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You are on page 1of 4

Name: Anqi Yu

**I. Information about the Unit Topic
**

Momentum, Impulse, and Kinetic Energy: Using collisions and other interactions to demonstrate the Conservation of Momentum and the Conservation of Energy.

Abstract

Using momentum and kinetic energy in conjunction with each other can be utilized to analyze the system before a collision and the system after a collision. Perfectly elastic, inelastic, and perfectly inelastic collisions will be examined in detail. This unit should follow one dimensional motion and two dimensional motion. Introducing kinetic energy first can aid in teaching other types of energy, such as gravitational potential energy and spring potential energy.

**II. Clarifying Your Goals Big Ideas
**

If mass can be thought of as inertia at rest, then momentum can be thought of as inertia in motion. Momentum is mathematically modelled by p=mv, where p stands for momentum (in kg*m/s), m stands for mass in kg, and v stands for velocity in m/s. Momentum is directly proportional to mass and velocity, meaning if mass or velocity is either increased or decreased by a certain factor, momentum is changed by that same factor. However, momentum in a closed system is always conserved; momentum can only be changed when an outside force is present. Change in momentum is defined as impulse. A change in momentum can only occur if there is an outside force acting on the system. Impulse is mathematically modelled by j=FΔt, where j is the symbol for impulse measured in newton seconds (N*s), F is the force applied to the system measured in newtons, and Δt is the time interval in which that force is acting measured in seconds. Because the impulse is defined as the change in momentum, impulse can also be expressed as j=Δp, or j=pf -pi. Momentum is highly useful when dealing with collisions because it simplifies all the interactions that occur during the collision (sound propagation, heat loss, friction) and focuses on the system before a collision and the system after a collision. In a closed system, momentum will always be conserved, but energy can be not conserved or conserved. In a perfectly elastic collision, both momentum and kinetic energy is conserved. In an inelastic collision, momentum is conserved, but the final kinetic energy is less than the initial kinetic energy. In a perfectly inelastic collision, momentum is conserved, and the most possible kinetic energy is lost. A

perfectly inelastic collision is physically represented by a collision where the two objects stick after colliding with one another.

**Examples, observations, data
**

1. P3.4f Calculate the changes in velocity of a thrown or hit object during and after the time it is acted on by the force. A. Baseball and baseball bat B. Golfball and club C. Bullet and block of wood D. Astronaut in space (throwing off tool belt, etc) E. Ice skater on ice (throwing off objects) F. One student on a rolling chair, the other student holding a medicine ball. Student throws medicine ball to student in rolling chair and the resulting effect is observed. G. Same as above, but both students on rolling chair. 2. P3.4g Explain how the time of impact can affect the net force (e.g., air bags in cars, catching a ball). A. Airbags in cars B. Catcher’s mitt C. Egg drop project 3. P3.5a Apply conservation of momentum to solve simple collision problems. A. Two marbles colliding B. Two billiard balls colliding 4. P3.3b Predict how the change in velocity of a small mass compares to the change in velocity of a large mass when the objects interact (e.g., collide). A. In a collision between an eighteen-wheeler and a sports car, why would you rather be in the eighteen-wheeler? 5. P3.3c Explain the recoil of a projectile launcher in terms of forces and masses. A. Bullet fired out of a gun, why do you feel a recoil? B. Cannons have a recoil buffer 6. P3.3d Analyze why seat belts may be more important in autos than in buses. A. In conjunction with objective #4

Student Practices

Analyzing and Interpreting Data Students will interpret collision data to produce comparisons of initial and final momentum and initial and final kinetic energy. Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Students will use mathematics to help understand the direct relationship of momentum to mass and velocity. Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information Using data, students will produce explanations for how momentum is transferred and how the resulting change in momentum (or impulse) is felt in the physical world.

**Objectives for Student Learning
**

Content Objective Detroit Public Schools Objective(s)

1. P3.4f Calculate the changes in velocity of a thrown or hit object during and after the time it is acted on by the force. 2. P3.4g Explain how the time of impact can affect the net force (e.g., air bags in cars, catching a ball). 3. P3.5a Apply conservation of momentum to solve simple collision problems. 4. P3.3b Predict how the change in velocity of a small mass compares to the change in velocity of a large mass when the objects interact (e.g., collide). 5. P3.3c Explain the recoil of a projectile launcher in terms of forces and masses. 6. P3.3d Analyze why seat belts may be more important in autos than in buses. Using Using Using Using Using Inquiry

Type

Synthesized objectives

1. Analyze the momentum and kinetic energy of a system before and after a collision or explosion and be able to describe the phenomenon as perfectly elastic, inelastic, or perfectly inelastic. 2. Explain, using momentum and impulse, how impact time can affect force. 3. Explain how momentum is conserved in a closed system and how to change the momentum of a closed system. In the same closed system, explain how kinetic energy can be or cannot be conserved.

**III. Classroom Activities and Assessment Assessment
**

1. Analyze the momentum and kinetic energy of a system before and after a collision or explosion and be able to describe the phenomenon as perfectly elastic, inelastic, or perfectly inelastic. A .5 kg block sliding at 5 m/s on a frictionless surface collides elastically with a 2.0 kg block that is initially stationary. A. Find the velocity of each block immediately after the collision. B. Prove that the collision is elastic.

2. Explain, using momentum and impulse, how impact time can affect force. Open ended question: Use impulse and momentum to explain why airbags save lives in head-on automobile crashes. 3. Explain how momentum is conserved in a closed system and how to change the momentum of a closed system. In the same closed system, explain how kinetic energy can be or cannot be conserved. Open ended question: Sometimes when extinguishing a fire burning on a ship, a fireboat will have some of its nozzles pointed away from the fire. Use conservation of momentum to explain this.

Activities

1. Analyze the momentum and kinetic energy of a system before and after a collision or explosion and be able to describe the phenomenon as perfectly elastic, inelastic, or perfectly inelastic. Students will be using a PhET simulation to help visualize momentum. The will be using this simulation as an application of momentum. Students will fill out the worksheet and then See Momentum Lab: Computer Simulation. Adapted from Mr. Balke. 2. Explain, using momentum and impulse, how impact time can affect force. See Egg Crash Activity below. Taken from http://teachingphysics.wordpress.com/2011/02/06/momentum-2-0-the-egg-crash/ 3. Explain how momentum is conserved in a closed system and how to change the momentum of a closed system. In the same closed system, explain how kinetic energy can be or cannot be conserved. Demo Day: Rolling chairs and medicine balls, guns and cannon recoil, 18-wheeler and sports car collision.

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