SULIT

SULIT 4551/1 Biology September 2009 1¼ jam

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PEPERIKSAAN PERCUBAAN SPM 2009

BIOLOGY Kertas 1 Satu Jam Lima Belas Minit

JANGAN BUKA KERTAS SOALAN INI SEHINGGA DIBERITAHU

1. Kertas soalan ini adalah dalam dwibahasa mengandungi 50 soalan. Jawab semua soalan dalam tiap-tiap bahagian. 2. Soalan dalam bahasa Inggeris mendahului soalan yang sepadan dalam bahasa Melayu. 3. Rajah yang mengiringi soalan dimaksudkan untuk memberi maklumat yang berguna bagi menjawab soalan. Rajah tidak dilukis mengikut skala kecuali dinyatakan sebaliknya. 4. Penggunaan kalkulator saintifik yang tidak boleh diprogramkan adalah dibenarkan.

Kertas soalan ini mengandungi 29 halaman bercetak .

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1. Which organ consists of cells which has the highest density of rough endoplasmic reticulum ? Organ manakah mengandungi sel-sel yang mempunyai kepadatan jalinan endoplasmik kasar paling tinggi? A B Stomach Perut Heart Jantung C Brain Otak D Kidney Ginjal

2.

Diagram 1 shows three types of cells. Rajah 1 menunjukkan tiga jenis sel.

P

Q Diagram 1

R

To which systems do the cells shown above belong? Kepada system manakah sel-sel di atas dipadankan ? P Digestive system Sistem pencernaan] Nervous system Sistem saraf Respiratory system Sistem respirasi Reproductive system Sistem pembiakan Q Respiratory system Sistem respirasi Reproductive system Sistem pembiakan Circulatory system Sistem saraf Digestive system Sistem pencernaan R Nervous system Sistem saraf Circulatory system Sistem peredaran Digestive system Sistem pencernaan Nervous system Sistem saraf

A. B. C . D .

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3. Diagram 2 shows a unicellular organism living in freshwater pond. Rajah 2 menunjukkan sejenis organisma unisel yang hidup di dalam kolam air tawar.

Water Air
Diagram 2

Which process involves in the movement of water ? Apakah proses yang terlibat dalam pergerakan air. A B Diffusion Resapan Osmosis Osmosis C D Active transport Pengangkutan aktif Facilitated diffusion Resapan berbantu

4. Diagram 3 shows a cross section of a leaf. Rajah 3 menunjukkan keratan rentas daun
A B

C

D

Diagram 3 Which of the cell labelled A, B, C and D does not contain chloroplast? Antara sel yang berlabel A, B, C dan D yang manakah tidak mengandungi kloroplas?
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SULIT 5. Diagram 4 shows a type of plant tissue. Rajah 4 menunjukkan sejenis tisu tumbuhan.

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Diagram 4 What is the importance of the thickening of substance X to the plant tissue? Apakah kepentingan penebalan bahan X terhadap tisu tersebut ? A B C D To transfer photosynthesis products Untuk memindahkan hasil fotosintesis To give turgidity to the tissues Untuk memberikan kesegahan kepada tisu To transfer water and mineral salts Untuk memindahkan air dan garam mineral To give support and mechanical strength Untuk memberikan sokongan dan kekuatan mekanikal

6. Which of the following sequence of organelles involved in the synthesis of extracellular enzymes is correct? Manakah di antara urutan berikut betul yang melibatkan organel dalam sintesis enzim luar sel? A Golgi apparatus→Ribosomes →Rough endoplasmic reticulum Alat Golgi - Ribosom  Jalinan endoplasmik kasar B Rough endoplasmic reticulum→Ribosomes→Golgi apparatus Jalinan endoplasmik kasar  Ribosom Alat Golgi C Ribosomes→Golgi apparatus→Rough endoplasmic reticulum Ribosom  Alat Golgi  Jalinan endoplasmik kasar D Ribosomes→Rough endoplasmic reticulum→Golgi apparatus Ribosom  Jalinan endoplasmik kasar  Alat Golgi]

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7. Carrot slices are immersed in 0.1% sucrose solution. After 4 hours, the slices are found to be turgid and hard. Hirisan lobak merah direndam di dalam larutan sukrosa 0.1%. Selepas 4 jam, hirisan itu didapati segah dan keras. Which of the following statement explains this phenomenon? Antara pernyataan berikut, yang manakah menerangkan fenomena ini ? A The carrot cell wall prevent it from shrinking . Dinding sel karot menghalangnya dari mengecut. B The high concentration of the cell sap in the vacuole causes water to diffuse. . Kepekatan yang tinggi dalam sap sel vakuol menyebabkan air meresap ke dalam Sel. C The cell sap is hypotonic towards the sucrose solution. Sap sel adalah hipotonik kepada larutan sukrosa. D The carrot cell wall allows the sucrose molecules to diffuse into the cell. Dinding sel karot membenarkan molekul selulosa meresap ke dalam sel. 8. Diagram 5 shows a cell after immersed into a particular solution. Rajah 5 menunjukkan sel yang telah direndamkan ke dalam larutan tertentu.

Diagram 5 Which is experienced by the cell? Apakah yang dialami oleh sel itu ? A Crenation Krenasi B Plasmolysis Plasmolisis C Deplasmolysis Deplasmolisis D Haemolysis Hemolisis

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SULIT 9. Diagram 6 shows the action of an enzyme on a substrate. Rajah 6 menunjukkan tindakan enzim ke atas suatu substrat.

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K

Diagram 6

What is represented by K? Apakah yang diwakili oleh K? A B Enzyme Enzim Enzyme-substrate complex Kompleks-enzim substrat C Products of reaction Hasil tindak balas D Substrate Substrat

10. Based on the information below, name the enzyme that can be used. Berdasarkan maklumat di bawah, namakan enzim yang sesuai digunakan. Extracting agar jelly from seaweeds Mengasingkan agar-agar daripada laut.] Removing the seed coats from cereal grains Mengeluarkan kulit dari bijirin A Zymase Zimase B Amylase Amilase C Celulase Selulosa D Protease Protease

11. Diagram 7 shows a graph between the rate of reaction at different substrate concentration when factor Q is changed. Rajah 7 menunjukkan graf diantara kadar tindak balas dan kepekatan substrat apabila faktor Q diubah.

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Factor Q Faktor Q

Diagram 7 What is factor Q ? Apakah faktor Q ? A pH pH B Time Masa C Inhibitor Perencat D Enzyme concentration Kepekatan enzim

12. The following information shows starch molecules undergoing process M. Maklumat berikut menunjukkan molekul kanji melalui proses M. Process M Process M Starch ------------------ Maltose -------------------- Glucose [Kanj] Maltosa Glukosa What is process M ? Apakah proses M ? A Photosynthesis Fotosintesis B Hydrolisis Hidrolisis C Condensation Kondensas] D Polymerisation Pempolimeran

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SULIT 13. Diagram 8 shows a cell cycle of an organism. Rajah 8 menunjukkan kitar sel bagi suatu organisma.

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Diagram 8 Which of the following represent X and Y ? Yang manakah di antara berikut mewakili X dan Y ? A B C D Phase X Meiosis Interphase Mitosis Interphase Phase Y Interphase Mitosis Interphase Meiosis

14. The diploid chromosomes in a leaf cell of a maize plant is 20. If one of the homologous chromosome pair does not separate during the Meiosis 1, how many chromosomes can be found in the male nucleus of a pollen grain of maize ? Nombor kromosom diploid dalam daun jagung ialah 20. Jika satu daripada Pasangan kromosom homolog tidak terpisah semasa Meiosis 1, berapakah bilangan kromosom yang mungkin didapati pada debunga daun jagung ? A 9 B 10 C 20 D 18

15. Which of the following statements explain the importance of mitosis to cells? Yang manakah di antara pernyataan berikut menerangkan kepentingan mitosis kepada sel ? I . To ensure the chromosomal number is constant in all somatic cells. Untuk memastikan bilangan kromosom adalah tetap dalam semua sel somatik. II To ensure the daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell. Untuk memastikan billangan kromosom adalah sama dengan biangan kromosom sel induk. III To ensure that the genetic material in the daughter cells is the same as in the parent cell Untuk memastikan bahan genetik sel anak dalah sama dengan sel induk.
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SULIT IV To contribute to the genetic variation in the daughter cells. Untuk menyumbangkan kepada variasi genetik dalam sel anak. A I and II only B II and III only C D I , II and III only I , III and IV only

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16. Diagram 9 shows the correct proportion for the various classes of food in the food pyramid. Rajah 9 menunjukkan nisbah yang betul bagi pelbagai kelas makanan dalam piramid makanan.

Diagram 9

Which of the following shows the correct classes of food in the pyramid? Yang manakah di antara berikut menunjukkan kelas makanan yang betul dalam piramid makanan di atas? 1 Fats Carbohydrates Proteins Carbohydrates 2 Proteins Vitamins and minerals Carbohydrate s Fats 3 Carbohydrates Proteins Fats Vitamins and minerals 4 Vitamins and minerals Fats Vitamins and minerals Proteins

A B C D

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SULIT 17. Diagram 10 shows the structure of the human alimentary canal. Rajah 10 menunjukkan struktur salur alimentari manusia.

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Diagram 10 Which organ produces the enzyme responsible for the breakdown of lipids ? Organ manakah merembeskan enzim yang bertanggungjawab untuk pemecahan lipid? A. S only B. P and Q C R and S D Q only

18. Which adaptations help the villi to absorb nutrients efficiently? Yang manakah penyesuaian vilus untuk menyerap nutrien secara berkesan? Abundant in number Bilangan yang banyak II Thin walls Dinding nipis III Having blood capillaries Mempunyai kapilari darah IV Lacteals to absorb fatty acids and glycerol Lakteal untuk menyerap asid lemak dan gliserol A B C D I and III only II and IV only I, II and III only I, II, III and IV I

19. When 0.4 g of groundnut is completely burnt, the temperature of 20 ml of water rise up from 30°C to 70°C. Calculate the energy value of the groundnut. (Specific heat capacity of water is 4.2 Jg °C ) Bila 0.4g kacang tanah terbakar dengan lengkap, suhu 20 ml air meningkat daripada 30°C kepada 70°C. Hitung nilai tenaga kacang tanah ? ( Muatan haba tentu air ialah 4.2 Jg °C ). A 1.4 kJg−¹ B 3.4kJg-1 C 8.4 kJg−¹ D 76.2 kJg−¹
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SULIT 20. Glucose + oxygen Glukosa + oksigen Carbon dioxide + water + 38 ATP Karbon dioksida + air + 38 ATP

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The above equation shows Persamaan di atas menunjukkan A. aerobic respiration respirasi aerobik B. anaerobic respiration respirasi anaerobik C condensation reaction tindakbalas kondensasi D hydrolytic reaction tindakbalas hidrolitik

21. Which of the following organelle involves in the gaseous exchange in Ameoba sp? Antara organel berikut yang manakah terlibat dalam pertukaran gas dalam Ameoba sp ? A Cell wall Dinding sel B Nucleus Nukleus C Cell membrane Membran sel D Vacuole Vakuol

22. Diagram 11 shows parts of the tracheal system of insect. Rajah 11 menunjukkan sebahagian daripada sistem trakea pada serangga.

tracheoles

body tissue

Diagram 11 What process occurs at X during the gas exchange of the insect? Apakah proses yang berlaku di X semasa pertukaran gas bagi serangga tersebut? A B Diffusion Resapan Osmosis Osmosis C Facilitated diffusion Resapan berbantu D Active transport Pengangkutan aktif
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Diagram 12 shows three different types of interaction between organisms. Rajah 12 menunjukkan tiga jenis interaksi di antara organisma.

Diagram 12 Which of the following is true about the interactions K, L and M? Manakah di antara berikut benar tentang interaksi K , L dan M ? A B C D K Mutualism Mutualism Saprophytism Parasitism L Commensalism Parasitism Commensalism Commensalism M Parasitism Saprophytism Mutualism Mutualism

24. Which of the following chemical substance is used to kill or prevent the multiplication of microorganisms in the wound? Yang manakah di antara sebatian kimia berikut, digunakan untuk membunuh atau mencegah pembiakan mikroorganisma dalam luka ? A Antiseptic Antiseptik B Antibiotic Antibiotik C Vaccine Vaksin D Disinfectant Disinfektan

25. Nitrates and phosphates from farmland that flow into a lake caused rapid growth of algae . What is described by the above situation ? Nitrat dan fosfat yang dialirkan dari ladang ke dalam tasik telah menyebabkan pertumbuhan alga yang mendadak. Apakah yang diterangkan oleh situasi di atas ?. A Eutrophication Eutrofikasi B Pesticide pollution Pencemaran pestisid C Fertilizer accumulation Pengumpulan baja D Colonisation Pengkolonian
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26. Diagram 13 shows plant cells. Rajah 13 menunjukkan sel tumbuhan. Which of the following cell is the product of meiosis? Sel yang manakah di antara berikut adalah produk pembahagian sel meiosis? A B

C

D

Diagram 13

27

Diagram 14 shows a part of a mangrove plant. Rajah 14 menunjukkan satu bahagian tumbuhan paya bakau.

What is structure S? Apakah struktur S? A. Succulent leaves Daun sukulen B. Pneumatophores Pneumatofor C. Vivipary seeds Biji benih vivipari D. Prop roots Akar jangkang

Diagram 14

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28. Diagram 15 shows a stage in the blood clotting mechanism. Rajah 15 menunjukkan satu peringkat di dalam mekanisme pembekuan darah.

Diagram 15 Which of the following statement explains this stage? Antara pernyataan berikut, yang manakah menerangkan peringkat ini? A B C D Thromboplastin converts prothrombin to thrombin Tromboplastin menukarkan protrombin kepada trombin Thrombin converts fibrinogen to meshwork of fibrin. Trombin menukarkan fibrinogen kepada jaringan fibrin Platelets stimulate the formation of meshwork of fibrin. Platlet meransang pembentukan jaringan fibrin. Platelets release the thromboplastin to form meshwork of fibrin. Platlet membebaskan tromboplastin untuk membentuk jaringan fibrin.

29. Diagram 16 shows a cross-section through the carpel of a flower before fertilization. Rajah 16 menunjukkan keratan rentas melalui karpel bunga sebelum persenyawaan.

Where are the position of male and female gametes before fertilization? Di manakah kedudukan gamet jantan dan betina sebelum persenyawaan ? A B C D Male gamete 1 1 2 3 Female gamete 5 4 4 5

Diagram 16

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SULIT 30. Diagram 17 shows part of the placenta. Rajah 17 menunjukkan bahagian plasenta.

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Diagram 17

In which parts do the blood contain the most oxygen and nutrients? Di bahagian manakah darah mempunyai kandungan oksigen dan nutrien yang tinggi? A B 1 and 3 1 and 4 C D 2 and 3 2 and 4

31. Diagram 18 shows the structure of a nephron. Rajah 18 menunjukkan struktur nefron.

Diagram 18

Which of the following activities cause X to be more permeable to water ? Yang manakah di antara aktiviti berikut menyebabkan X lebih telap kepada air ?
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SULIT P - Drinking a lot of water Minum air dengan banyak Q - Eating salty foods Makan makanan yang banyak R - Not exercising Tidak melakukan senaman S - Playing sports Bersukan A P and R B P and S C D Q and R Q and S

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32. Diagram 19 shows the changes in the thickness of the uterus lining of a woman during her menstrual cycle. At which time is the woman most likely to be fertile? [Rajah 19 menunjukkan perubahan ketebalan lapisan uterus seorang wanita semasa kitar haid. Pada masa yang manakah wanita itu mengalami waktu paling subur?]

Diagram 19 33. The haemoglobin content of a pregnant mother is low. Which food should be taken to increase the haemoglobin content in her blood ? Kandungan haemoglobin seorang ibu mengandung adalah rendah. Makanan manakah yang perlu diambil untuk meningkatkan kandungan hemoglobin dalam darahnya? A Spinach Bayam C D Tomato Tomato Banana Pisang

B Potatoes Kentang

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34. Diagram 20 shows a part of hind limp which consists of femur, tibia and fibula . Rajah 20 menunjukkan bahagian anggota belakang yang terdiri dari femur, tibia dan fibula. Patela

Diagram 20 Which of this action cannot be done if the patella is dislocated? Manakah tindakan berikut tidak berlaku jika patela beralih tempat? A B 35. Sitting down Duduk Sleeping Tidur C D Walking Berjalan Straightening the leg Meluruskan kaki

Diagram 21 shows the structures involved in reflex action. Rajah 21 menunjukkan struktur yang terlibat dalam tindakan refleks.

Diagram 21
Hot pan Periuk panas

Which of the following shows the correct sequence for the above action? Antara berikut, manakah menunjukkan urutan yang betul bagi tindakan di atas? A B PQRS P S  R  Q C D QRSP QSPR
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SULIT 36.

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A farmer sprays all the mangoes in his farm with hormone X to ensure that all the mangoes ripen at the same time. What is hormone X? Seorang petani menyembur semua buah manggadi ladang nya dengan hormon X bagi memastikan semua mangganya masak pada masa yang sama. Apakah hormon X? A B Auxin Ethylene C Cytokinin D Gibberilin

37.

Diagram 22 shows the structure of human brain. Rajah 22 menunjukkan struktur otak manusia.

X Diagram 22

What is X? Apakah X? A B Cerebrum Serebrum Cerebellum Serebelum C D Spinal cord Saraf tunjang Medula oblongata Medula oblongata

38.

The following statements is about hormone X. Berikut adalah pernyatan tentang hormon X. • • Produced by corpus lutem and placenta [Dihasilkan oleh korpus luteum dan placenta] Promotes growth of endometrium and prevents menstruation. [Merangsang pertumbuhan endometrium dan menghalang haid]

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SULIT What is hormone X? [Apakah hormone X?] A B 39. Oestrogen Estrogen Progesterone Progesteron C D Luteinising hormone Hormon pelutinan

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Follicle stimulating hormone Hormon perangsang folikel

Which of the following is true when the osmotic pressure in the blood decreases? Manakah di antara berikut benar sekiranya tekanan osmosis darah berkurangan? Secretion of ADH Rembesan ADH A B C D Increase Bertambah Decrease Berkurang Decrease Berkurang Increase Bertambah Reabsorption of water in kidney tubules Penyerapan air oleh tubul ginjal Increase Bertambah Decrease Berkurang Increase Bertambah Decrease Berkurang

40. Diagram 23 shows the stages in the development of follicle in the ovary of human. Rajah 23 menunjukkan peringkat perkembangan folikel dalam ovari manusia.

M

L

Diagram 23

What is the effect to the uterine wall when L developes into M? Apakah kesan kepada dinding uterus apabila L berkembang menjadi M?

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SULIT A B It is repaired Ia diperbaiki It breaks down Ia terurai

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C It thickens Ia menebal D Its thickness maintains Ketebalannya dikekalkan

41. Melissa who is a carrier for colour blindness married to Aron a normal colour vision. What is the probability that their son is colour blind? Melisa adalah pembawa bagi buta warna berkahwin dengan Aron yang mempunyai penglihatan warna normal. Apakah kemungkinan anak lelaki mereka adalah buta warna ? A B 0% 25% C 50% D 100%

42. A pair of fraternal twins are brought up by two different families and have the following characteristics. Sepasang kembar seiras telah dibesarkan oleh dua keluarga yang berbeza dan mempunyai ciri seperti berikut. Nini Nina : Fat and fair complexion Gemuk dan kulit cerah : Thin and slightly dark complexion Kurus dan kulit agak gelap

Which factor causes the differences in the characteristics? Faktor yang manakah menyebabkan perbezaan ciri pada kembar itu? A B Genetic Genetik Environment Persekitaran C D Gene mutation Mutasi gen Chromosome mutation Mutasi kromosom

43. Diagram 24 shows a red rose plant is crossed with a white rose plant. The F1 generations that are produced are two red rose plants and two white rose plants. The allele for red rose plant, R is dominant to white rose plant, r. Rajah 24 menunjukkan pokok ros merah dikacukkan dengan pokok ros putih. Generasi F1 yang terhasil adalah dua pokok ros merah dan dua pokok ros putih. Alel untuk pokok ros merah, R adalah dominan kepada alel ros putih, r.
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Parents Phenotype
[Fenotip induk]

X
Red Rose
[Ros merah]

White Rose
[Ros putih]

F1 generation Phenotype
[Fenotip generasi F1]

Red Rose
[Ros merah]

Red Rose
[Ros merah]

White Rose
[Ros Putih]

White Rose
[Ros Putih]

Diagram 24 What is the genotype of the parents? Apakah genotip bagi induk? A B C D Red Rose RR Rr Rr RR White Rose Rr Rr rr rr

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SULIT 44. Diagram 25 shows ultrafiltration that occurs in the kidney. Rajah 25 menunjukkan ultraturasan yang berlaku dalam ginjal. Efferent arteriole Arteriol eferen

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Afferent arteriole Arteriol aferen Bowman capsule Kapsul Bowman

X Diagram 25 What are the substances that can move across X ? Apakah bahan yang dapat merentasi X? A B Fibrinogen Fibrinogen Leucocyte Leukosit C D Erythrocyte Eritrosit Amino acid Amino asid

45. Diagram 26 shows a shirt with a blood stain before and after being washed with detergent containing enzyme. Rajah 26 menunjukkan baju dengan kesan darah sebelum dan selepas dibasuh dengan pencuci mengandungi enzim.

Blood stain

Before Diagram 26

After

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Which is the most suitable enzyme and temperature to give the result shown? Yang manakah enzim dan suhu yang paling sesuai untuk menghasilkan keputusan seperti di atas? Enzyme A B C D Lipase Protease Lipase Protease Temperature 37oC 18oC 18oC 37oC

46.

Diagram 27 shows a pair of chromosomes in a cell of an organism. Rajah 27 menunjukkan sepasang kromosom dalam sel suatu organisma. X

Diagram 27 What is X ? Apakah X ? A B Allele Gene C D Nucleotide Chromosome

47. Diagram 28 shows the regulation of human body temperature. Rajah 28 menunjukkan pengawalan suhu badan manusia. Normal body temperature Suhu badan normal Body temperature increase Suhu badan meningkat Temperature Regulation Centre Pusat kawalan suhu Diagram 28
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Body temperature decrease Suhu badan menurun

Correction mechanism Mekanisme pembetulan

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Which of the following correction mechanism occur ? Antara berikut yang manakah mekanisme pembetulan yang berlaku? l. Vasodilation Pemvasodilatan ll. Erector muscle contract Otot erektor mengecut] A B l and ll l, ll and lll C D III Vasoconstriction Pemvasocerutan lV Decrease in metabolic rate Kadar metabolisme menurun l and lV l, ll and lV

48. Diagram 29 shows the graphs of two types of variation . Rajah 29 menunjukkan graf untuk dua jenis variasi. Plant Tumbuhan Numbe r of individuals Bilangan individu Human Manusia

What type of variation shown in each population ? Apakah jenis variasi ditunjukkan dalam setiap populasi ? Human Manusia Continuous Continuous Discontinuous Discontinuous

Diagram 29

A B C D 49.

Plant Tumbuhan Discontinuous Continuous Discontinuous Continuous

The following food chain is found in a fresh water pond. Rantai makanan berikut terdapat dalam kolam air tawar. Phytoplankton  water fleas  fish Fitoplankton  kutu air  ikan Which of the following shows the relative amount of biological mass in the food chain ? Manakah di antara berikut menunjukkan amaun jisim biologi relatif dalam rantai
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SULIT makanan ? Phytoplankton Fitoplankton 5g 30g 60g 60g Water flea Kutu air 15g 60g 5g 30g Fish Ikan 60g 15g 30g 5g

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A B C D

yang telah diberi suntikan vaksin sebanyak dua kali.

Diagram 30

Which of the following will be the type of immunisation acquired by these two patients? Antara berikut yang manakah merupakan jenis keimunan yang diperoleh oleh kedua-dua pesakit? A B C D P Artificial acquired active immunity Keimunan aktif buatan Artificial acquired passive immunity Keimunan pasif buatan Natural acquired passive immunity Keimunan pasif semulajadi Natural acquired active immunity Keimunan aktif semulajadi Q Artificial acquired passive immunity Keimunan pasif buatan Artificial acquired active immunity Keimunan aktif buatan Natural acquired active immunity Keimunan aktif semulajadi Natural acquired passive immunity Keimunan aktif semulajadi

KERTAS SOALAN TAMAT.
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MARKING SCHEME BIOLOGY 1 (4551/1) SPM TRIAL EXAMINATION 2009 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 . 11 . 12 . 13 . 14 . 15 . 16 . 17 . 18 . 19 . 20 . 21 . 22 A B B A D D B D C C D B B A C B D D C A C A 26. 27. 28. 29 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. B C B D B D B A C C B B B A C C B C D D A B

23 . 24 . 25 .

C A A

48. 49. 50

D D A

SULIT SULIT 4551/2 Biology September 2009 2 ½ hours

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NAMA : ................................................................ ANGKA GILIRAN : ..............................................

PEPERIKSAAN PERCUBAAN SPM 2009

BIOLOGY Kertas 2 Dua jam tiga puluh minit

JANGAN BUKA KERTAS SOALAN INI SEHINGGA DIBERITAHU 1. Kertas soalan ini adalah dalam Untuk Kegunaan Pemeriksa dwibahasa . Bahagia Markah Markah Soalan 2. Soalan dalam bahasa Inggeris n Penuh diperolehi mendahului soalan yang 1 13 sepadan dalam bahasa. 3. Calon dibenarkan menjawab 2 12 keseluruhan atau sebahagian soalan sama ada dalam A 3 12 bahasa Inggeris atau bahasa Melayu. 4 12 4. Calon dikehendaki membaca maklumat di halaman kertas 5 11 soalan ini. 6 B 7 8 9 Jumlah 20 20 20 20

Kertas soalan ini mengandungi 22 halaman bercetak
@PKPSM Pahang

Section A Bahagian A [60 marks] [60 markah] Answer all questions in this section. Jawab semua soalan dalam bahagian ini. 1 Diagram 1 shows the structure of a plasma membrane. Rajah 1 menunjukkan struktur membran plasma.

For examiner’s use

P

Q Diagram 1 Rajah 1 (a)

R

Name the parts labelled Q and R. Namakan bahagian yang berlabel Q dan R. Q : ________________________________________________________ R : ________________________________________________________ [2 marks]
1(a)

(b)(i)

State the component of structure P. Nyatakan komponen struktur P. ___________________________________________________________ [1 mark ]

1(b)(i)

(ii) Explain the main function of P. 2 [Lihat sebelah

Terangkan fungsi utama P. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ [1 mark ] (c) The plasma membrane is said to be semi-permeable. What is the meaning of ‘semi-permeable’? Membran plasma dikatakan bersifat separa-telap. Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan ’ separa-telap?’ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ [ 1 mark]
1 (c) 1(b)(ii)

Diagram 1.2 Rajah 1.2 d) Graph in Diagram 1.2 shows the percentage of red blood cells that are burst or shrink when placed in salt solution of different concentration. Graf dalam Rajah 1.2 menunjukkan peratus sel darah merah yang pecah atau mengecut apabila dimasukkan ke dalam larutan garam yang berbeza kepekatan. (i) Based on the graph given, state the concentration which is isotonic to blood plasma. 3 [Lihat sebelah

Berdasarkan graf yang diberi, nyatakan kepekatan larutan yang isotonik terhadap plasma darah. _________________________________________________________ (1 mark) (ii) Explain your answer in (b)(ii). Terangkan jawapan anda dalam (b)(ii). ________________________________________________________ _ (1 mark) (iii) Comment on the osmotic pressure at Q. Berikan ulasan tentang tekanan osmosis di Q.
________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

1(d)(i)

1(d)(ii)

1(d)(iii)

[ 2 marks] (e) The concentration of ions inside root cells is up to 100 times greater than in the soil. Anyway, the ions are still transported into the cells by active transport. Kepekatan ion di dalam sel akar adalah 100 kali lebih tinggi berbanding di dalam tanah. Walau bagaimanapun, ion-ion tersebut masih diangkut ke dalam sel secara pengangkutan aktif. (i) Define active transport. Takrifkan pengangkutan aktif.
___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 1 (e)(i)

[ 1 mark]

4 [Lihat sebelah

(ii)

Explain what will happen to the uptake of the ions by root cells if the roots are immersed in a solution containing metabolic poisons such as cyanide. Terangkan apa akan berlaku terhadap pengangkutan ion oleh oleh sel akar jika akar tersebut direndam di dalam larutan yang mengandungi racun metabolik seperti sianida.
___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ [3 marks] 1(e)(ii)

TOTAL

5 [Lihat sebelah

2

Diagram 2.1 shows the biochemical processes involve molecule K, enzyme L and molecule M occur in organ X and organ Y. Rajah 2.1 menunjukkan proses biokimia yang melibatkan molekul K, enzim L dan molekul M yang berlaku di dalam organ X dan organ Y.
M u s c le c e lls

For examiner’s use

O rg a n X h e p a tic p o r ta l v e in K M
+

O rg a n Y

+

+ ......

E nzym e L

G ly c o g e n

Diagram 2.1 Rajah 2.1 (a)(i) Name organ X and organ Y. Namakan organ X dan organ Y. Organ X : ___________________________________________________ Organ Y : ___________________________________________________ [ 2 marks ] (ii) Name molecule K, molecule M and enzyme L. Namakan molekul K, molekul M dan Enzim L. Molecule K / molekul K : Molecule M / molekul M : _______________________________________ Enzyme L / enzim L : (b) _______________________________________ [ 3 marks ] _______________________________________ 2(a)(ii) 2(a)(i)

State two characteristics of enzyme L based on Diagram 2.1. Nyatakan dua ciri enzim L berdasarkan Rajah 2.1. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 6 [Lihat sebelah 2 (b)

[ 2 marks ] (c) Molecules M are transported from organ Y to muscle cells. Explain why molecule M is needed in muscle cells. Molekul M diangkut dari Organ Y ke sel-sel otot. Terangkan kenapa molekul M diperlukan di dalam sel-sel otot. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ [ 3 marks ] (d) Explain the importance of forming glycogen. Terangkan kepentingan pembentukan glikogen. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ [ 2 marks ]
TOTAL

2 (c)

2 (d)

7 [Lihat sebelah

R
Soil

S T
For examiner’s use

3

Diagram 3.1 shows three stages X, Y and Z in meiosis. Rajah 3.1 menunjukkan tiga peringkat X, Y dan Z dalam meiosis.

X

Y Diagram 3.1 Rajah 3.1

Z

(a)(i)

Name stages X and Y. Namakan peringkat X dan Y. X : ______________________________________________________ Y : ______________________________________________________ [2 marks] 3(a)(i) (

(ii) State two differences between chromosomal behaviour at X and Y. Nyatakan dua perbezaan perlakuan kromosom di X dan Y. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ [ 2 marks ] (b) i) State the occurrence at Z. Nyatakan kejadian yang berlaku di Z. 3(b)(i) ____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ [ 2 marks ] 8 [Lihat sebelah 3(a)(ii)

ii)

The chromosome number in somatic cell of this organism is 12. State the chromosome number in each of the daughter cell in Z. Give a reason for your answer. Bilangan kromosom dalam sel soma bagi organisma ini ialah 12. Nyatakan bilangan kromosom dalam setiap sel anak Z. Berikan alasan anda. ______________________________________________________ ______ ____________________________________________________________

3(b)(ii)

____________________________________________________________ [ 2 marks ] (c) Diagram 3.2 shows the process of sperm formation in the human testis. Rajah 3.2 menunjukkan proses pembentukan sperma di dalam testis manusia.

Diagram 3.2 Rajah 3.2 (i) Are cells A, cell B and cell C genetically identical? Explain. Adakah sel A, sel B dan sel C seiras dari segi genetic? Terangkan. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 9 [Lihat sebelah 3(c)(i)

(ii)

____________________________________________________________ [2 marks] If Cell B undergoes an improper cell division, cell D might receive an extra chromosome. State the number of chromosomes in Cell D. Jika Sel B melalui pembahagian sel yang tidak sempurna, sel D berkemungkinan menerima satu kromosom tambahan. Nyatakan bilangan kromosom di dalam sel D. __________________________________________________________ [ 1 mark ]

3(c)(ii)

(iii) If cell D fertilises with an ovum, the zygote formed might develop into an abnormal male. State the syndrome of the individual. Jika sel D bersenyawa denngan ovum, zigot yang terbentuk akan berkembang menjadi lelaki yang abnormal. Nyatakan sindrom individu tersebut. __________________________________________________________ [ 1 mark ]

3(c)(iii)

TOTAL

For examiner’s use

10 [Lihat sebelah

4

Diagram 4.1 shows the apparatus set up in an experiment to study the role of the vascular tissue in the transport of water in plants. Rajah 4.1 menunjukkan susunan radas eksperimen untuk mengkaji peranan tisu vaskular dalam pengangkutan air di dalam tumbuhan.

4(a) Diagram 4.1 Rajah 4.1 (a) State the function of the eosin solution. Nyatakan fungsi larutan eosin. ___________________________________________________________ [ 1 mark ] (b) The stem of the plant is cut across at XY and viewed under a microscope. A cross section of the stem is shown in Diagram 4.2. Akar tumbuhan tersebut dikerat secara merentas pada XY dan diperhatikan di bawah mikroskop. Keratan rentas akar ditunjukkan dalam Rajah 4.2. K

M

Diagram 4.2 Rajah 4.2 11 [Lihat sebelah

4(b)

Name the parts labelled K and M. Namakan bahagian yang berlabel K dan M. K M (c) : : ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ [ 2 marks ] 4(c)

Name the tissue which is responsible for transporting water and minerals ions from the roots to the upper parts of the plant. Namakan tisu yang terlibat dalam pengangkutan air dan ion mineral dari akar ke bahagian atas tumbuhan. ____________________________________________________________ [ 1 mark ]

(d)

If the root of the plant is cut across, draw and label the observation made. Jika keratan rentas dibuat ke atas akar tumbuhan, lukis dan labelkan pemerhatian anda.

4(d)

[ 3 marks ]

For examiner’s use

(e)

Diagram 4.3 shows the effect of removing tissue M from the stem. 12 [Lihat sebelah

4(e)(i) Diagram 4.3 Rajah 4.3 (i) State the type of transport involved in Diagram 4.3. Nyatakan jenis pengangkutan yang terlibat dalam Rajah 4.3. ___________________________________________________________ [ 1 mark ] (ii) Explain why does the part above the ring become swollen after two weeks. Terangkan mengapa bahagian atas gelang membengkak selepas dua minggu. ___________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ [2 marks] (iii) Explain why have the leaves not wilted after two weeks. Terangkan mengapa daun-daun tidak layu selepas dua minggu. ___________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ [2 marks] 4(e)(ii)

4(e)(iii)

TOTAL

13 [Lihat sebelah

5.

Figure 5 shows the reflex arc that occurs when the finger is accidentally pricked with a needle. Rajah 5 menunjukkan suatu arka refleks yang berlaku apabila jari tangan secara tidak sengaja dicucuki oleh sebatang jarum.

5(a)

Diagram 5 Rajah 5 (a) Complete the above figure by drawing the appropriate neurones involved in the reflex action. Lengkapkan rajah di atas, dengan melukis neuron yang terlibat di dalam tindak balas refleks. [2 marks] (b) Explain the transmission of impulse from one neurone to another neurone. Terangkan pemindahan impuls dari satu neuron ke neuron yang berikutnya.
________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

5(b)

5(c)

[ 4marks ] 14 [Lihat sebelah

(c)

Name the structures M and N. Namakan struktur M dan N. 5(d) M : ____________________________________________________ N : ____________________________________________________ [2 marks] 5(e)

(d)

Differentiate between the above reflex action with the voluntary action. Bezakan di antara tindakan refleks di atas dengan tindakan terkawal. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ _ [1 mark]

(e)

State the importance of reflex action to us. Nyatakan kepentingan tindakan refleks kepada kita. ____________________________________________________________

5(f)

(f)

[1 mark ] If efferent neurone is injured and damaged, predict what will happen to the person. Jika neuron eferen cedera dan rosak, ramalkan apa yang akan berlaku Kepada orang tersebut. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ [1 mark ]

TOTAL

Section B Bahagian B [40 marks] 15 [Lihat sebelah

Answer any two questions from this section. Jawab mana-mana dua soalan daripada bahagian ini 6(a) Figure 6.1 shows movement activities in a human. Rajah 6.1 menunjukkan aktiviti pergerakan pada manusia.

(i) Diagram 6.1

(ii)

. Based on Figure 6.1(i) and Figure 6.1(ii), explain how the above movement takes place which involves muscles, tendons, bones, ligaments and joints Berdasarkan Rajah 6.1(i) dan Rajah 6.1(ii), terangkan bagaimana pergerakan di atas berlaku yang melibatkan otot, tendon , tulang, ligamen dan sendi. [10 marks] (b)(i) By giving one example of woody plant and and non-woody, explain how the support system in woody plants differs from that of non-woody plants. Dengan menyatakan contoh, terangkan bagaimana sistem sokongan pada tumbuhan berkayu berbeza daripada tumbuhan tidak berkayu. [10 marks]

7(a)

Diagram 7.1 shows how the respiratory gases are transported in the human body. Rajah 7.1 menunjukkan bagaimana gas respirasi diangkut dalam badan manusia. 16 [Lihat sebelah

Diagram 7.1 (i) Based on Diagram 7.1, explain how the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place in the body cells Berdasarkan Rajah 7.1, terangkan bagaimanakah pengangkutan oksigen dan karbon dioksida berlaku di dalam sel-sel badan. [6 marks] Describe the adaptations of the alveolus for gaseous exchange. Terangkan penyesuaian pada alveolus yang membolehkannya utuk melakukan proses pertukaran gas. [4 marks]

(ii)

(b)

The shaded area of the graph in Diagram 7.2 shows the intake of oxygen by an athlete before, during and after running for five minutes. Kawasan yang berlorek pada graf dalam Rajah 7.2 menunjukkan pengambilan oksigen oleh seorang atlet sebelum, semasa dan selepas 17 [Lihat sebelah

berlari selama 5 minit.

Diagram 7.2 Based on the graph, explain how an oxygen debt is built up when an athlete is running and how it is settled after he stops running. Berdasarkan graf, terangkan bagaimana hutang oksigen terhasil semasa atlet itu berlari dan bagaimana ia diselesaikan selepas beliau berlari. [10 marks]

8(a)

Mr Nick has group A blood while his wife has group B blood. The group of their son is O. Explain how this happen. 18 [Lihat sebelah

Mr Nick mempunyai kumpulan darah A manakala isterinya mempunyai kumpulan darah B. Kumpulan darah anak lelaki mereka ialah O. Terangkan bagaimana ini boleh berlaku. [10 marks] (b) Nowadays, the DNA fingerprinting technique has replaced the common fingerprinting technique in criminal investigations. Pada masa kini, teknik cap jari DNA telah menggantikan teknik cap jari biasa dalam penyiasatan jenayah. (i) Explain how DNA fingerprinting is carried out. Terangkan bagaimana cap jari DNA dilakukan [4 marks] (ii) Based on the given statement, state your opinion an the advantages and disadvantages of DNA fingerprinting. Berdasarkan pernyataan yang diberikan, nyatakan pendapat kamu tentang kebaikan dan keburukan cap jari DNA. [6 marks]

9(a)

Diagram 9 shows a mangrove swamp. Rajah 9 menunjukkan kawasan paya bakau.

19 [Lihat sebelah

Diagram 9 (i) Explain why most plants cannot colonise and grow in the swamps. Terangkan mengapa kebanyakan tumbuhan tidak boleh hidup dan tumbuh di kawasan paya bakau. [5 marks] Explain how the mangrove trees adapt themselves to the harsh living conditions. Terangkan bagaimana pokok bakau ini menyesuaikan diri dengan keadaan hidup yang sukar. [5 marks]

(ii)

(b)

Development that is not planned and managed properly has brought negative effects to the ecosystem such as land erosion, flash flood, landslides, global warming, thinning of the ozone layer, climate change and the extinction of certain species. Pembangunan yang tidak terancang dan terurus dengan teliti boleh membawa kesan negatif kepada ekosistem seperti hakisan tanah, banjir kilat, tanah runtuh, pamanasan global, penipisan lapisan ozon, perubahan iklim dan kepupusan spesis tertentu. Based on the above statement, describe the effects of unplanned development and improper management of the ecosystem. Berdasarkan kenyataan di atas, terangkan kesan pembangunan yang tidak terancang dan terurus dengan teliti kepada ekosisitem. [10 marks]

20 [Lihat sebelah

END OF QUESTION PAPER KERTAS SOALAN TAMAT

MAKLUMAT KEPADA CALON

1. This question paper consists of two sections: Section A and Section B.
Kertas soalan ini mengandungi dua bahagian: Bahagian A dan Bahagian B.

2. Answer all questions in Section A. Write your answers for Section A clearly in
spaces provided in the question paper.

21 [Lihat sebelah

Jawab semua soalan dalam Bahagian A. Jawapan anda bagi Bahagian A hendaklah ditulis pada ruang yang disediakan dalam kertas soalan ini.

3. Answer any two question from Section B. Write your answers for Section B on the
‘helaian tambahan’ provided by the invigilators. You may use equations, diagrams, tables, graphs and other suitable methods to explain your answer. Jawab mana-mana dua soalan daripada Bahagian B. Jawapan anda bagi Bahagian B hendaklah ditulis dalam helaian tambahan yang dibekalkan oleh pengawas peperiksaan. Anda boleh menggunakan persamaan, rajah, jadual, graf, dan cara lain yang sesuai untuk menjelaskan jawapan anda.

4. The diagrams in the questions are not drawn to scale unless stated.Rajah yang
mengiringi soalan tidak dilukis mengikut skala kecuali dinyatakan . 5. The marks allocated for each question or sub-part of a question are shown in brackets. Markah yang diperuntukan bagi setiap soalan atau ceraian soalan ditunjukkan dalam kurungan.

6. If you wish to change your answer, cross out the answer that you have done. Then
write down the new answer.Jika anda hendak menukar jawapan, batalkan jawapan yang telah dibuat. Kemudian tulis jawapan yang baru. 7. You may use a non-programmable scientific calculator. Anda dibenarkan menggunakan kalkulator saintifik yang tidak boleh diprogram.

8. You are advised to spend 90 minute to answer question in Section A and 60 minutes
for Section B. Anda dinasihati supaya mengambil masa 90 minit untuk menjawab soalan dalam Bahagian A dan 60 minit untuk Bahagian B.

9. Detach Section B from this question paper. Tie the ‘helaian tambahan’ together with
this question paper and hand in to the invigilator at the end of the examination. Ceraikan Bahagian B daripada kertas soalan ini. Ikat helaian tambahan bersamasama kerts soalan ini dan serahkan kepada pengawas peperiksaan pada akhir peperiksaan.

22 [Lihat sebelah

MARKING SCHEME BIOLOGY 2 (4551/2) SPM TRIAL EXAMINATION 2009

No. 1(a)

Marking Criteria Able to name the parts labelled Q and R. Sample answer : Q : Carrier protein R : Channel protein / pore protein 1 1

Mark

2

1(b)(i)

Able to state the component of structure P. Sample answer : It is composed of two layers of phospholipids 1

(ii)

Able to explain the main function of P. Sample answer : Acts as a barrier between the internal and external environment of the cell // Allows only specific molecules to pass through it // provide the structural basis for all cell membrane.

1

2

1(c)

Able to give the meaning of ‘semi-permeable’. Sample answer : A semi-permeable plasma membrane is a membrane that allows only certain substances to move freely across it. 1 1

1 (d)(i)

Able to state the concentration which is isotonic to blood plasma. Sample answer : 0.45 g/100 cm3 1

1(d)(ii)

Able to explain the answer in (d)(i).

SampleAnswer : Both percentage of haemolysis of red blood cells and percentage of crenation of red blood cells are zero (0%). 1(d)(iii) Able to comment on the osmotic pressure at Q. SampleAnswer : F : The osmotic pressure inside the red blood cells is equivalent to its environment. P2 : Amount of water moving in and out of the cells are the same, P3 : therefore the size and structure of the red blood cells does not change. ( F + Any P2/P3 ) 1(e)(i) Able to define active transport. Sample answer : Active transport is a movement of substances / molecules / ions against the concentration gradient / from low to high concentration across the plasma membrane with the help of carrier protein and energy / ATP. (ii) Able to explain what will happen to the uptake of the ions by root cells if the roots are immersed in a solution containing metabolic poisons such as cyanide. Sample answer : P1 – there is no uptake of ions by root cells P2 – metabolic poisons kill/ damaged the (root) cells P3 – no energy/ ATP is produced P4 – active transport does not occur (Any three) 1 1

1

4

1

3

4

TOTAL

13 marks

2(a)(i)

Able to name organ X and organ Y. Sample answer : Organ X : Ileum // small intestine Organ Y : Liver 1 1

(ii)

Able to name molecule K, molecule M and enzyme L. Sample answer : Molecule K : Starch Molecule M : Glucose Enzyme L : (Pancreatic) Amylase 1 1 1

5

(b)

Able to state two characteristics of enzyme L based on Diagram 2.1 Sample answer : 1. Enzyme remains unchanged at the end of the reaction (and can be used again). 2. Enzyme is substrate specific / reaction is very specific 1 1 2

(c)

Able to explain why molecule M is needed in muscle cells. Sample answer : Pt. 1 Molecule M / glucose is the substrate for respiration Pt. 2 As the muscle cells contract and relax, energy is needed for activities Pt. 3 therefore, molecule M is needed in muscle cells to provide energy from respiration process. 1 1 1 3

(d)

Able to explain the importance of forming glycogen. Sample answer : Pt.1 : Glycogen is the main reserve of carbohydrates in animals 1

Pt. 2 It can be converted back to glucose when energy is needed from respiration process

1 TOTAL

2 12 marks

3(a(i))

Able to name stage X and Y. Sample answer : X : Prophase I Y : Metaphase I 1 1 2

(ii)

Able to Able to state two differences between chromosomal behaviour at X and Y. Sample Answer:

1 1

1 2 (b)(i)

1 1

2

(ii)

Prophase I Metaphase I (Paired homologous chromosomes) are arranged randomly. (Paired homologous chromosomes) are arranged on the metaphase plate / equatorial plane. Spindle fibre does not hold on the centromere of the chromosomes . Spindle fibre holds on the centromere of the chromosomes.

1 1 2

(c)(i)

1 1 2

(ii)

(The homologous chromosomes paired and) crossing over take place. (The homologous chromosomes paired) crossing over does not take place.

1 1 2

(iii)

( Any 2 ) Able to state the occurrence at Z. Sample Answer:
P1 : Four daughter cells formed P2 : Each daughter cell has two chromosomes / haploid / n

1 TOTAL 12 marks

Able to state the chromosome number in each of the daughter cell in Z and able to give reason. Sample answer :

P1 : 6 (chromosomes). P2 :(During meiosis) the daughter cell receives half the number of chromosome from the parent cell / 2n // Daughter cell haploid / n, parent cell diploid / 2n Able to state either cell A, cell B and cell C are genetically identical and explain. Sample answer : F : Cell A is similar to cell B but is different from cell C. P : Cell A and cell B are products of mitosis whereas cell C is a product of meiosis. Able to state the number of chromosome in Cell if Cell B undergoes an improper cell division. Sample answer : 24 (chromosomes) Able to state the syndrome of the individual. Sample answer : Down’s syndrome // Klinefelter’s syndrome 4(a) Able to state the function of the eosin solution. Sample answer : To stain the xylem (vessels) (with red dye) 4(b) Able to name the parts labelled K and M. Sample answer : K : Xylem M : Phloem 4(c) Able to name the tissue which is responsible for transporting water and mineral ions from the roots to the upper parts of the plant. Sample answer : 1 1 2 1 1

Xylem 4(d) Able to draw and label the observation of the root cut across. Sample answer : Xylem

1

1

Phloem

Pericycle Cortex // ground tissue Drawing – 1 m Any 2 labels – 2 m 1 2

3

(e)(i)

Able to state the type of transport involved in Diagram 4.3. Sample answer : Translocation 1

(ii)

Able to explain why does the part above the ring become swollen after two weeks. Sample answer : F : The products of photosynthesis cannot be transported to the parts below the ring P : as tissue M / phloem is removed

1 1

(iii) Able to explain why have the leaves not wilted after two weeks. Sample answer : F : Water can still be transported to the leaves P : as tissue K / xylem is not removed from the stem 1 1

5

TOTAL

12 marks

5(a)

Able to complete the drawing the appropriate neurons involved in the reflex action. Sample answer :

3 neurones – 2 m 2 neurones - 1 m 5(b) Able to explain the transmission of impulse from one neurone to another neurone. Sample answer : Pt..1 When an impulses arrives in the axon terminal Pt. 2 it stimulates (synaptic) vesicles to move towards and bind with the presynaptic membrane Pt. 3 The vesicles fuse / release the neurotransmitter into the synapse Pt. 4 The neurotransmitter molecules across the synapse to the dendrite of another neurone Pt. 5 Stimulated to trigger a new impulses which travels along the neurone ( Max 4 ) 5(c) Able to name the structure M and N. Sample answer : M : Sensory reseptor // finger tip N : Effector // muscles tissues

2

2

1 1 1 1 1 4

1 1

2

5(d)

Able to differentiate the reflex action with the voluntary action. Sample answer : The reflex action is governed by the spinal chord whereas the voluntary action is governed by the cerebrum. 1 1

5(e)

Able to state the importance of reflex action to us. Sample answer : To protect the body against injuries 1 1

5 (f)

Able to predict the effect on O if it is injured or damaged. Sample answer: 1. The nerve impuls will be sent from afferent neurone to the effector 2. The effector / muscles will not contract 3. The hand will not be removed immediately from the needle. (Any one ) 1 1 1 1

TOTAL

11 marks

6(a)

Able to relate the tissues involved in producing the running movement Sample Answer: Pl- Tendons, ligaments, bones, muscles and joints are important features in a movement, P2- Tendons connect muscles to bones P3- Tendons are strong and non elastic P4- Force is transferred to bones through tendons. P5- Movement at the joint is possible with the aid of ligaments. P6- Ligaments connect two bones together P7-to give support and strength to the joint. P8- Ligaments are strong and elastic. P9- The quadriceps / extensor muscles contract while the biceps femoris muscles relax and the leg is straightened. P10- The biceps femoris muscles contract while the quadriceps / extensor muscles relax and the leg is bent. P11- Calf muscles contract to lift up the heels. P12-Feet push downward and backward P13-Repeated contraction and relaxation of muscles result in the running movement. MAXIMUM: 10 marks 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10

(b) Able to give example and explain how the support system in woody plants differs from that of non-woody plants. Examples – 2 marks , Facts – 8 marks Sample answers: Non-woody plants (herbaceous plants) Example: Balsam plant/ any suitable answer P1: (Support in herbaceous plants is) provided by the turgidity of the parenchyma / collenchyma cells 1 1 1

P2: (When there is enough warm in the ground). the cells take in water by osmosis and become turgid. P3: The turgor pressure of the fluids in the vacuoles pushes the cell contents / plasma membrane against the cell wall P4: creating support for it stem/ roots /leaves P5: The thin thickening die cell walls with cellulose / collenchyma cells gives support to herbacous plants Woody plants : Example : Rambutan tree/ hibiscus/ any suitable example P6: Woody plants have specialised tissues/ sclerenchyma tissues/ xylem vessels / tracheids. to give them support; P7: These tissues have cellulose walls which have deposits of lignin for added strength. P8: Sclerenchyma cells have very thick walls (which do not allow water to pass through). P9: (These cells are dead cells and) their function is to provide support for the plant. P10: Xylem vessels have thick walls of lignin which are deposited during the plant's secondary growth. P11: The lignified xylem vessels form the woody tissues of the stem. P12: This makes the plant stronger and also provides support for the plant. P13: Tracheids are also dead cells with thick walls and very small diameters. P14: They are found with the xylem vessels and together they support the plants. MAXIMUM: 10 marks

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

10

20 marks

TOTAL 7(a) (i) Able to explain how the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place in the body cells Sample answers: P1: The blood circulatory system transport oxygen from the alveoli to the body cells. P2: Oxygen combines with the haemoglobin in the red blood cells P3: to form oxyhaemoglobin (which is unstable.) P4: Oxygen is carried (in form of oxyhaemoglobin) to the tissues (which have a low partial pressure of oxygen.) P5: The (unstable) oxyhaemoglobin breaks down into oxygen and haemoglobin again. P6: Oxygen (molecules are) transferred to the body cells P7: Carbon dioxide binds (itself) to the haemoglobin P8: (and is) transported in the form of carbaminohaemoglobin. P9: Carbon dioxide is (also) transported as dissolved carbon dioxide (in the blood plasma.) P10: Most of carbon dioxide is carried as bicarbonate ions (dissolved in the blood plasma.) P11: When the blood carrying carbon dioxide reaches the body cells, the carbon dioxide diffuses into the blood plasma and combines with the red blood cells. P12:Carbon dioxide reacts with water to form carbonic acid. P13:Carbonic anhydrase in the red blood cells catalyse the formation of carbonic acid. P14: The carbonic acid then dissociates into a hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions. MAXIMUM: 6 marks (ii) Able to describe the adaptations of the alveolus for gaseous exchange Sample answer: F1: The millions of alveoli P1: provide a large surface area for gaseous exchange. F2: The walls of the alveoli are moist P2: and this allows respiratory gases to dissolve easily to them. F3: The walls of the alveoli are very thin (one-cell thick) P3: forquick / easy diffusion of gases. F4: The alveoli are richly supplied with blood capillaries 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6

P4: to increase the rate of diffusion / the rate of the transportation of gases MAXIMUM: 4 marks (b) Able to explain how an oxygen debt is built up when an athlete is running and how it is settled after he stops running. Sample answer: P1: During a vigorous exercise /running, the breathing rate is increased. P2: This is to supply more oxygen (quickly to the muscles) P3:for rapid muscular contraction). P4: However, the supply of oxygen to muscles is still insufficient P5: and the muscles have to carry out anaerobic respiration (to release energy). P6: The glucose is converted into lactic acid, P7: with only a limited amount of energy being produced P8: An oxygen debt builds up in the body as shown in the graph P9: High levels of lactic acid in the muscles P10: cause them to ache. P11: After running, the athlete breathes more rapidly / deeply than normal for 20 minutes (shown in the graph) P12: There is a recovery period (from the 10th minute until the 20th minute) P13:when oxygen is paid back (during aerobic respiration) P14: About 1/6 lactic acid is oxidised to carbon dioxide, water and energy. MAXIMUM: 10 marks

4

10

20 marks

TOTAL

8(a)

Able to explain how the inheritance happen Answer : P1: The situation involved is monohybrid inheritance. P2: The genotype of blood group A can be IAIA /1A10 P3: while the genotype of blood group B can be I BI B or IBIO. P4: Blood group 0 has a genotype, I OI O (while the genotype of blood group AB is I AI B. P5: Alleles 1A and IB are codominant P6: IO allele is recessive. P7: Mr. Nick is heterozygous dominant/IAIO (for his blood group A) P8: while his wife is heterozygous dominant/ IBI0 (for blood group B) P9: Mr. Nick and his wife produce haploid gametes/sperm/ovum (as a r e s u l t o f m e i o s i s ) P10: Mr. Nick produces (gametes with) genotypes IA /IO P11: (while) his wife (will) produce (gametes with) genotypes 1A/ lO P12: The gamete (IO) of Mr. Nick fuses with his wife's gamete (10) P13: to produce a zygote with genotype I°Io. P14: (Thus, they will) produce an offspring with blood group 0. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

(b)

MAXIMUM: 10 marks

10

(i) Able to explain how DNA fingerprinting is carried out. Answer: P1: Tissue samples are taken from the scene of a crime and DNA is extracted. P2: An enzyme breaks down the DNA into fragments. P3: The DNA fragments are classified according to size. P4: An alkali is added to separate the double-stranded D N A into single strands. P 5 : Each single strand is laid on a nylon membrane and

1 1 1 1 1 1

radioactive matter is added to it. A banding pattern appears. P6: An X-ray film is produced and the positions of black bands are compared with the part of DNA treated with radioactive matter. MAXIMUM: 4 marks (ii) Able to state the advantages and disadvantages of DNA fingerprinting Sample answer: Advantages: P1: DNA fingerprinting is more accurate than common fingerprinting as no two people have the same DNA fingerprints. P2: DNA fingerprinting is more efficient than blood-type identification because many people have the s a m e blood type obtain a highly accurate result P4: DNA samples last longer than fingerprints. P5: Mixed DNA samples can still be used. P6: DNA evidence is harder to clean up compared to fingerprints. Disadvantages: P7: DNA samples may be degraded by adding chemicals, and this will affect the accuracy of the technique. P8: Human errors are possible when different procedures and standards are used in DNA fingerprinting. MAXIMUM: 6 marks TOTAL 20 marks 1 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 4

P3: DNA fingerprinting requires only a small amount of DNA to 1

9(a)

(i) Able to explain why most plants cannot colonise and grow in the swamps. Sample answer: P1: The ground is too soft and unable to support plants, P2: The water-logged / muddy swamps provide very little oxygen for root respiration. P3: The swamp water has a high concentration of salt and is hypertonic. P4: The plants growing in swamp will have the problem of dehydration. P5: Seeds that fall into the muddy swamp will die of dehydration / insufficiency of oxygen. P6: The swamp is exposed to strong sunlight and intense heat. P7: As a result, the plants growing there will lose water very fast by transpiration. MAXIMUM: 5 marks (ii) Able to explain how the mangrove trees adapt themselves to the harsh living conditions Sample answer: P1: Root system which is highly branched and spreads over a big area to give good support to the plants. P2: Pneumatophores (breathing roots) which grow protruding upwards above the ground. P3: The plant cells have high concentration of cell sap. P4: Hence, the cells are able to withstand the high salt content of the swamp. P5: Excess salt is eliminated through hydatodes found at the lower epidermis of leaves. P6: Viviparous seeds which germinate while still attached to the parent plant. P7: The long radical produced will let the seedling stick into the ground and not submerge or drift away. P8:Thick cuticle and sunken stomata which help to reduce the rate of transpiration. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5

5

MAXIMUM: 5 marks (b) Able to describe the effects of unplanned development and improper management of the ecosystem. P1: The leave canopy in the forest protects the soil from excess rain water. P2: When the forest is cleared, the soil is exposed to rain (water) / wind. P3: this will cause soil erosion P4:The soil that is exposed to wind will be blown to another area, P5: while soil that is exposed to rain water will be eroded and deposited at the bottom of the river / pond /lake. P6:The soil at the hill slopes can (also) be washed away by heavy rain water P7: resulting in land slides. P8: (The deposited soil will) cause the water level to increase rapidly when it rains and P9: this will in turn cause flash floods. P10:Wild life species will also be threatened P11: when their habitat is destroyed. P12: Global warming will occur P13:due to an increase in the Earth's temperature, P14:which is caused by excess emissions of carbon dioxide/ methane/ CFC /nitrogen dioxide (into the atmosphere). P15:These gases trap the heat that is reflected by the Earth. P16:The thinning of the ozone layer occurs P17: when the ozone layer (that protects the Earth from ultraviolet radiation) is destroyed by chlorofluorocarbons (CFC). MAXIMUM: 10 marks 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

10

TOTAL

20 marks

20 marks

SULIT SULIT 4551/3 Biology September 2009 1 ½ jam NAMA : …………………………………….

4551/3

ANGKA GILIRAN : …………………………….

PEPERIKSAAN PERCUBAAN SPM 2009

BIOLOGY Kertas 3 Satu jam tiga puluh minit JANGAN BUKA KERTAS SOALAN INI SEHINGGA DIBERITAHU 1. Tulis nama dan tingkatan pada ruangan yang disediakan 2. Kertas soalan ini adalah dalam dwibahasa. 3. Soalan dalam bahasa Inggeris mendahului soalan yang sepadan dalam bahasa Melayu. 4. Calon dibenarkan menjawab keseluruhan atau sebahagian soalan sama ada dalam bahasa Inggeris atau bahasa Melayu.

Untuk Kegunaan Pemeriksa Markah Markah Soalan penuh diperolehi 1 2 Jumla h 33 17 50

5. Calon dikehendaki membaca maklumat di halaman belakang kertas soalan ini.

Kertas soalan ini mengandungi 12 halaman bercetak

@PKPSM Pahang

INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES MAKLUMAT UNTUK CALON 1. This question paper consists of two questions. Question 1 and Question 2. Kertas soalan ini mengandungi dua soalan. Soalan 1 dan Soalan 2. 2. Answer all questions. Write your answer for Question 1 in the spaces provided in the question paper. Jawab semua soalan. Jawapan anda bagi Soalan 1 hendaklah ditulis pada ruangan yang disediakan dalam kertas soalan ini. 3. Write your answers for Question 2 on the answer sheet. You may use equations, diagrams, tables, graphs and other suitable methods to explain your answer. Jawapan anda bagi Soalan 2 hendaklah ditulis dalam helaian tambahan yang dibekalkan. Anda boleh menggunakan persamaan, rajah, jadual, graf dan cara lain yang sesuai untuk menjelaskan jawapan anda. 4. Show your working, it may help you to get marks. Tunjukkan kerja mengira, ini membantu anda mendapatkan markah. 5. The diagrams in the questions are not drawn to scale unless stated. Rajah yang mengiringi soalan tidak dilukis mengikut skala kecuali dinyatakan. 6. The marks allocated for each question or sub-part question are shown in brackets. Markah yang diperuntukkan bagi setiap soalan atau ceraian soalan ditunjukkan dalam kurungan. 7. If you wish to change your answer, cross out the answer that you have done. Then write down the new answer. Jika anda hendak menukar jawapan, batalkan jawapan yang telah dibuat. Kemudian tulis jawapan yang baru.

8. The time suggested to completed Question 1 is 45 minutes and Question 2 is 45 minutes. Anda dinasihatkan supaya mengambil masa 45 minit untuk menjawab Soalan 1 dan 45 minit untuk Soalan 2 9. You may use a non-programmable scientific calculator. Anda dibenarkan menggunakan kalkulator saintifik yang tidak boleh diprogram. 10. Hand in this question paper at the end of examination. Serahkan soalan dan jawapan di akhir peperiksaan.

2

Answer all questions Jawab semua soalan 1 An experiment was carried out to determine the concentration of sucrose solution which is isotonic to the cell sap of potato strips. Satu eksperimen telah dijalankan untuk menentukan kepekatan larutan sukrosa yang isotonik kepada sap sel jalur ubi kentang. The following steps were carried out . Langkah-langkah berikut telah dijalankan . Step 1 : A cork boarer is used to obtain four cylindrical potato strips and each strip was cut at 5 mm long. Satu penebuk gabus digunakan untuk mendapatkan empat jalur ubi kentang dan setiap jalur dipotong sepanjang 5 mm. The potato strip was wiped dry with tissue paper and weighed individually. Jalur ubi kentang dilap kering dengan kertas tisu dan setiap satu ditimbang. Each strip was immersed in petri dish containing different concentration of sucrose solution. Setiap jalur direndam ke dalam piring petri yang mengandungi larutan sukrosa berbeza kepekatan. After 30 minutes ,the potato strips were removed and wiped dry again. Selepas 30 minit, jalur ubi kentang dikeluarkan dan sekali lagi dilap kering. The final mass of each potato strip was weighed and then recorded. Jisim akhir setiap jalur ubi kentang diukur dan direkodkan.

Langkah 1 : Step 2 :

Langkah 2 : Step 3 :

Langkah 3 : Step 4 : Langkah 4 : Step 5 : Langkah 5:

Diagram 1 shows the initial mass for each potato strip.

Diagram 1 Initial mass of potato strip : _______________ gm Jisim awal jalur ubi kentang

3

Table 1 shows the results of this experiment. Jadual 1 menunjukkan keputusan eksperimen ini. Type of solution Jenis larutan Final mass of potato strip after 30 minutes / gm Jisim akhir jalur ubi kentang selepas 30 minit / gm

0.2 M sucrose solution 0.2 M larutan sukrosa

0.4 M sucrose solution 0.4 M larutan sukrosa

0.6M sucrose solution 0.6 M larutan sukrosa

0.8M sucrose solution 0.8 M larutan sukrosa

Table 1 Jadual 1 4

1 (a) (i)

Record the initial mass of potato strip in the space provided in Diagram 1. Rekodkan jisim awal jalur ubi kentang dalam ruangan yang disediakan pada Rajah 1 Record the final mass of potato strip in the boxes provided in Table 1. Rekodkan jisim akhir jalur ubi kentang dalam kotak yang disediakan dalam Jadual 1. [3 marks] [3 markah] State two different observations made from Table 1. Nyatakan dua pemerhatian yang berbeza yang dibuat daripada Jadual 1. Observation 1/ Pemerhatian 1: ……………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… …… Observation 2 / Pemerhatian 2 :

For Examiner’s Use

(ii)

1 (a)
3

(b) (i)

1 (b)(i) ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… [3 marks] [3 markah] (ii) State the inferences which corresponds to the observations in 1 (b)(i). Nyatakan inferens yang sepadan dengan pemerhatian di 1 (b)(i). Inference from observation 1/ Inferens daripada pemerhatian 1: ….…………………………………………………………………………………… ….…………………………………………………………………………………… Inference from observation 2 / Inferens daripada pemerhatian 2: 1(b)(ii) ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… [3 marks] [3 markah]
3

For Examiner’s Use

5

(c)

Complete Table 2 based on this experiment. Lengkapkan Jadual 2 berdasarkan eksperimen ini. Variables Pembolehubah Manipulated variable Pembolehubah dimanipulasikan ….……………………………… ………………………………… ………………………………… Responding variable Pembolehubah bergerak balas ….……………………………… ………………………………… ………………………………… Constant variable Pembolehubah dimalarkan ….……………………………… ………………………………… ………………………………… Jadual 2 ……………………………………….. ………………………………………… ………………………………………… Table 2 [3 marks] [3 markah] State the hypothesis for this experiment. Nyatakan hipotesis bagi eksperimen ini. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… [3 marks] [3 markah]
3 3

Method to handle the variable Cara mengendali pembolehubah

……………………………………… ……………………………………… ………………………………………

………………………………………… ………………………………………… …………………………………………

1(c)

(d)

1(d)

6

(e) (i)

Construct a table and record all the data collected in this experiment. Bina satu jadual dan rekodkan semua data yang dikumpul dalam eksperimen ini. Your table should have the following aspects : Jadual anda hendaklah mengandungi aspek-aspek berikut : concentration of sucrose solutions kepekatan larutan sukrosa initial mass of potato strips jisim awal jalur ubi kentang final mass of potato strips jisim akhir jalur ubi kentang percentage change in mass of potato strips peratus perubahan jisim jalur ubi kentang

For Examiner’s Use

1 (e)(i)
3

[3 marks] [3 markah] (ii) Use the graph paper provided to answer this question . Using the data in 1(e)(i) , draw a graph to show the relationship between the percentage change in mass of potato strips and the the concentration of the sucrose solutions . 1 (e)(ii) Guna kertas graf yang disediakan untuk menjawab soalan ini. Menggunakan data di 1(e)(i), lukis satu graf untuk menunjukkan hubungan antara peratus perubahan jisim jalur ubi kentang dengan kepekatan larutan sukrosa. [3 marks] [3 markah] 7
3

(f)

Based on the graph in 1(e)(ii), state the concentration of the sucrose solution which is isotonic to the concentration of the cell sap of the potatoes. Explain your answer. Berdasarkan graf di 1(e)(i),nyatakan kepekatan larutan sukrosa yang isotonic kepada kepekatan sap sel ubi kentang. Terangkan jawapan anda. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… [3 marks] [3 markah] State the operational definition for osmosis. Nyatakan definisi secara operasi bagi osmosis. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… [3 marks] [3 markah]

For Examiner’s Use

1 (f)
3

(g)

1 (g)
3

(h)

The potato strip from 0.6M sucrose solution was taken out and was dried with tissue paper. Then it was immersed in distilled water for 30 minutes. Based on the results of this experiment, predict what will happen to the potato strip. Explain your prediction. Jalur ubi kentang dari 0.6M larutan sukrosa telah dikeluarkan dan dikeringkan menggunakan kertas tisu. Kemudian ia direndam dalam larutan air suling selama 30 minit. Berdasarkan keputusan eksperimen ini, ramalkan apa yang berlaku kepada jalur ubi kentang tersebut. Terangkan ramalan anda. …………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… [3 marks] [3 markah]

1(h)
3

8

(i)

In another experiment,it was found that a mustard stem strip that was immersed in 0.8% natrium chloride solution did not undergoes change in mass. Dalam eksperimen lain didapati bahawa satu jalur batang sawi yang telah direndamkan kedalam larutan natrium klorida 0.8% tidak mengalami perubahan jisim. The following solutions are used in this experiment. Larutan berikut telah digunakan dalam eksperimen ini. 0.25% natrium chloride solution, 0.8% natrium chloride solution, 1.10% natrium chloride solution. 0.25% larutan natrium klorida, 0.8% larutan natrium klorida, 1.10% larutan natrium klorida. Classify the above solutions into Table 2. Klasifikasikan larutan di atas ke dalam Jadual 2. . Solution Types of solution compared to concentrations Kepekatan larutan (%) the osmotic concentration of cell sap Jenis larutan dibandingkan dengan kepekatan osmotik sap sel

For Examiner’s Use

]

1(i)

3

Table 2 Jadual 2. [3 marks] [3 markah] The percentage change in mass of potato strips and the concentration of the sucrose solutions . Perubahan peratus jisim jalur ubi kentang dengan kepekatan larutan sukrosa

9

2. Transpiration is the loss of water vapour through evaporation in living plants.The rate of transpiration is affected by external conditions. 10

A group of students is given the apparatus and materials to investigate one of the external conditions. Transpirasi ialah kehilangan wap air melalui penyejatan di dalam tumbuhan yang hidup. Kadar transpirasi dipengaruhi oleh faktor-faktor persekitaran. Sekumpulan pelajar dibekalkan dengan bahan-bahan dan peralatan untuk mengkaji salah satu daripada faktor persekitan tersebut.

Diagram 2

Based on Diagram 2, plan a laboratory experiment to investigate the effect of air movement (wind) on the rate of transpiration. The planning of the experiment should cover the following aspects : Berdasarkan Rajah 2, rancangkan satu ekperimen untuk mengkaji kesan udara yang bergerak ( angin) ke atas kadar transpirasi. Perancangan eksperimen tersebut mestilah meliputi aspek-aspek yang berikut : ● ● ● Problem statement Pernyataan masalah Aim of investigation Tujuan ekperimen Hypothesis Hipotesis Variables Pembolehubah 11

● ● ● ● ●

List of apparatus and materials Senarai bahan dan peralatan Technique used Teknik yang digunakan Experimental procedure or method Kaedah / cara ekperimen dijalankan Presentation of data Persembahan data Conclusion Kesimpulan

[ 17 marks ]

END OF QUESTION PAPER KERTAS SOALAN TAMAT

12

MARKING SCHEME BIOLOGY 3 (4551/3)
SPM TRIAL EXAMINATION

2009

Question1 1 (a)(i) (ii) KB0603 – Measuring Using Numbers Scor e 3 Explanation Able to record 1 reading for the initial mass and all 4 readings for the final mass of potato strips correctly . Sample Answer: Initial mass : 50 gm

1

Type of solution Final mass of potato strip after 30 minutes ( gm)

0.2M 58 0.4M 52 0.6M 46 0.8M 42

2 1 0

Able to record 1 reading for the initial mass and all 3 readings for the final mass of potato strips correctly . Able to record any 1 reading for the initial mass and all 2 readings for the final mass of potato strips correctly . No response or 1 reading for the initial mass and 1 reading for the final mass .

1

(b) (i) [KB0601 - Observation]
2

Scor e

Explanation Able to state two correct observations based on the following criteria : [Observation must have values for MV and RV from Table 1 or comparison between two readings.] MV : Concentration of sucrose solution RV : The final mass of potato strip

3

Sample answer: 1. In 0.2M sucrose solution, the final mass of potato strip is 58 gm. 2. The final mass of potato strip immersed in 0.8M sucrose solution is 42 gm. 3. The final mass of potato strip immersed in 0.8M sucrose solution is less than the final mass of potato strip immersed in 0.2M sucrose solution // inversely Able to state two different observations inaccurately OR without values. Sample Answer: 1. At concentration 0.8 M, the final mass is the lowest // inversely. 2. The highest concentration of sucrose solution, the final mass is 58 gm // inversely. 3. The concentration of sucrose solution influences the final mass of potato strip . Able to state two different observations at idea level.

2

1

Sample Answer: 1. The concentration changes / increases / decreases. 2. The final mass of potato strip changes /increases /decreases. No response or wrong response. Scoring

0

3

Scor e Corre ct Inacc urate Idea Wron g 3 2 2 1 1 -

2 -

1 1 1 -

2 -

4

1 (b) (ii) [KB0604 – Making inference] Scor e Explanation Able to state two inferences for each observation made correctly and accurately for each observation and equivalent in 1(b)(i). Sample answers: 1. (At concentration of 0.2M), water molecule diffuse into the cell. 2. (At concentration of 0.8M), water molecule diffuse out of the cell. 3. More water molecule diffuse out of the cell at 0.8M but more water diffuse into the cell at 0.2M. Able to state any two inferences inaccurately . 2 Sample answers: 1. More water molecule diffuse . 2. The diffusion of water is influenced by concentration Able to state two inferences at idea level. 1 0 Sample Answer: 1. Osmosis occurs. No response OR wrong response. Scoring:

3

5

Score Correct Inaccurat e Idea Wrong 3 2 2 1 1 -

2 -

1 1 1 -

2 -

1 1

6

1 (c) [KB0610 – Controlling Variables] Scor e 3 Explanation Able to state all 3 variables and the methods to handle the variable correctly. Sample Answer :

7

Variables Method to handle the variable correctly Manipulated variable: Concentration of sucrose solution Use 0.2M,0.4M,0.6M and 0.8M / different concentration of sucrose solution Responding variable : Final mass of potato strip // percentage change in mass of potato strip Using a triple beam balance measure and record the final mass of potato strip // Calculate the percentage change in mass of potato using formula: Final mass-Initial mass X 100% Initial mass

Constant variable: 1. Duration of immersion / 2. Length / mass of the potato strip / Volume of sucrose solution
1. Fix the time of 30

minutes to immersed the potato strip. 2. Used the length of 5mm / Fix the mass at 50 gm.

8

2 1 0

Able to state 4-5 correctly. Able to state 2-3 correctly No response or only one criteria correct.

1 (d) [KB0611 – Making Hypothesis] Scor e Explanation Able to state a hypothesis by relating the manipulated variable and responding variable correctly with following aspects: P1 : Stating manipulated variable. P2: Stating responding variable H : Showing a specific relationship/ showing direction of relationship 3 Sample Answer : 1. As the concentration of sucrose solution increases, the final mass of potato strip decreases // the percentage change in mass decreases. 2. As the concentration of sucrose solution increases / decreases, the final mass of potato strip increases /decreases // the percentage change in mass increases // decreases Able to state a hypothesis relating the manipulated variable inaccurately. Sample Answer: 1. The increase of the concentration of sucrose solution influences / affects the final mass of potato strip. 2. The percentage change in mass of potato strip is affected by concentration of sucrose solution. Able to state a hypothesis relating the manipulated variable at idea level. Sample Answer : 1. Final mass of potato strip / concentration of sucrose solution changes. 2. As the final mass of potato strip increases the percentage change increases. No response or wrong response if no P1 or P2 no mark for each.
9

2

1

0

1 (e) (i) [KB0606 – Communication] Scor e 3 Explanation Able to construct a table correctly with the following aspects: 1 : Able to state the 4 titles with units correctly. 2 : Able to record all the data correctly. 3 : Able to calculate and record percentage change correctly Sample answer :

10

Concentration of sucrose solution (M) Initial mass (gm) Final mass (gm) Percentage change in mass Final mass-Initial mass X 100 Initial mass (%) 0.2 50 58 16.0 0.4 50 52 4.0 0.6 50 46 -8.0 0.8 50 42 -16.0

11

2 1 0

Any two aspects correct Any one aspect correct No response or wrong response.

1 (e)(ii) [KB0612 – Relationship between space and time] Scor e P(paksi) 3 Explanation Able to draw the graph correctly with the following aspects: : Corrected title with unit on both horizontal, vertical axis and uniform scale on the axis. T(titik) : All points plotted / transferred correctly. B(bentuk) : Able to join the points to form a smooth graph / line Able to state any two correct. Able to state any one correct No response or wrong response. 0

2 1

1 (f) [KB0608 – Interpreting Data]
12

Scor e Relationship :

Explanation Able to interpret data correctly and explain with the following aspects :

P1 = Able to state the concentration of sucrose solution which is isotonic to the cell sap 3 Explanation P2 = K Linmacam tak lengkap aje……………………………….. P3 = Able to state Sample answer : Produced (P3). Able to interpret data with two aspects correctly. 2 Able to interpret data only one aspect correctly. 1 No response or wrong response. 0 1 (g) [KB0609 –Defining by Operation ] Scor e Explanation Able to define operationally based on the result of the experiment with the following aspects: P1 : Movement of water in / out P2 : Plasma membrane of the potato cells P3 : Difference in concentration gradient between the sucrose solution and the cell sap. 3 Sample answer: 1. Osmosis is a process in which water molecules entering / leaving the potato strips (P1) across the plasma membrane of the potato strip (P2) when there is a difference in concentration gradient between the sucrose solution and the cell sap (P3). 2 Able to define operationally based on the result of the experiment with two aspects correctly.
13

1 0

Able to define operationally based on the result of the experiment with only one aspects correctly. No response or wrong response

1 (h) [KB0605 – Predicting] Scor e Explanation Able to predict and explain the outcome of the experiment correctly with the following aspects: Prediction : P1 : Able to predict the mass of the potato strip correctly. Explanation : P2 : Able to state distilled water is hypotonic P3 : Able to state more water molecules diffuse into the potato strip Sample answer: 1. The mass of the potato strip increases more than 46 gm // any values more than 46 gm .Water molecules diffused into the potato strip because distilled water is hypotonic. ** P1 must be correct to get P2 & P3, if P1 wrong automatically reject P2 & P3 - for score 3, 2, 1 2 1 0 Able to predict and explain the outcome of the experiment correctly with the two aspects . Able to predict and explain the outcome of the experiment correctly with one aspect correctly. No response or wrong response.

3

1(i) [KB0602 – Classifying] Able to classify all 3 solutions concentration and types of solution
14

correctly: Solution concentrations Kepekatan larutan (%) Types of solution compared to the osmotic concentration of cell sap Jenis larutan dibandingkan dengan kepekatan osmotik sap sel 0.25% natrium chloride solution Hypotonic 3 0.8% natrium chloride solution Isotonic

1.10% natrium chloride solution. Hypertonic

2

Able to classify 2 solutions concentration and types of solution correctly
15

Able to classify 1 solution concentration and types of solution correctly 1 0 No response or wrong response

Question 2

KB061201 – ( Problem statement) Score Criteria Able to state the problem statement correctly : C1 : Manipulated variable C2 : Responding variable R : Question form and have relationship 3 Sample Answer : 1. How does air movement affect the rate of transpiration ? 2. How does ( wind) affect the rate of transpiration ? ** Without question mark (?) – score 2 2 Able to give a statement of identified problem but incomplete.
16

Sample Answer: 1. Does air movement have a relationship with the rate of transpiration ? 2. Does wind have a relationship with the rate of transpiration ?

Able to give idea of a statement of identified problem.

1

Sample Answer: 1. What is the effect of air movement / wind?

0

No response or wrong response

KB061202( Making Hypothesis )

Score 3

Criteria Able to state the hypothesis correctly by relating two variables. Criteria set:

C1 : State the manipulated variable C2 : State the responding variable R : Show the specific relationship and direction between the manipulated variable and the responding variable. Answer must have C1, C2 and R
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Sample Answer :

1. The higher the air movement , the higher the rate of transpiration. 2. The higher the wind , the higher the rate of transpiration

Able to make a statement of hypothesis which relates the manipulated variable to the responding variable.

Answer must have C1 and C2 but without correct relationship 2 Sample Answer : 1. The air movement affect the rate of transpiration 2. The wind affect the rate of transpiration Able to state an idea of a statement of hypothesis.

1

Sample Answer: 1. The air movement / wind increases.

0

No response or wrong response

KB061203 - Planning ( Planning for investigation)
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Score 3 Scoring Criteria :

Criteria

Able to state 7- 9 planning investigation of experiment following :

• •

Problem statement (PS) – idea Aim of investigation / Objective (Ob) – Relation between C1 and C2 Sample answer

1. To investigate the effect of air movement / wind on the rate of transpiration.

• •

Statement of hypothesis (Hp) – idea States variables – (Vr) All three variables must be correct :

Manipulated variable : Moving air / wind Responding Variable : Time taken by the air bubble to move a distance of 2 cm. Constant Variable : Temperature / Relative humidity / light intensity

• •

List of materials and apparatus (AM) Technique (Tq) – Correctly and accurately Bonus 1/B1 = 1 mark

Sample Answer:

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Record the time taken for the bubble to move a distance of 2 cm using a stopwatch.

• •

Procedure / Method of investigation (K)– must have at least one criteria either K1 / K2 / K3 /K4 /K5 Data presentation // presentation of result (RD) – Have table with 3 titles with correct units and no data is required

Sample Answer :

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External condition Time taken for the air bubble to move a distance of 2 cm (seconds) Rate of transpiration (mms-1)

1 2 3 Average

Using the fan / air movement ( wind)

Without fan / no air movement

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2

Scoring Criteria : State 4 - 6 items Scoring Criteria: State 1 - 3 items No response or wrong response

1 0

KB061204 ( Method / procedure of investigation) Score Criteria Able to state all five criteria K1,K2, K3, K4 and K5 :

Criteria : 3 K1 : Preparation of materials & apparatus (any 5) - Cut a leafy balsam / named plant shoot - The capillary tube and rubber tubing are filled with water. - The leafy shoot is inserted into the rubber tubing under water. - The capillary tube is lifted up above the water surface to trap an air bubble. - The capillary tube is placed back into the beaker of water and kept upright using a retort stand. - A fan is used to create condition air movement . - Steps 5-9 is repeated twice to obtained an average reading. - The experiment is repeated without using the fan . - The results are recorded in a table.
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- The rate of transpiration is calculated. Remark : Able to state any five (K) steps to get P1.

K2 : Operating Fixed variable - The potometer is placed at room temperature ,37 oC

K3 : Operating responding variable - Record the time taken by the air bubble to move a distance of 2 cm using a stopwatch

K4 : Operating manipulated variable
-

Repeat the experiment without using fan.

K5 : Precaution / Accuracy of experiment (Any 1) State one precaution steps in the experiment. Sample Answer: - Cut a leafy balsam / named plant shoot slantly under water - The leaves are wiped dry . - Some vaseline Is smeared around the rubber tubing

Sample Answer:

Method / Procedure :
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1. Cut a leafy balsam / named plant shoot slantly under water to prevent air from entering the xylem. 1. The capillary tube and rubber tubing are filled with water. 2. The leafy shoot is inserted into the rubber tubing under water. 3. The leaves are wiped dry. Some vaseline is smeared around the rubber tubing to make the apparatus airtight. 4. The potometer is placed in a beaker of water for 5 minutes at room temperature to allow water to move up the capillary tube. 5. The capillary tube is lifted up above the water surface to trap an air bubble. 6. The capillary tube is placed back into the beaker of water and kept upright using a retort stand. 7. Mark two points , P and Q at a distance of 2 cm apart on the capillary tube. 8. A fan is used to give air movement. 9. A stopwatch is activated and the distance travel by the air bubble from P to Q point is recorded. 10. Steps 5-9 is repeated twice to obtained an average reading. 11. The experiment is repeated without using fan. 12. The results are recorded in a table. 13. The rate of transpiration is calculated. 2 1 0 Able to state 4 criteria Able to state 2-3 criteria No response or wrong response

KB061205 (Listing of Materials and Apparatus)

Skor 3

Perkara Abble to state all the materials and apparatus: Sample Answer:

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Materials : *Leafy balsam shoot, *distilled water vaselin

Apparatus : *capillary tube,* rubber tubing, beaker,*stopwatch,*fan marker pen/thread, tissue paper/cloth , retort stand

2 1 0

Able to state two of the * materials and four * apparatus Able to state two of the * materials and two *apparatus including No response or wrong response

Mark: 3X5 = 15 marks

B1 = 1 mark( technique) B2 = 1 mark( Data presentation) TOTAL = 17 marks

END OF MARKNG SCHEME
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