x
&

= 0 x '& 9 -

y x
&

' x+59 &

The diagram below shows the line of best fit for the gra"h of xy against ;. Fetermine the relation between y and ;. ;y
X +(0,'&)

The diagram below shows the straight line gra"h of xy against ;. 6;"ress y in terms of ;. ;y (0,'3)

*(&,0) ;

(', ') ;

Linear law

MT (MAS)

8 y = 0

0 9 x

8 y = 5 9

& x

.A.ER 2 , 2= > 1/ mar1' ?


'o e ti+s for 3o) @$ 1$ %$ .$ C$ E$ >$ 'how the new ; * 8 ta9le of 6al)es in 3o)r gra+h +a+er A e!a +ad =: N:T create 3o)r ta9le in 3o)r ()estion +a+erB 'cale )sed )st 9e )nifor , 9)t scale on 9oth a!es a3 differ$ HoriDontal a!is sho)ld start fro Follow instr)ctionsB &lot @@@$ against @@@$$ Horizontal Axis

Vertical Axis

1$ =raw the line of 9est fit 4'trai5-t line +assing thro)gh

ost +oints5

F$ G2se 3o)r gra+h to find the 6al)es of @@H 'o, =: N:T calc)late )sing the original 6al)es fro the ta9leB

I$ Find the 5ra+ient and GY@ interceptH fro

3o)r linear gra+h

1-$ 8o)r J K and JcK sho)ld 9e deci als 4N:T fractions5

11$ 2se 3o)r gra+h to o9tain f)rther infor ation : to find the )nknowns @@@$

Linear law

MT (MAS)

E!a +le 1 : $'e 5rap- paper to an'#er t-i' 4ue'tion*


The table below records the >alues of an e;"eriment for two >ariables ; and y which are related by
y = )x & + q where " and q are constants. x x y /*A 1/A*A 1 =9 1*! 0B*9 1*0 !6*B 1*B 2B*= 1*= A*2

(a) *lot !3 against !. using a 'cale o( 2 cm to 1 unit on t-e x!@axi' and 2 cm to 1/ unit' on t-e xy@axi'* Ience, draw the line of best fit *2mar%s . (b) (rom the gra"h, estimate the >alue of (i p an+ 4 0: (ii x #-en y = *2mar%s. x
8"ns & )= 01345, q = 92, x=14449

AN'WER F:R E;AL&LE 1 /<o+3 this ta9le onto the to+ +art of 3o)r gra+h +a+er0

!. !3

-$E F1$-

1$1I$-

%$% EI$1

%$1 E1$1

.$C .F$>

C$I 1.$I

(ollow ti"s ' to ''. Hsing the gra"h "a"er "ro>ided, "lot the "oints carefully and draw the line of best fit.

Re e 9er $ Hse a 'cale o( 2 cm to 1 unit on t-e x!@axi' and 2 cm to 1/ unit' on t-e xy@axi'* And , 3o)r scale L2'T BE 2NIF:RL B

q x ! xy = px + 4 y =
#

)x & +
m@

This is in the form So, the gradient is

< C

m % " , and C % q

(rom your gra"h, find the gradient and read the >ertical interce"t. #ou should find that (i) ) 6 013435, q 6 92,
Linear law

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MT (MAS)

(ii) xy = 42 ( 7 = 42 ) /rom gra)(, x3 = 3, x 6 1444

Exerci'e' e'pecially (or $)**


1$ $'e 5rap- paper to an'#er t-i' 4ue'tion* The table below records the >alues of an e;"eriment for two >ariables ; and y which are related by where " and D are constants. ; y 5 0., : 0.' 5., 5.' / &.: . './ y ) = + %x x x

*lot the gra"h y a5ain't x2, using a 'cale o( 2 cm to 1 unit on t-e x2@axi' and 2 cm to /*B unit' on t-e y@axi'* 84 mar%s9 Hse the gra"h to e'timate the >alues of (i) " (ii) D y ) (iii) ; which satisfy the simultaneous equation = + %x and y % &. 83 mar%s9 x x
/An'#er3 p=B*1, 1 = @/*/0, x= A*6 A*A?

2* S.% 2//0 .aper 2 2ue'tion =


Use gra)( )a)er o answer (is ques ion4 Table below shows the >alues of two >ariables, ; and y, obatained from an e;"eriment. Jariables ; and y are x related by the equation y = p 1 , where " and D are constants. ; y & 5.'0 :.:3 I$1% / '-.&& '3 &/./0 '& 0-.,,

4a5 &lot log1- 3 against ! 93 )sing a scale of 2 cm to 2 unit' on the !7a!is and 2 cm to /*2 unit on the log1- 37a!is$ Hence, draw the line of 9est fit$ / 0 mar1' 0 (b) Hse your gra"h from (a) to find the >alue of (i) ) (ii) % 8 3 mar%s9
"nswer &) =14829, % =14399

!* S.% 2//B .aper 2 2ue'tion =


Use gra)( )a)er o answer (is ques ion4 Table below shows the >alues of two >ariables, ; and y, obtained from e;"eriment. The >ariables ; and y are related by the equation y = )x + x y 1*/ B*B

r , where ) and r are constants. )x


2*/ 0*= !*/ B*/ 0*/ 6*B B*/ =*= B*B A*0 /B mar1'0

495 &lot !3 against x2 , 93 )sing a scale of 2 cm to B )nits on 9oth a!es$ Hence draw the line of 9est fit$
Linear law

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MT (MAS)

(c) Hse the gra"h from (a) to find the >alue of (i) ) (ii) r

82 mar%s9 / An'#er 3 p=1*!=, r=B*0A 0

C$ S.% 2//6 .aper 2 2ue'tion =


Use gra)( )a)er o answer (is ques ion4 Table below shows the >alues of two >ariables, x and y, obtained from an e;"eriment. Jariables ; and y are related by the equation y = )% x +' , where ) and % are constants. x y 1 0*/ 2 B*= ! A*= 0 1!*2 B 2/*/ 6 2A*A to -$% )nit

4a5 &lot lo5 y against 4!"15, )sing a scale of % c on the log 37a!is$ Hence, draw the line of 9est fit$ (b) Hse you gra"h from (a) to find the >alues of (i) ) (ii) %

to 1 )nit on the 4!"15 *a!is and % c

/ B mar1'0

82 mar%s9

>An'#er' 3 lo5 p = /*2B, p = 1*==A C lo5 1 = /*1=1 , 1 = 1*0A!?

'&L %--C 4Answer5


y = )%x :a%e log +o ( si$es, log y = log ()%x) = log ) + log %x = log ) + x log % log y = (log %) x + log ) 7 = m ; + c So, m = log % = 941131 % = 14399 c = log ) = 9423 ) = 14829

Linear law

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