Motor controller From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search A motor controller is a device or group of devices

that serves to govern in some predetermined manner the performance of an electric motor.[1] A motor controller might include a manual or automatic means for starting and stopping the motor, selecting for ard or reverse rotation, selecting and regulating the speed, regulating or limiting the tor!ue, and protecting against overloads and faults.["] Contents • • 1 Applications " #ypes of motor controllers o o o o • • • • • • ".1 $otor starters "." %educed voltage starters ".& Ad'usta(le)speed drives ".* +ntelligent controllers

& ,verload relays * -oss of voltage protection . $otor control centers / 0ervo controllers 1 0tepper motor controllers 2 %eferences

Applications 3very electric motor has to have some sort of controller. #he motor controller ill have differing features and comple4ity depending on the task that the motor ill (e performing. #he simplest case is a s itch to connect a motor to a po er source, such as in small appliances or po er tools. #he s itch may (e manually operated or may (e a relay or contactor connected to some form of sensor to automatically start and stop the motor. #he s itch may have several positions to select different connections of the motor. #his may allo reduced)voltage starting of the motor, reversing control or selection of multiple speeds. ,verload and overcurrent protection may (e omitted in very small motor controllers, hich rely on the supplying circuit to have overcurrent protection. 0mall motors may have (uilt)in overload devices to automatically open the circuit on overload. -arger motors have a protective overload relay or temperature sensing relay included in the controller and fuses or circuit (reakers for overcurrent protection. An automatic motor controller may also include limit s itches or other devices to protect the driven machinery. $ore comple4 motor controllers may (e used to accurately control the speed and tor!ue of the connected motor 5or motors6 and may (e part of closed loop control systems for precise positioning of a driven machine. For e4ample, a numerically controlled lathe ill accurately position the cutting tool according to a preprogrammed profile and compensate for varying load conditions and pertur(ing forces to maintain tool position. Types of motor controllers $otor controllers can (e manually, remotely or automatically operated. #hey may include only the means for starting and stopping the motor or they may include other functions.["][&][*] An electric motor controller can (e classified (y the type of motor it is to drive such as permanent magnet, servo, series, separately e4cited, and alternating current.[.]

kW. A reversing starter can connect the motor for rotation in either direction.-6 or across the line starter applies the full line voltage to the motor terminals. fans and conveyor (elts. ith mechanical and electrical interlocks to prevent simultaneous closure. [/] For three phase motors. the term @driveA is often applied to 'ust the controller. A 8.2. ["][&][*] +n smaller si7es a motor starter is a manually operated s itch9 larger motors. and in some cases.. #his is the simplest type of motor starter. . +n common usage. >y using an autotransformer or a series inductance. Reduced voltage starters # o or more contactors may (e used to provide reduced voltage starting of a motor.[/] 8. star)delta or soft starters connects the motor to the po er supply through a voltage reduction device and increases the applied voltage gradually or in steps. this is achieved (y transposing any t o phases. #he ma4imum si7e of a motor allo ed on a direct on line starter may (e limited (y the supply utility for this reason. 0olid)state direct on line starters also e4ist.-6 starter immediately connects the motor terminals directly to the po er supply. noise. a utility may re!uire rural customers to use reduced)voltage starters for motors larger than 1. +n the case of an asynchronous motor.[&][*] Intelligent controllers An Intelligent Motor Controls 5+$=6 uses a microprocessor to control po er electronic devices used for motor control. reducing starting tor!ue and inrush current. 0ince the autotransformer or series reactor only carries the heavy motor starting current for a fe seconds. A direct on line starter can (e used if the high inrush current of the motor does not cause e4cessive voltage drop in the supply circuit.starting is sometimes used to start small ater pumps.. #his can provide a measure of energy efficiency improvement for motors that run under light load for a large part of the time. An electrical ad'usta(le)speed drive consists of an electric motor and a speed controller or po er converter plus au4iliary devices and e!uipment. 0maller si7es of direct on)line starters are manually operated9 larger si7es use an electromechanical contactor 5relay6 to s itch the motor circuit. For e4ample. :ery large motors running on medium voltage po er supplies 5thousands of volts6 may use po er circuit (reakers as s itching elements. a direct on line 58. the motor ill dra a high starting current until it has run up to full speed. A direct on line 58. %educed)voltage. a lo er voltage is present at the motor terminals. resulting in less heat. or triggered hen a current sensor sho s the motor current has (egun to reduce. . An autotransformer starter as patented in 1?.A motor controller is connected to a po er source such as a (attery pack or po er supply. condition monitoring. #he transition (et een reduced and full voltage may (e (ased on elapsed time. such as the &)phase s!uirrel)cage motor. the starter s itches to full voltage at the motor terminals. When energi7ed. 0uch a starter contains t o 8. #o reduce the inrush current. the devices can (e much smaller compared to continuously rated e!uipment. compressors. use magnetic contactors. A larger motor re!uires a speciali7ed s itching unit called a motor starter or motor contactor.nce the motor has come up to some fraction of its full)load speed.. #his is accomplished (y reducing the voltage to the A= terminals and at the same time lo ering current and kvar. 0ingle phase A= motors and direct)current motors re!uire additional devices for reversing rotation. larger motors ill have reduced) voltage starters or varia(le speed drives in order to minimise voltage dips to the po er supply.circuits<one for clock ise operation and the other for counter)clock ise operation. and vi(rations generated (y the motor. Motor starters 0ee also: $otor soft starter A small motor can (e started (y simply plugging it into an electrical receptacle or (y using a s itch or circuit (reaker. Adjustable-speed drives $ain article: Ad'usta(le)speed drive An ad'usta(le)speed drive 5A086 or varia(le)speed drive 5:086 is an interconnected com(ination of e!uipment that provides a means of driving and ad'usting the operating speed of a mechanical load. and control circuitry in the form of analog or digital input signals. +$=s monitor the load on a motor and accordingly match motor tor!ue to motor load. #his starting current is typically /)1 times greater than the full load current.motor starter also contain protection devices. or those re!uiring remote or automatic control.

programma(le controllers. An au4iliary contact from the contactor is used to maintain the contactor coil energi7ed after the start command for the motor has (een released. $otor control centers are usually used for lo voltage three)phase alternating current motors from ". #hermal overloads can (e manually or automatically resetta(le depending on their application and have an ad'uster that allo s them to (e accurately set to the motor run current. this is not a primary means of protecting motors from lo voltage operation. using vacuum contactors for s itching and ith separate compartments for po er s itching and control. overload relays to protect the motor. the motor control center may (e installed in a separate air)conditioned room.2 : to /.. Loss of voltage protection 0tarters using magnetic contactors usually derive the po er supply for the contactor coil from the same source as the motor supply. +f a momentary loss of supply voltage occurs. #here are t o types of thermal overload relay. volt motors. Where very dusty or corrosive processes are used. #hese devices model the heating of the motor indings (y monitoring the motor current. A motor control center can include varia(le fre!uency drives.Overload relays A starter ill contain protective devices for the motor. #hey can also include metering and communication functions..s)vintage motor control center for *2. to retain a spring)loaded contact. 0ince eutectic alloy elements are not ad'usta(le. #he overload relay has a normally closed contact hich opens due to heat generated (y e4cessive current flo ing through the circuit.C of normal voltage applied to the coil. [/] 3lectronic digital overload relays containing a microprocessor may also (e used. At a minimum this ould include a thermal overload relay. A motor control center 5$==6 is an assem(ly of one or more enclosed sections having a common po er (us and principally containing motor control units. :. this prevents restarting of the motor after a po er failure. especially for high)value motors. 3ach motor controller contains a contactor or a solid)state motor controller.. (y the automo(ile manufacturing industry hich used large num(ers of electric motors. #hermal overloads have a small heating device that increases in temperature as the motor running current increases. #he motor is ired to terminals in the controller. (ut often an $== ill (e on the factory floor ad'acent to the machinery controlled. they are resistant to casual tampering (ut re!uire changing the heater coil element to match the motor rated current. opening the control circuit and shutting do n the motor. and a disconnecting s itch to isolate the motor circuit.. Bo ever since contactor coils ill hold the circuit closed ith as little as 2.. $edium) voltage motor control centers are made for large motors running at "&. #his connection also provides a small degree of protection against lo po er supply voltage and loss of a phase. :ery large controllers may (e (olted in place (ut smaller controllers can (e unplugged from the ca(inet for testing or maintenance. cutting po er to the motor should it (ecome overloaded. [/] Motor control centers A small. fuses or a circuit (reaker to provide short)circuit protection. : to around 1. A second type of thermal overload relay uses a eutectic alloy. $otor control centers provide ire ays for field control and po er ca(les. A thermal overload ill accommodate the (rief high starting current of a motor hile accurately protecting it from a running current overload. early 1?/. #he thermal overload is designed to open the starting circuit and thus cut the po er to the motor in the event of the motor dra ing too much current from the supply for an e4tended time. the contactor ill open and not close again until a ne start command is given. a (i)metallic strip located close to a heater deflects as the heater temperature rises until it mechanically causes the device to trip and open the circuit.[1] $otor control centers are in modern practice a factory assem(ly of several motor starters. #oday they are used in many industrial and commercial applications. A motor control center consists of one or more vertical metal ca(inet sections ith po er (us and provision for plug)in mounting of individual motor controllers.. like a solder. and metering and may also (e the electrical service entrance for the (uilding. the alloy melts and the spring releases the contact. #he heater coil and the action of the (i)metallic strip introduce a time delay that affords the motor time to start and settle into normal running current ithout the thermal overload tripping. #hree) phase po er enters each controller through separa(le connectors.[1] $otor control centers have (een used since 1?. +n one type. :. When too much current passes through the heating element for too long a time. .

search . or various classes of po er fuses or types of circuit (reakers.e. >ecause of this. pilot lamps. Firestops may (e re!uired for ca(les that penetrate fire)rated floors and alls.3ach motor controller in an $== can (e specified ith a range of options such as separate control transformers. or stepping. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. Bo long the pulse remains high 5typically (et een 1 and " milliseconds6 determines here the motor ill try to position itself. e4tra control terminal (locks. #hese are therefore often called GsensorlessG control methods. (rushless. #his is commonly implemented ith encoders. or detect the Fick)>ack voltage transient 5spike6 that is generated henever the po er to a coil is instantaneously s itched off. A servo may (e controlled using pulse) idth modulation 5EW$6. control s itches.ther position feed(ack methods measure the (ack 3$F in the undriven coils to infer the rotor position. $odern stepper controllers drive the motor ith much higher voltages than the motor nameplate rated voltage. and Ball effect sensors to directly measure the rotorDs position. sending step and direction pulses to a separate higher voltage drive circuit hich is responsi(le for commutation and current limiting. motor is a synchronous. i. and limit current through chopping. precise positioning ith steppers is simpler and cheaper than closed loop controls. "rogrammable logic controller From Wikipedia. #he usual setup is to have a positioning controller. A motor control center can either (e supplied ready for the customer to connect all field iring. kno n as an inde!er. Another control method is pulse and direction. =ommon features are: • • • precise closed loop position control fast acceleration rates precise speed control 0ervo motors may (e made from several motor types. or can (e an engineered assem(ly ith internal control and interlocking iring to a central control terminal panel (oard or programma(le controller. done open loop. (ut not e4clusively. various types of thermal or solid)state overload protection relays. $otor control centers 5$==6 usually sit on floors. . high pole count. ervo controllers $ain article: 0ervo drive $ain article: 0ervomechanism ervo controllers is a ide category of motor control. =ontrol is usually. tepper motor controllers $ain article: stepping motor A stepper. resolvers. hich are often re!uired to have a fire)resistance rating. the rotor position is assumed to follo a controlled rotating field. polyphase motor. the most common (eing • • • (rushed 8= motor (rushless 8= motors A= servo motors 0ervo controllers use position feed(ack to close the control loop.

Hnlike general)purpose computers. A programmable logic controller 5"LC6 or programmable controller is a digital computer used for automation of electromechanical processes. amusement rides. or light fi4tures. #he process for updating such facilities for the yearly model change)over as very time consuming and e4pensive." 0can time *. Hsing a general)purpose computer for process control re!uired protecting the computer from the plant floor conditions. E-= compared ith other control systems / 8igital and analog signals o /. and safety interlock logic for manufacturing automo(iles as accomplished using hundreds or thousands of relays.1 34ample • • • • #istory 1 0ee also 2 %eferences ? Further reading 1. 8igital computers.1 Erogramming & Functionality * E-= topics o o o o o o *. and communication processor =E **&)1. left)to)right: po er supply unit E0*. Erograms to control machine operation are typically stored in (attery)(acked)up or non)volatile memory.. ere soon applied to control of industrial processes. Contents • • 1 Bistory " 8evelopment o • • ".1 *A. 34ternal links #he E-= as invented in response to the needs of the American automotive manufacturing industry. and resistance to vi(ration and impact. other ise unintended operation ill result. 3arly computers re!uired specialist programmers. control. E-=s are used in many industries and machines.1 Features *. (eing general)purpose programma(le devices. >efore the E-=. the E-= is designed for multiple inputs and output arrangements. Erogramma(le logic controllers ere initially adopted (y the automotive industry here soft are revision replaced the re) iring of hard) ired control panels hen production models changed. system at rack. as electricians needed to individually re ire each and every relay.0iemens 0imatic 01)*. se!uencing.* Hser interface *. An ./ Erogramming • • . and drum se!uencers and dedicated closed)loop controllers. =ommunications *.& 0ystem scale *. such as control of machinery on factory assem(ly lines. and stringent operating environmental control for temperature. interface module +$ */..=EH *1/)&. and po er !uality. cleanliness. A E-= is an e4ample of a hard real time system since output results must (e produced in response to input conditions ithin a limited time. e4tended temperature ranges. cam timers.). immunity to electrical noise.

Another method is 0tate -ogic. A primary reason for this is that E-=s solve the logic in a predicta(le and repeating se!uence. processing po er and communication capa(ilities of some modern E-=s are appro4imately e!uivalent to desktop computers. and so the logic as instead represented as a series of logic e4pressions in some version of >oolean format. "rogramming 3arly E-=s. +n addition to the hard are limitations of desktop (ased logic. +n 1?/2 I$ Bydramatic 5the automatic transmission division of Ieneral $otors6 issued a re!uest for proposal for an electronic replacement for hard) ired relay systems. a very high)level programming language designed to program E-=s (ased on state transition diagrams.[1] . it ould not re!uire years of training to use. ho is considered to (e the GfatherG of the E-=. operating systems such as Windo s do not lend themselves to deterministic logic . for the aforementioned reasons and (ecause it as a familiar format used for electromechanical control panels. and later ac!uired (y Ierman =ompany A3I and then (y French 0chneider 3lectric. +n some models of programma(le controller. #he very oldest E-=s used non)volatile magnetic core memory. . Ienerally the soft are provides functions for de(ugging and trou(leshooting the E-= soft are. $ore recently. it (ecame more common for ladder logic to (e used.2* models (uilt is no on display at $odiconDs head!uarters in Jorth Andover. . hich stood for $.$ or 3E%. #he programming soft are allo s entry and editing of the ladder)style logic. Facilities for printing and documentation ere minimal due to lack of memory capacity. #he data handling. and ladder logic allo s the programmer 5the person riting the logic6 to see any issues ith the timing of the logic se!uence more easily than ould (e possi(le in other formats. Je er formats such as 0tate -ogic and Function >lock 5 hich is similar to the ay logic is depicted hen using digital integrated logic circuits6 e4ist. #his program notation as chosen to reduce training demands for the e4isting technicians. $evelopment 3arly E-=s ere designed to replace relay logic systems. .dular 8+gital =. and servicing this ne product: $odicon. $assachusetts. hard are. $odern E-=s can (e programmed in a variety of ays. [&] #he $odicon (rand as sold in 1?11 to Iould of the very first . $odicon used the 2* moniker at the end of its product range until the ?2* made its appearance. (ased on a stack)(ased logic solver. up to the mid)1?2. #he first E-=. (y highlighting portions of the logic to sho current status during operation or via simulation. motion control. it ould support discrete 5(it) form6 input and output in an easily e4tensi(le manner. $assachusetts. from ladder logic to less traditional programming languages such as >A0+= and =.2* (ecause it as >edford AssociatesD eighty)fourth pro'ect. and longevity as the processors used in E-=s.$.industrial control computer ould have several attri(utes: it ould tolerate the shop)floor environment. hich strongly resem(les a schematic diagram of relay logic. process control. manufacturing. E-=)like programming com(ined ith remote +K. +t as presented to $odicon (y I$. #hese E-=s ere programmed in Gladder logicG. %egarding the practicality of these desktop computer (ased logic controllers. (ut they are still not as popular as ladder logic. selling.s. #he soft are ill upload and do nload the E-= program. allo a general)purpose desktop computer to overlap some E-=s in certain applications. similar to >oolean alge(ra. hen the unit as retired after nearly t enty years of uninterrupted of the people ho orked on that pro'ect as 8ick $orley. #he inning proposal came from >edford Associates of >edford. and it ould permit its operation to (e monitored. #he automotive industry is still one of the largest users of E-=s. ["] Erograms ere stored on cassette tape cartridges. %0)"&".ther early E-=s used a form of instruction list programming. it is important to note that they have not (een generally accepted in heavy industry (ecause the desktop computers run on less sta(le operating systems than do E-=s. vi(ration. #he computer is connected to the E-= through 3thernet. the current o ner. As programming terminals evolved. distri(uted control systems and net orking. %0)*2.Jtroller. storage. and (ecause the desktop computer hard are is typically not designed to the same levels of tolerance to temperature. %unctionality #he functionality of the E-= has evolved over the years to include se!uential relay control. ["] >edford Associates started a ne company dedicated to developing. or %0)*"" ca(ling. E-=s are programmed using application soft are on personal computers. the program is transferred from a personal computer to the E-= through a programming (oard hich rites the program into a remova(le chip such as an 33E%. for e4ample. as the result. #he response time of any computer system must (e fast enough to (e useful for control9 the re!uired speed varying according to the nature of the process. $any early E-=s did not have accompanying programming terminals that ere capa(le of graphical representation of the logic. humidity. for (ackup and restoration purposes. hich often had dedicated function keys representing the various logical elements of E-= programs. designated the . ere programmed using proprietary programming panels or special)purpose programming terminals.

JAJ. and used to navigate and edit the logic. sometimes called the G+K. image ta(le ith the status of outputs. (ut their price can (e t o orders of magnitude less than a E-= and they still offer ro(ust design and deterministic e4ecution of the logic. moisture. 0till.[*] . and su(routines ere implemented. heat. parts of the program used only for setting up the machine could (e segregated from those parts re!uired to operate at higher speed. such desktop logic applications find use in less critical situations. 5i. $ost of these have (et een 2 and 1" digital inputs. and typically these screens are accompanied (y a *) ay rocker push)(utton plus four more separate push)(uttons. for e4ample.] #his scan time may (e a fe milliseconds for a small program or on a fast processor. $ost such devices include a tiny postage stamp si7ed -=8 screen for vie ing simplified ladder logic 5only a very small portion of the program (eing visi(le at a given time6 and status of +K. methods ere developed to change the se!uence of ladder e4ecution. #he relatively slo E-= could still interpret the counted values to control a machine. have (ecome more common and accepted. 0ome use machine vision. the response of the E-= to process conditions ould (e too slo to (e useful. such as timer modules or counter modules.. * and 2 digital outputs. or the E-= may have e4ternal +K.[/] #his simplified programming and could also (e used to save scan time for high)speed processes9 for e4ample. and are used in light industry here only a fe points of +K. modules. (ut older E-=s running very large programs could take much longer 5say. (ut the accumulation of pulses as done (y a dedicated module that as unaffected (y the speed of the program e4ecution. #he program is then run from its first instruction rung do n to the last rung. or analog outputs.e. ystem scale . 0i7e is usually a(out *G ide. (ecause they are generally much less e4pensive than E-=s. #hese connect the E-= to sensors and actuators. E-=. analog process varia(les 5such as temperature and pressure6. and up to " analog inputs. &G high. ms6 to e4ecute the program. from left to right9 po er supply. a fe signals coming in from the real orld and a fe going out6 are involved. up to 1. and &G deep.[. E-=s operate electric motors. and (randed (y the makers of larger E-=s to fill out their lo end product range. can time A E-= program is generally e4ecuted repeatedly as long as the controlled system is running. controller. and the positions of comple4 positioning systems. solenoids. ith the result that the logic may not al ays respond to changes in logic state or input status ith the e4treme consistency in timing as is e4pected from E-=s. +n more recent years. =ontroller. and lo cost is desired. #he status of physical input points is copied to an area of memory accessi(le to the processor. E-=s read limit s itches. to a personal computer so that programmers can use simple Windo s applications for programming instead of (eing forced to use the tiny -=8 and push)(utton set for this purpose. relay units for in) and output #he main difference from other computers is that E-=s are armored for severe conditions 5such as dust. cold6 and have the facility for e4tensive inputKoutput 5+K. Hnlike regular E-=s that are usually modular and greatly e4panda(le. such as la(oratory automation and use in small facilities here the application is less demanding and critical. and other names implying very small controllers. could (e used here the scan time of the processor as too long to relia(ly pick up. $ost have a small plug for connecting via %0)"&" or %0)*2. and also (y similar names. Eopular names include E+=.6 arrangements. +f the scan time as too long.n the actuator side. #hese small devices are typically made in a common physical si7e and shape (y several manufacturers. points.e4ecution. modules attached to a computer net ork that plugs into the E-=. "LC topics %eatures =ontrol panel ith E-= 5grey elements in the center6. #he unit consists of separate elements. As E-=s (ecame more advanced. small products called E-%s 5programma(le logic relays6. +t takes some time for the processor of the E-= to evaluate all the rungs and update the +K. #hese are very much like E-=s. the E-%s are usually not modular or e4panda(le. +mage #a(leG. 0pecial)purpose +K. pneumatic or hydraulic cylinders. magnetic relays. #he inputKoutput arrangements may (e (uilt into a simple E-=. counting pulses and interpreting !uadrature from a shaft encoder. similar to the key (uttons on a :=% remote control.

. e4pansions are availa(le if the (ase model has insufficient +K. #hese communication links are also often used for B$+ devices such as keypads or E=)type orkstations. $odular E-=s have a chassis 5also called a rack6 into hich are placed modules ith different functions. A simple system may use (uttons and lights to interact ith the user. 3ven ithin the same product line of a single manufacturer. A graphical programming notation called 0e!uential Function =harts is availa(le on certain programma(le controllers. "LC compared 'ith other control systems Allen)>radley E-= installed in a control panel E-=s are ell adapted to a range of automation tasks. #he program is stored in the E-= either in (attery)(acked)up %A$ or some other non)volatile flash memory. >A=net or 8F1 is usually included as one of the communications protocols. systems may have peer)to)peer 5E"E6 communication (et een processors. and here changes to the system ould (e e4pected . $ost modern E-=s can communicate over a net ork to some other system. reducing the iring costs for large plants.. #ypically. A human)machine interface 5B$+6 is employed for this purpose. structured te4t 50#9 similar to the Eascal programming language6. alarm reporting or everyday control. B$+s are also referred to as man)machine interfaces 5$$+s6 and graphical user interface 5IH+s6. #hese are typically industrial processes in manufacturing here the cost of developing and maintaining the automation system is high relative to the total cost of the automation.A small E-= ill have a fi4ed num(er of connections (uilt in for inputs and outputs. +nitially most E-=s utili7ed -adder -ogic 8iagram Erogramming. #he processor and selection of +K. &ser interface 0ee also: Hser interface and -ist of human)computer interaction topics E-=s may need to interact ith people for the purpose of configuration. . addressing. $ore comple4 systems use programming and monitoring soft are installed on a computer. #his model remains common today. #his allo s separate parts of a comple4 process to have individual control hile allo ing the su(systems to co)ordinate over the communication link. a single E-= can (e programmed to replace thousands of relays. different models may not (e directly compati(le. 0everal racks can (e administered (y a single processor. and may have thousands of inputs and outputs.[1] Hnder the +3= /11&1)& standard. E-=s used in larger +K.ther options include various field(uses such as 8eviceJet or Erofi(us. $od(us. E-=s can (e programmed using standards)(ased programming languages. or 3thernet. A special high speed serial +K. "rogramming E-= programs are typically ritten in a special application on a personal computer.[2] #hese techni!ues emphasi7e logical organi7ation of operations. usually ?)pin %0)"&".ften. differences in +K. then do nloaded (y a direct)connection ca(le or over a net ork to the E-=.ther communications protocols that may (e used are listed in the -ist of automation protocols. ladder diagram 5-86. #e4t displays are availa(le as ell as graphical touch screens. a model hich emulated electromechanical control panel devices 5such as the contact and coils of relays6 hich E-=s replaced. ith the E-= connected via a communication interface. (ut optionally 3+A)*2. +3= /11&1)& currently defines five programming languages for programma(le control systems: function (lock diagram 5F>86. memory organi7ation and instruction sets mean that E-= programs are never perfectly interchangea(le (et een different makers. . modules are customi7ed for the particular application. instruction list 5+-9 similar to assem(ly language6 and se!uential function chart 50F=6. link is used so that racks can (e distri(uted a ay from the processor. Communications E-=s have (uilt in communications ports. such as a computer running a 0=A8A 50upervisory =ontrol And 8ata Ac!uisition6 system or e( (ro ser.[1] While the fundamental concepts of E-= programming are common to all manufacturers.

As E-=s typically use 1/)(it signed (inary processors. and many vendors sell %#Hs ith E-=)like features and vice versa. in the case of mass)produced goods. a consumer dish asher ould (e controlled (y an electromechanical cam timer costing only a fe dollars in production !uantities.during its operational life.6 or as functionality and safety)rated hard are added to e4isting controller architectures 5Allen >radley Iuardlogi4. integral. a distri(uted control system 58=06 ould instead (e used.6. $igital and analog signals 8igital or discrete signals (ehave as (inary s itches. Analog signals are like volume controls. For e4ample. and here the end)user ould not need to alter the control. 8iscrete signals are sent using either voltage or current. values (elo ":8= representing Off. respectively6. inputKoutput hard are and necessary testing and certification6 can (e spread over many sales. Bistorically E-=s ere usually configured ith only a fe analog control loops9 here processes re!uired hundreds or thousands of loops. and intermediate values undefined. and photoelectric sensors are e4amples of devices providing a discrete signal.. customi7ed control systems are economical. usually does not support control algorithms or control loops. some specialty vehicles such as transit (uses economically use E-=s instead of custom)designed controls. a 0afety E-= might (e used to control access to a ro(ot cell ith trapped)key access. #he fle4i(ility that such systems offer has resulted in rapid gro th of demand for these controllers.. the (oundary (et een 8=0 and E-= applications has (ecome less distinct. 0ingle)(oard computers using semi)customi7ed or fully proprietary hard are may (e chosen for very demanding control applications here the high development and maintenance cost can (e supported. :ery high)speed or precision controls may also re!uire customi7ed solutions9 for e4ample. so the cost of a packaged E-= is lo compared to the cost of a specific custom)(uilt controller design. temperature. derivativeG or GE+8 controllerG. and very fe end)users alter the programming of these controllers.1/2 and M&". #hese differ from conventional E-= types as (eing suita(le for use in safety)critical applications for hich E-=s have traditionally (een supplemented ith hard) ired safety relays.1/1. although nearly all vendors also offer proprietary alternatives and associated development environments. such as used in the chemical industry. E-= applications are typically highly customi7ed systems. 0uch E-=s typically have a restricted regular instruction set augmented ith safety)specific instructions designed to interface ith emergency stops.[citation needed] E-=s may include logic for single)varia(le feed(ack analog control loop. #rue or False. for e4ample. 0ome manufacturers produce motion control units to (e integrated ith E-= so that I)code 5involving a =J= machine6 can (e used to instruct machine movements. For e4ample. ith a range of values (et een 7ero and full)scale. positioning control and tor!ue control. #he industry has standardi7ed on the +3= /11&1) & functional (lock language for creating programs to run on %#Hs and E-=s. Eressure. 0ick etc. Eush (uttons. ith values a(ove "" : 8= representing On. %#Hs. For high volume or very simple fi4ed automation tasks. -imit s itches. (ecause the volumes are lo and the development cost ould (e uneconomical. flo .. E-=s contain input and output devices compati(le ith industrial pilot devices and controls9 little electrical design is re!uired. a E-= might use "* : 8= +K. +nitially. hard are hile e4ecuting programs ithin a version of commercial operating systems adapted for process control needs. different techni!ues are used.n the other hand. Bo ever. +n recent years G0afetyG E-=s have started to (ecome popular. or perhaps to manage the shutdo n response to an emergency stop on a conveyor production line. and eight are often represented (y analog signals. #his is due to the lo er cost of the components. may re!uire algorithms and performance (eyond the capa(ility of even high)performance E-=s. a Gproportional. 0iemens F)series etc. here a specific range is designated as On and another as Off. A microcontroller)(ased design ould (e appropriate here hundreds or thousands of units ill (e produced and so the development cost 5design of po er supplies.ff signal 51 or . and here the non)recurring engineering charges are spread over thousands or millions of units. #hese are typically interpreted as integer values 5counts6 (y the E-=. and the design pro(lem centers on e4pressing the desired se!uence of operations. ith various ranges of accuracy depending on the device and the num(er of (its availa(le to store the data.n or . hich can (e optimally chosen instead of a GgenericG solution.L $ulti. E-=s had only discrete +K. light screens and so forth. Automotive applications are an e4ample9 millions of units are (uilt each year. E-=s have similar functionality as %emote #erminal Hnits. either as standalone models 5Eil7 EJ. An %#H. For e4ample. ho ever. As hard are rapidly (ecomes more po erful and cheaper. A E+8 loop could (e used to control the temperature of a manufacturing process.[?] Erogramma(le controllers are idely used in motion control. Analog signals can use voltage or current ith a magnitude . the integer values are limited (et een )&". G0oft E-=sG running on desktop)type computers can interface ith industrial +K. E-=s and 8=0s are increasingly (eginning to overlap in responsi(ilities.[?] :ery comple4 process control. aircraft flight controls. As E-=s have (ecome more po erful. . yielding simply an .

say a facility needs to store ater in a tank. la(elled as the fill valve hich it controls An GimaginaryG contact operated (y the fill valve hich is created in soft are and the program. #he ater is dra n from the tank (y another system.nce the ater level rises enough so that the GBigh -evelG s itch is off 5up6. After that the fill valve remains closed 5inactive6 until the level drops so lo that the lo level s itch is activated. and our e4ample system must manage the ater level in the tank (y controlling the valve that refills the tank. When the ater level is (elo (oth s itches. mA ould (e converted into an integer value of .e. #he E-= uses a digital output to open the inlet valve to fill the tank. A ladder diagram is a method of dra ing control circuits hich pre)dates E-=s9 it is also a type of E-= user interface hich uses the same method of representing a circuit. : input or *)". as needed. 0ho n is a Gladder diagramG hich sho s the control system. ) &"1/1. #he soft are)created GFill :alveG contact latches the circuit so that even hen the G-o -evelG input goes a ay as the ater (egins to rise. and the descri(ed process is repeated. . A logical control scheme created (y the interconnection of these items in soft are #he E-= has t o digital inputs from float s itches 5-o -evel and Bigh -evel6. #he output is sealed in until a high level condition (reaks the circuit. from elders or electric motor starts6 than voltage inputs. N N N -o -evel Bigh -evel Fill :alve N N))))))[K]))))))N))))))[K]))))))))))))))))))))))5. For e4ample. the s itch contacts are closed providing signals to (oth the G-o -evelG and GBigh -evelG inputs to the E-=. the E-= ill shut the inlet to stop the ater from overflo ing9 #his is an e4ample of seal)in 5latching6 logic. ) 1. =urrent inputs are less sensitive to electrical noise 5i. 0ho n are: • • • • # o inputs 5from the lo and high level s itches6 represented (y contacts of the float s itches An output to the fill valve. an analog . the fill valve remains on.H#6)))))))))N N N N N N N N N N N Fill :alve N N N))))))[ ]))))))N N N N N N . (!ample As an e4ample.proportional to the value of the process signal.

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