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Active Packaging & Intelligent Packaging
Indria Purwantiningrum

Introduction Active vs Intelligent Types of Active /int packaging Issues related to active/int packaging Conclusion

Food Storage and Packaging

Food Science & Technology Brawijaya University 2014


• Additives incorporation • Within packaging • Extend/ maintain shelf life

• capable of sensing and providing information • can provide assurances of pack integrity, tamper evidence, product safety and quality, • utilised in applications such as product authenticity, anti-theft and product traceability

Active Packaging

Smart Packaging

has been used with many food products • Scavenging oxygen ; • adsorbing carbon dioxide, moisture, ethylene and/or flavour/odour taints; • releasing ethanol, sorbates, antioxidants and/or other preservatives; • maintaining temperature control.


• • • • • •

time-temperature indicators gas sensing dyes microbial growth indicators physical shock indicators tamper proof anti-counterfeiting and anti-theft technologies

Active vs Intelligent
Active packaging • changes the condition of the packed food • extend shelflife • improve safety or sensory properties • maintaining the quality of the packaged food. Intelligent packaging • monitor the condition of packaged foods • give information about the quality of the packaged food during transport and storage.

Oxygen Scavenger
• Oxygen  detrimental effects on foods. • Oxygen scavengers help:
– maintain food product quality by decreasing food metabolism, – reducing oxidative rancidity, – Inhibiting oxidation of pigments and vitamins, – controlling enzymic discolouration – inhibiting the growth of aerobic microorganisms


croissants. pizzas. speciality bakery goods and dried food ingredients • cakes. spices. • The iron powder is separated from the food by keeping it in a small.3–3.0% residual oxygen levels achievable by modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). dried egg. 2003 • Have the same affinity as iron • Speed & capacity is lower than iron-based materials 2 . breads. tea. confectionery and snack food • Toyo Seikan Kaisha Ltd  marketed a laminate containing a ferrous oxygen scavenger which can be thermoformed into an Oxyguard™ tray used commercially for cooked rice Oxygen Scavenger : Alternatives • Oxygen scavenger materials : – Iron based • High aw/ wet condition  loss of scavenging capability – Non-iron based : non-metallic reagents & organo-metallic agents Source: Coles. • Mechanism : the chemical systems react with water supplied by the food  produce a reactive hydrated metallic reducing agent that scavenges oxygen within the food package  irreversibly converts it to a stable oxide. Oxygen scavengers can be used alone or in combination with MAP • Their use alone eliminates the need for MAP machinery and can increase packaging speeds • common commercial practice to remove most of the atmospheric oxygen by MAP and then use a relatively small and inexpensive scavenger to mop up the residual oxygen remaining within the food package Do not eat. bottle caps and crowns for beers and other beverages • Form : small sachets containing various iron based powders combined with a suitable catalyst.01% which is much lower than the typical 0. Europe • Usage : polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. USA. herbs. highly oxygen permeable sachet that is labelled Oxygen Scavenger • The main advantage of using such oxygen scavengers is that they are capable of reducing oxygen levels to less than 0. fresh pastas. et al.3/12/2014 Oxygen Scavenger • Market : Japan. biscuits. powdered milk. • cured fish. Oxygen Scavenger • Disadvantage : risk of being swallowed/ accidentally digested by consumer • Solution : oxygen scavenging adhesive labels that can be applied to the inside of packages and the incorporation of oxygen scavenging materials into laminated trays and plastic films have enhanced and will encourage the commercial acceptance of this technology Oxygen Scavenger : Application • Marks & Spencer Ltd (first UK retailer to use oxygen scavenging adhesive labels )  sliced cooked and cured meat and poultry products • coffee.

– commercially available: • Ageless™ type E and Fresh Lock™ (Mitsubishi ) • Freshilizer™ type CV (Toppan Printing Co Ltd. bananas and tomatoes. – stimulation of root production in baby carrots and – development of bitter flavour in bulk delivered cucumbers. – Pack collapse – development of a partial vacuum • Solution : – Use of dual action oxygen scavenger/carbon dioxide emitter sachets and labels – Mechanism: absorb oxygen and generate an equal volume of carbon dioxide. – use a carbon dioxide scavenger or a dual-action oxygen and carbon dioxide scavenger system. CO2 Scavenger : Materials • Mixture of calcium oxide and activated charcoal in polyethylene coffee pouches • Dual-action oxygen and carbon dioxide scavenger sachets and labels common & commercially used for canned and foil pouched coffees in Japan and the USA – contain iron powder for scavenging oxygen. and – Multisorb Technologies Inc. • Food applicaions : – snack food products. • Fresh roasted or ground coffees  absorb moisture and oxygen and lose easily desirable volatile aromas and flavours • Solution : – use packaging with patented one-way valves that will allow excess carbon dioxide to escape.) CO2 Emitter • Carbon dioxide emitting sachet and label devices can either be used alone or combined with an oxygen scavenger • An example of the former is the Verifrais™ package manufactured by SARL Codimer (Paris. e. Mechanism : when exudate MAP meat or fish contacts the sachet’s contents.g. but in most horticultural situations • Commercial manufacturers : – Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Co. nuts and sponge cakes • Undesirable effects  should be removed 3 . (Freshpax™ type M). – These sachets and labels usually contain ferrous carbonate and a metal halide catalyst although nonferrous variants are available. Commercial manufacturers CO2 Emitter : Application Ethylene scavengers • Ethylene (C2H4) = plant growth regulator  accelerates the respiration rate and subsequent senescence of horticultural products such as fruit. • Important effects in plants: – induction of flowering in pineapples.3/12/2014 Carbon dioxide scavengers/ emitters • Carbon dioxide scavengers  particularly applicable for fresh roasted or ground coffees  produce significant volumes of carbon dioxide. France) extending the shelf life of fresh meats and fish consists of a standard MAP tray but has a perforated false bottom under which a porous sachet containing sodium bicarbonate/ascorbate is positioned. carbon dioxide is emitted and this antimicrobial gas can replace the carbon dioxide already absorbed by the fresh food. and calcium hydroxide which scavenges carbon dioxide. – colour development in citrus fruits. so avoiding pack collapse CO2 Emitter : Problems & Solution • Problems . Ltd (Ageless™ type G). vegetables and flowers.

desired shelf life  size and capacity of the ethanol-emitting sachet • Principles of mechanism : moisture is absorbed by the food  ethanol vapour is released diffuses into the package headspace • Usage in bread  inhibit mould growth and staling effect • Also widely used in Japan for extending the shelf life of semi-moist and dry fish products 4 . • The sachets are labelled Do not eat contents and include a diagram illustrating this warning. some sachets contain traces of vanilla or other flavours. Antimold 102™ and Negamold™ (Freund Industrial Co. Ltd).5% (w/w) – More practical & safer method : films and sachets Ethanol emitters: in practice • Ethicap™ (most commercially popular ethanol emitter in Japan)  consists of food-grade alcohol (55%) and water (10%) adsorbed onto silicon dioxide powder (35%) and contained in a sachet made of a paper and ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer laminate. Ethanol emitters: Commercial app • Ethicap™. Ltd). – mould-free shelf life of bakery products can be significantly extended after spraying with 95% ethanol (0. • Application – can be sprayed directly onto food products just prior to packaging. • Negamould™ & Ageless™ type SE  dual-action sachets  scavenge oxygen & emit ethanol vapour Ethanol emitters: Mechanism • Consider food weight. • Available in – sachets to be placed inside produce packages – inside blankets or tubes that can be placed in produce storage warehouses Ethanol emitters • Ethanol = use as antimicrobial agent • Function : – effective against mould – inhibit the growth of yeasts and bacteria. Ltd) • Ageless™ type SE (Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Co.5–1. • ET Pack™ (Ueno Seiyaku Co. • To mask the odour of alcohol. Ltd). • Oitech™ (Nippon Kayaku Co.3/12/2014 Ethylene scavengers • Materials : – potassium permanganate (KMnO4) immobilised on an inert mineral substrate such as alumina or silica gel – Titanium dioxide – Activated carbon-based scavengers with various metal catalysts – Minerals (ground & incorporated into packaging material) Ethylene scavengers • Mechanism : – KMnO4 oxidises ethylene to acetate and ethanol – in the process changes colour from purple to brown  indicates its remaining ethylene scavenging capacity. • Contain absorbed or encapsulated ethanol in a carrier material which allows the controlled release of ethanol vapour. aw.

dish cloths and bin bags – Triclosan  antibacterial aromatic chloroorganic compound  also used in soaps.g. these sachets may also contain activated carbon for odour adsorption or iron powder for oxygen scavenging • high aw foods such as meats. e. Nowadays  use of α-tocopherol (vitamin E) 5 . fruit and vegetables • Two influences have stimulated interest : – Consumer demand for reduced antioxidants and other additives in foods. fish. from rosemary. e. benzoate and sorbate.g. Preservative releasers : Applications Preservative releasers : Alternative Applications • • • • • • Meats Fish Bread Cheese Fruit Vegetables • In the UK Microban™ (USA) kitchen products such as chopping boards. propionate. shampoos. lotions.3/12/2014 Preservative releasers • potential use of antimicrobial and antioxidant packaging films  preservative properties for extending shelf life • some antimicrobial and antioxidant films have been marketed but the majority have failed to be commercialised because of doubts about their effectiveness. e.g. imazalil and benomyl. e. vitamin E for polymer stabilisation instead of synthetic antioxidants developed specifically for plastics • For example. toothpaste and mouth washes • methyl salicylate into RepelKote™ paperboard boxes by Tenneco Packaging – Antimicrobial. insect repellent Source: Coles. • inorganic acids. sulphur dioxide and chlorine dioxide • antifungal agents. e. lysozyme and glucose oxidase. poultry. e. • chelating agents. • enzymes. the cereal industry in the USA : previously used BHA & BHT in waxed paper. EDTA. • spice and herb extracts. cinnamon and thyme. • bacteriocins.g.g. et al.g. mustard. e.g. horseradish. e. cloves. peroxidase. nisin. 2003 Interest in preservatives releaser packaging Moisture absorbers • desiccants such as silica gel.g. – Interest of plastic manufacturers in using natural approved food antioxidants. economic factors and/or regulatory constraints Preservative releasers : materials • Synthetic silver zeolite  to allow slow release of antimicrobial silver ions into the surface of food products • Organic acids. calcium oxide and activated clays and minerals • dual-action purposes.

Cool Bowl™ (Adenko. between which is placed a superabsorbent polymer which is capable of absorbing up to 500 times its own weight with water. tea and ready meals heated by an exothermic reaction  occurs when lime and water positioned in the base are mixed.)  consists of a layer of humectant carbohydrate and propylene glycol sandwiched between two layers of polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) plastic film Flavour/odor adsorbers • Undesirable flavour/ odor : – amines  breakdown of fish muscle proteins. – Oxidise amines as they are adsorbed by the polymer film • Dupont’s Odour and Taste Control (OTC) technology  Removal of aldehydes such as hexanal and heptanal from package headspaces – Based upon a molecular sieve with pore sizes of around five nanometres – Removes or neutralises aldehydes although evidence for this is lacking – snack foods. Japan) TTI : Commercials • Self-heating aluminium and steel cans and containers for sake. • Chill Can™ (The Joseph Company. USA)  usehydrofluorocarbon ( HFC) gas refrigerant. coffee. • Self-cooling cans in Japan  raw sake. selfheating and self-cooling cans • to guard against undue temperature abuse during storage and distribution of chilled foods. – The release of HRC gas is triggered by a button set into the can’s base and can cool a drink by 10°C in two minutes. USA) • to increase the thermal mass of the food package so that it is capable of withstanding temperature rises. dairy products. • Placed under packaged product to absorb tissue drip • Larger sheets and blankets are used for absorption of melted ice from chilled seafood during air freight transportation. or for controlling transpiration of horticultural produce Moisture absorber • Alternative approach : – Intercept the moisture in the vapour phase – Reduces in-pack RH • Example: – Pichit™ film (Showa Denko Co Ltd. Nestlé  Nescafé coffees in self-heating insulated cans  use the lime and water exothermic reaction. – Environmental impact of HFC’s 6 . and – Aldehydes  auto-oxidation of fats and oils. carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and starch copolymers which have a very strong affinity for water. poultry and fish • Can be neutralised by various acidic compounds • BMH™ powder  developed by Swedish company EKA Noble in co-operation with Dutch company Akzo – synthetic aluminosilicate zeolites – adsorb odorous gases within their highly porous structure. associated with fish protein (usually alkaline) Flavour/odor adsorbers : commercials • Anico™ bags  ferrous salt and an organic acid such as citrate or ascorbate. • Typical superabsorbent polymers : polyacrylate salts. cereals. such as polyethylene or polypropylene. especially paperbased pack Temperature control packaging • use of innovative insulating materials. – The endothermic dissolution of ammonium nitrate and chloride in water  used to cool the product.3/12/2014 Moisture absorber • Basic mechanism : two layers of a microporous non-woven plastic film. such as trimethylamine. – can be incorporated into packaging materials. Thinsulate™ (3M Company. – Volatile amines. • In the UK.

• Therefore it may be advisable to use appropriate labelling to explain this difference to the consumer even in the absence of regulations. recycling. 7 . • Antimicrobial films which only inhibit spoilage microorganisms without affecting the growth of pathogenic bacteria will raise food safety concerns.3/12/2014 Food safety. effectiveness. consumer acceptability and regulatory issues • In the USA. consumer acceptability and regulatory issues • Very important for food manufacturers to consider the effects on the microbial ecology and safety of foods. if consumer confusion may rise – Effects on microbial ecology & safety of foods Actipack project (EU funded) aims to evaluate the safety. Food safety. • In Europe. Food safety. • Regarding the use of antimicrobial films. Active packaging is subjected to traditional packaging legislation • The food industry’s main concern about introducing active components to packaging seems to be that consumers may consider the components harmful and may not accept them. consumer acceptability and regulatory issues active packaging affect foods intended antioxidants. • Some active packages may look different from their passive counterparts. active packaging concepts are already being successfully applied. concentration and possible toxicology effects metal compounds • Food safety & Regulatory issues: – Food contact approval establishment prior using – Environmental regulations – The need for labelling. fear of consumer resistance. economic and environmental impact and consumer acceptance of active and intelligent packaging Component migration unintended identification and quantification Food safety. Japan and Australia. the development and application of active packaging is limited because of legislative restrictions. consumer acceptability and regulatory issues • Environmental regulations covering reuse. identification to assist in recycling or the recovery of energy from active packaging materials  EU Regulations • Food labelling  currently required to reduce the risk of consumers ingesting the contents of oxygen scavenger sachets or other in-pack active-packaging devices. it is important to consider what spectrum of microorganisms will be inhibited. ethanol and antimicrobial preservatives their identity. lack of knowledge about effectiveness and economic and environmental impact of concepts • No specific regulations exist on the use of active packaging in Europe. consumer acceptability and regulatory issues Food safety. consumer acceptability and regulatory issues Food safety.

CRC Press • Ahvenainen. R. 8 . 2003. the benefits of active packaging need to be considered in a holistic approach to environmental impact assessment. Kirwan. D. CRC Press • Rooney. 10. References • Coles. Food Packaging Technology. Novel Food Packaging Technique. purpose of usage • So far. McDowell. principles of mechanism. research has mainly concentrated on the development of various methods and their testing in a model system. • Compare each type of active packaging mentioned above in terms of food application. • Furthermore. materials/ technology used. 2003. R. 1995.L.3/12/2014 Food safety. but not so much on functioning in food preservation with real food products. Active Food Packaging. consumer acceptability and regulatory issues Discussion • What aspect should be considered when choosing active/ intelligent packaging? Please Explain in brief. M. Cp.J. Chapman & Hall.. M.