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Research Methodology

This study aims to address and analyze at least two major issues concerning Pakistani public sphere; Firstly, How to define historical and current state of Pakistani public sphere. This question covers my discussion (secondary data, literature and previous studies) from theoretical framework of public sphere to framing Facebook as an emerging public sphere of Pakistan. Secondly, identification of polarize public and their contest over common good. This part led the discussion to the main objective of the research (primary and secondary data, quantitative and qualitative) and it includes topics of, political Islam, modernity, secularism and post secularism. To answers these questions and other relevant problems. My aim is to conduct this study by using Facebook as an object and an instrument of research. For information gathering, this research use quantitative and qualitative methods. I am using quantitative approach for public opinion survey among general Facebook users, while for collecting qualitative data a comprehensive literature study and in-depth interviews, specifically from the participants of the Facebook pages; The Laaltain and Ghadaar will be conducted.

Online Research
The authors argue that Internet-based survey research can yield meaningfully comparable data about both Internet users and larger populations. I believe that online research can be as serious as online transactions, political campaigns or learning courses are. Scientific social research understands reality and its changes. Nowadays it is impossible to understand human behavior and its context without taking account of this virtual reality I am trying to use Facebook as an object and lens of this study to understand polarization and concerning debate in virtual public sphere among religious and liberals of Pakistan. At the same time, I am using Facebook as an instrument for this study as Facebook has great potential for recruiting participants and primary data gathering. Facebook makes it simple for ordinary user and for third-party developers to create simple questionnaires surveys and applications (see http://developers.facebook.com), and many researchers have taken advantage of this resource. Facebook has received considerable attention in a variety of research areas. Wilson, R, Gosling, and Graham, L (2012) identify research on Facebook emanate from a large range of fields; descriptive analysis of users, motivations for using Facebook, identity presentation, the role of Facebook in social interactions, and privacy and information disclosure. Number of problems and Uncertainties

still exists about the efficient use of Facebook in social research; fluid nature of content and users, overly self portrayal (Zywica & Danowski, 2008), inappropriate content posting (Karl, Peluchette, & Schlaegel, 2010a, 2010b), research ethics (Solberg, 2010). Facebook constitutes a new domain for social research, so it is understandable that methods and protocols for research have yet to be developed.

Facebook as a Research Tool


Study Design
NINFEA is an internet-based multi-purpose mother-child cohorti set up to investigate the effects of exposures acting during pre-natal and early post-natal life on infant, child and adult health. Members of the cohort are all babies born to women who: have access to the internet, have enough knowledge of the Italian language to complete the online questionnaires, become aware of the study, volunteer to participate. Women are recruited during pregnancy. To participate they register at the study website and complete a baseline online questionnaire (Q1). Participants complete three online questionnaires: during pregnancy (Q1), 6 months after delivery (Q2), 18 months after delivery (Q3). The questionnaires include questions on the mother and/or the child on several exposures and some outcomes, including environmental exposures (passive smoking, traffic, residential history, maternal occupation and occupational exposures, noise, dampness), reproductive factors, medical history, anthropometrical measures, diet, supplements, health status, asthma, growth, etc. Women are invited via email, telephone or mail to complete the Q2 and Q3 questionnaires. Followup is conducted using both active and passive methods. Starting at age 4 of the child, specific outcomes are assessed every 2 years via ad hoc short online questionnaires. Passive followup involves linkage with available population registries, including the Hospital Inpatient Registry, the Birth Registry, the Cancer Registry, etc.

Study title, purpose of the study, eligibility criteria, and study personnel contact information

Face Recognition Study for Adults 18 and Older


Purpose:
Official Title - Face Recognition: Data Collection, Recognition of Identity and Expression This project aims to understand how the human brain represents and processes different facial expressions of emotion and in particular facial expressions of mixed emotions (e.g., happily surprised).

Eligibility criteria:
- Normal or corrected to normal vision - 18 yrs or older - no metal in the body - not claustrophic - not pregnant.

Contact Information
Pam Pallett 619-757-4093 pallett.1@osu.edu Back

Recruitment strategies
Recruitment strategies, measures, and data collection for this study is approved by DO, Education University of Lapland, Finland.
The study is being conducted through Facebook Fan pages, b y using snow ball technique for participants recruitment After thorough analysis and refining according to research requirement and quality of content two Facebook pages selected for initial analysis of the phenomena. both pages have good number of participants from both school of thought. A third Facebook page was selected for quantitative and unbiased check of Facebook role Participants as public sphere participants of Pakistan. for Recruitment participants on target FB pages Facebook role enquiry PakistanFB

The Laaltain

Roshni

10 Provinces, selected on the basis of stratification. The main two strata were predominantly Muslim provinces, and Provinces where the majority of the population is nonMuslim. This grouping was intended to obtain a picture of Islamic proselytizing in majority Muslim regions, compared with minority Muslim areas. This comparison was generally made by selecting 8 Muslim majority provinces and 2 Muslim minority Provinces. Muslim majority Provinces were determined as those having a greater than 60 per cent Muslim population. Conversely, a Muslim minority Province was determined as one in which fewer than 40 per cent of the

population is Muslim. The two Muslim minority Provinces selected were Bali and North Sulawesi. Consistent with the spirit of determining the research locations in this way, the 8 Muslim majority Provinces were subject to further stratification, by selecting Provinces with strong historical Islamic roots versus those without these roots. The presence of strong Islamic historical roots was traced from a Provinces structural or cultural characteristics, as opposed to Provinces which have traditionally been melting pots. The Provinces of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, South Sulawesi and Banten have deep structural historical roots in powerful and victorious Islamic kingdoms, and were selected as research locations. Provinces in which cultural Islam is very strong are East Java and West Sumatra. North Sumatra, DKI Jakarta, and East Kalimantan

were selected as melting pot Provinces.


The purpose of this research was to represent the opinions and attitudes of the Muslim population regarding the expression of Islam in the public sphere. Specifically, the survey represents the opinions and attitudes of adult Muslims. By law an adult is a person who is aged 17 years or older, or is married. The sampling framework was a list of residents at the lowest level of government (the Rukun Tetangga or Neighbourhood Association). The principal unit of analysis of this survey was the individual, rather than family or institutional groups. There were 1500 respondents in this survey. Because they were selected at random, the methodology allows statistical precision in the analysis of the results. With this number of samples, the margin of error for this survey is estimated at + 2.3 per cent, at the 95 per cent confidence level. This can be interpreted as follows: If the number of respondents who agreed with a statement was 70 per cent, and if a similar survey was repeated 100 times, then for 95 of these times the result would be in the range of 67.4 per cent to 72.6 per cent. The samples above were generally distributed proportionally according to the Muslim population of a Province. However, in specific cases adjustments were made in order to obtain a statistically significant number of samples for analysis. This occurred, for example, to obtain sufficient samples in parts of a Province where the Muslim population was in the minority. Two main analysis methods were used to process the survey data. First, trend analysis of specific indicators. This analysis was done by comparing the relative proportions of two values. Second, comparative analysis was made between variables. This analysis was done by cross tabulating two variables. This method of analysis shows the status of a respondent in relation to more than one variable. In addition cluster analysis was used, and tests of correlation using Cramers V. Because the questionnaires were distributed evenly in every Province, before the data was processed it was weighted proportionally,

based on the Muslim population of the Province.