Part 2
Prof Andy Buffler Room 503 RW James andy.buffler@uct.ac.za
M&I Chapter 16
Electric potential
M&I 16.1
Energy of a single particle Particle energy
mc 2 K
1 2
q
mc 2
mv 2
for v
c
The kinetic energy of a single particle can be changed if positive or negative work is done on the particle by an external force. Wexternal Fexternal r
Then
K
K final
K initial
Wexternal
Potential energy associated with pairs of interacting particles For a system of interacting particles:
K sys Wext Wint Wext Q Q
if
mc 2
0
or Write
K sys Wint
Wint U
change in potential energy U Then
K sys U Wext Q
Systems of charged particles: …in most cases considered here, Wext
K sys U 0 0 and Q 0
Proton moving to the right in a uniform electric field
+ + + + +
E
r
M&I 16.2
Felectric
+
Uniform electric field between plates
K proton U electric 0
increases
K final K final K final K final
decreases
K initial K initial K initial K initial F U electric Wint r eEx x 0 0 0 0
Electron moving to the right in a uniform electric field
+ + + + +
r
Felectric
E
Uniform electric field between plates
K electron U electric 0
decreases
K final K final K final K final K initial K initial K initial K initial
increases
Wint F r 0 0 0 0
( e) E x x eEx x
M&I 16.3
Electric Potential Difference
In the previous examples:
For the proton: For the electron:
U electric U electric
V
eEx x eEx x
e e
Ex x Ex x
Let potential difference: Then If then or
V
Ex x
U electric
q V
Units of
V : volts (V)
r is not parallel to E
+
E
V
( Ex x E y y Ez z )
E r
r
The electron volt
If an electron moves through a potential difference of one volt then there is a change in the electric potential energy whose magnitude is
U e(1 volt) (1.6 1019 C)(1 J/C) = 1.6 1019 joule
1.6 1019 joule = 1 electron volt = 1 eV
1 keV = 1000 eV 1 MeV = 106 eV
M&I 16.4
Sign of potential difference and direction of electric field
V E E
V
r 0 0
1.
A
r
E
B
r
2.
A
r
E
B
E
V
r
0 0
3.
A
r
E
E
r
V
B
0 0
Example: Field and potential
V E VB VA r
r
B
E r cos
= (100)(2)cos(30 ) = 173 volts
E
100 N C1
2m Work done by an external agent in moving a proton from A to B:
Wext U electric q V
30 A
=(1.6
1019)( 173) =
2.76 ×1017 J or
173 eV
M&I 16.5
Potential difference in a nonuniform field
If we move through two (or more) regions where the electric field is different, then V Vfinal Vinitial
E
r
if each r is small enough that E is uniform in the region through which it passes. Remember that E For example:
V VB VA VB VC r2 xC ) x A ) E2 x ( x B E1 r1 E 2
r Ex x E y y Ez z
VC VA E1x ( xC
Change of electric potential in a nonuniform field …2 i
E
+
dr
If the electric field in a region varies continuously, then we need to integrate:
V Vfinal Vinitial
Ex dx
f i
E dr
Ez dz
f
or
V
E y dy
2 1
M&I uses the notation V
E dl
Note that … potential difference is independent of path
M&I 16.6
… and for a round trip
V
0
M&I 16.7
V
VC VA
C A
E dr
Path independent
Hence write:
V
f i
E dr
xf xi
Ex dx
yf yi
E y dy
zf zi
Ez dz
Electric field inside and outside a current carrying wire The charges are moving, hence the electric field E inside the wire is nonzero.
V 0 though the wire
Hence V 0 along path 2 (in the air) … … hence E is nonzero in the air.
1 2 3 4 5 R The electric field is uniform in this region. S is at (2, 2, 0) m and T is at (2, 0, 0) m E 300ˆ j N C1 What is V along a path from S to T? S
x
x
E
x
T
1. +150V 2. 150V 3. +300V 4. 300V 5. +600 V 6. 600 V
1 2 3 4 5 R S
The electric field is uniform in this region. S is at (0, 0, 0) m and T is at (0, 2, 0) m E 400ˆ j N C1 What is V along a path from S to T? 1. +200V 2. 200V 3. +400V 4. 400V 5. +800 V 6. 800 V
x
x
E
x
T
1 2 3 4 5 R The electric field is uniform in this region. S is at (0, 0, 0) m and T is at (0, 2, 0) m
E 200ˆ i 300ˆ j N C1
x
x
x
S
E
What is V along a path from S to T? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 0V 300 V 500 V 600V 1000 V
T
1 2 3 4 5 The electric field is uniform in this region. S is at (0, 0, 0) m and T is at (0, 2, 0) m V along a path from S to T is 500 V. What is the magnitude of the electric field in this region? 1. 250 V m1 2. 500 V m1 3. 750 V m1 4. 1000 V m1 R S
x
x
E
x
T
1 2 3 4 5 The electric field is uniform in this region. R is at (3, 2, 0) m and T is at (8, 0, 0) m
E 200ˆ i 400ˆ j N C1
R
x
x
S
E
x
What is V along a path from R to T?
T
1. +200V 2. 200V 3. +800V 4. 800V 4. +1000 V 6. 1000 V
1 2 3 4 5 The electric field is uniform in this region. R is at (3, 2, 0) m and S is at (5, 2, 0) m E 400ˆ j N C1 What is V along a path from R to S? 1. 0V 2. 400V 3. +400V 4. 800V 5. +800 V R S
x
x
E
x
T
1 2 3 4 5
Without doing any calculations, what is the sign of VB
VA ?
1. positive 2. negative 3. 0
1 2 3 4 5
What is VB
VA ?
1. –20 V 2. –10.05 V 3. –8.06 V 4. –0.1 V 5. none of the above
M&I 16.8
The potential at one location
V Vfinal Vinitial
set Vinitial = 0 at “infinity”
For the potential at a distance r from a single point charge q
Vr Vr V
r
Ex dx
r
1 4
0
q dx 2 x
1 q 4 0 x
r
1 q 4 0 r
If we know the value of the potential at location A, then if we place a charge q at A, then the potential energy of the system is U qV
A A
For two point charges separated by a distance r: U
1 q1q2 4 0 r
Lines of equipotential The electric potential in 2D. V(x,y) around a positive point charge.
Vr 1 q 4 0 r
V(x,y)
y x
Lines of equipotential around an electric dipole
Lines of equipotential
How much work would you need to do to move a charge … … from here … to here?
r C
4r
Insert either > or < or = below for each. B
+Q
A
1. EA 2. VA VB 3. VC VB 4. Q
EB Va Vb Vc Vb q
5.
c
+q
EB
EB Eb VA EA
EA
EC Ea Va Eb
6. a b 7. 8. 9.
Electrical potential energy For each situation below, decide qualitatively whether the initial or final situation has higher electrical potential energy. All charges are either +q or q. initial + (a) (b) + + + + + Uinitial Uinitial final < = > < = > < = > Ufinal
Ufinal
(c)
Uinitial
Ufinal
Electrical potential energy …2 initial + (d) + final
Uinitial
+ Uinitial + Uinitial
< = >
Ufinal
(e) 
+ + + 

+
< = >
Ufinal
(f)



< = >
Ufinal
Electric potential and electric field Shown below are examples of the variation of the electrical potential along the xdirection. Draw arrows representing the direction and relative magnitude of the electric field at positions A and B on the xaxis.
V(x)
(a) 0
V(x)
(b) 0
A
B
x
A
B
x
A
B
x
A
B
x
V(x)
Electric potential and electric field …2 V(x)
(c) 0
A B x
(d) 0
A B x
A V(x)
B
x V(x)
(f) 0
A
B
x
(e) 0
A B x
A
B
x
A
B
x
A
B
x
V(x)
Electric potential and electric field …3 V(x)
(g) 0
A B x
(h) 0
A B x
A V(x)
B
x V(x)
(j) 0
A
B
x
(i) 0
A B x
A
B
x
A
B
x
A
B
x
Important worked example: A disk and a spherical shell A thin spherical (plastic) shell carries a uniformly distributed negative charge –Q1. A thin circular (glass) disk carries a uniformly distributed positive charge +Q2. Find the potential difference V2 – V1.
… choose a path (straight line) from 1 to 2 … neglect the polarization of the plastic and glass since both object are made of thin material.
V
V2 V1
Vshell
Vdisk
2 1
Enet dr
2 1
Eshell dr
2 1
Edisk dr
V due to shell:
Vsurface of shell V1
0
since Eshell
1 4
2 3
0
0 inside shell
Outside shell: Eshell
V2 Vsurface of shell
2 3
Q1 ˆ r 2 r
Eshell dr
3
1 4
0
Q1 ( dx) 2 x Q1 R1
Why is there a
1 4
0
Q1 R1 d
Check: We move opposite to the direction of the field, therefore
sign here?
V
0
V due to disk:
Since d
V2 V1
R2 and R1
2 1
Edisk dr
2 Q2 R2 R2 : Edisk 2 0 2 2 2Q R Q R 2 2 2 2 ( dx) (d 1 2 0 2 0
R1 )
Check: We move opposite to the direction of the field, therefore
V due to both shell and disk: V 0
V2 V1
1 4
0
Q1 R1 d
Q1 R1
2 Q2 R2 (d 2 0
R1 )
A metal in static equilibrium For a metal in static equilibrium:
V Vfinal Vinitial 0
i f
(and E = 0)
… for any two locations inside the metal Therefore Vfinal
Vinitial
… the potential inside the metal is constant but not necessarily zero!
Q1
s
Q1
A metal slab inside a capacitor Start with a charged capacitor A s s = 3 mm, ΔV = 6 volts V E = 2000 V m1 s Insert 1 mm metal slab without touching sides of capacitor … … which then polarizes … Since E inside slab is zero, Q2 Q1 Why? But in the air gaps, E is unchanged Vleft Vright = (2000 V m1)(0.001 m)
Vcapacitor
A
+ + + + +
Q1
Q2 Q2 Q1
A
+ + + + + 1 mm
+ + + + +
= 2 volts = 2 V + 0 V + 2 V = 4 volts
Q
s Eplates
Q
M&I 16.9
Potential difference in an insulator Again start with a charged capacitor …
A
+ + + + +
Q
Eplates
+
+ + + +
Q
+
+ + + +
… now insert an insulator … What is the effect on the electric field inside the capacitor?
A
+ + + + +
Inside the plastic, Edipoles is complex Outside the plastic … consider E
r around the closed path shown
…E
r will be positive outside the plastic
r r
… therefore the average field inside the plastic must point to the left
Q
Q
+ + + + + + + + + +
Edipoles + + + A + +
Eplates
… result is that the electric field inside the capacitor is reduced.
E net Eapplied K
where K is the dielectric constant K always > 1 and
Enet
Vinsulator
Vvacuum K
Q Electric field inside a capacitor with a dielectric constant = 0 AK
Effect of dielectric: … decreases the electric field … decreases the potential difference
Dielectric constants for various insulators Vacuum Air Typical plastic Sodium chloride Water Strontium titanate 1 (by definition) 1.0006 5 6.1 80 310
Energy density associated with electric field =
1 2
2 E J m3 0
… general result … do it yourself …
M&I 16.10
1 2 3 4 5
Originally ΔV was –1000 volts. A metal slab is inserted into the capacitor. Now ΔV = VB – VA =
1) 2) 3) 4) 5)
+ 1000 volts +500 volts 0 volts –500 volts –1000 volts
1 2 3 4 5
With a plastic slab in the capacitor: Now ΔV = VB – VA = between –500 and –1000 volts between +500 and+ 1000 volts –500 volts +500 volts not enough information to tell
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Potential of distributed charges … Potential along the axis of a ring
M&I 16.8
... with radius R and total charge Q
R2 z2
R z
Each point charge q on the ring contributes: 1 q V 4 0 R2 z 2
Adding up the potential contributed by all the point charges:
Vring 1 4
0
q R
2
1 z
2
1
0
4
R
2
z
2
q
1 4
0
Q R2 z2
M&I Potential along the axis of a uniformly charged disk 16.12 ... with radius R and total charge Q ˆ j 1 q 1 Q 2 r r Vring 4 0 z2 r2 4 0 A z2 r2 ˆ r i 1 Q R rdr V 2 0 A 0 z2 r2 R R 1 Q 2 2 z z r r 0 2 0 A E ˆ k 1 Q V z2 R2 z 2 0 A V 1 Q z 1 Check: Ez z 2 0 A z 2 R2
1 2 3 4 5
What is VB
VA?
1. 270 V 2. 18 V 3. 6V 4. –6 V 5. –18 V 6. –270 V
1 2 3 4 5
What is VB
VA?
1. +1350 V 2. –1350 V 3. +3375 V 4. –3375 V 5. none of the above
1 2 3 4 5
VP
VQ is:
1. positive 2. negative 3. zero 4. not enough information to tell
1 2 3 4 5
Along the semicircular path, VB
VA is:
1. positive 2. negative 3. zero 4. not enough information to tell
1 2 3 4 5
Which of the following quantities are zero? 1. VC – VA 2. VD – VC 3. VB – VD 4. VC – VA and VB – VD 5. VC – VA and VB – VD and VD – VC 6. none of the above
1 2 3 4 5
Along the straight path through the metal sphere, VB
VA is:
1. positive 2. negative 3. zero 4. not enough information to tell
M&I Chapter 17
Magnetic Field
… Electric fields E … generated by the presence of charge (stationary or moving) … Magnetic fields B … generated by moving charge…
M&I 17.1
Electron current i
… the number of electrons per second that enter a section of a conductor Simple circuits
… refer to laboratory exercise on circuits ...
M&I 17.2
Detecting magnetic fields
Do it yourself … and record results … What is the effect of the magnetic field of the Earth?
Detecting magnetic fields …2
Oersted, 1820
• • • •
magnitude of B magnitude of current zero current zero B direction of B is perpendicular to direction of current direction of B above the wire is opposite to direction of B below the wire
B
M&I 17.3
The BiotSavart law for a single moving charge
“Careful experimentation” …
B
ˆ qv r 4 r2
0
0
permeability of free space = 4
0
B
107 T m A 1
r
ˆ r q +
= 107 T m A1 exactly
Units of B : tesla (T)
4
v
The cross product
A B
ˆ ( Ay Bz Az By )ˆ i + (Az Bx Ax Bz )ˆ j + (Ax By Ay Bx )k
G where G A
ˆ i Ax Bx
and
ˆ j Ay By ˆ k Az Bz
G
B
easy to remember:
always
In polar form in 2D: A B
A
ˆ AB sin k
B
where
is the angle between tails of A and B .
What is the direction of ... A. B. C. < 0, 0, 3> < 0, 4, 0> < 0, 0, 6> < 0, 4, 0> ? < 0, 0, 3> ? < 0, 0, 3> ?
1 2 3 4 5
1. ˆ i i 2. ˆ ˆ 3. k ˆ 4. k 5. zero magnitude
1 2 3 4 5 What is the direction of magnetic field at the observation location?
A.
B.
C.
1. ˆ i i 2. ˆ ˆ 3. k ˆ 4. k 5. zero magnitude
1 2 3 4 5 At the observation location the magnetic field due to the proton is in the z direction. What is a possible direction for the velocity of the proton?
j 1. ˆ j 2. ˆ ˆ 3. k ˆ 4. k 5. zero magnitude
1 2 3 4 5 At the observation location the magnetic field due to the electron is in the x direction. What is a possible direction for the velocity of the electron?
j 1. ˆ j 2. ˆ ˆ 3. k ˆ 4. k 5. zero magnitude
M&I 17.4
Relativistic effects
B
ˆ qv r 4 r2
0
v : velocity of source or observer?
or
v
+
Retardation (no t in here) + t1
v
v
+
B
B
0?
B
0
+ v
t2
0
+ v
t3
0
M&I 17.5 E A
v t
Electron current i Metal wire of cross sectional area A. Free electrons move under influence of E. Drift speed of mobile electrons = v
v
Distance traveled by electron sea in time
t = v t
Number of mobile electrons in shaded cylinder = nAv t where n is the number of mobile electrons per unit volume Electron current i is the rate at which electrons pass a section of a wire (number of electrons per second) = nAv
M&I 17.5
Conventional current I
... runs in the opposite direction to electron current ... defined as the amount of charge (in coulombs) passing a point per second ... given by the number of holes per second multiplied by the (positive) charge associated with one hole
I q nAv e
enAv
In metals, q
I
Units of I: ampere (A)
M&I 17.6
The BiotSavart law for currents
Consider a small thin wire of length l and cross sectional area A. If there are n moving charges per unit volume, then there are nA l moving charges in this volume. Then the total contribution to qv = nA l q v Now can write
B
q nAv
0
l
I l
I
B
4
ˆ l r r2
r
ˆ r
I
l
where l is a vector with magnitude l pointing in the direction of the conventional current I
0
4
= 107 T m A1 exactly
1 2 3 4 5 For each situation below, determine the direction of the magnetic field at point P caused by the current in the short section of wire in the dashed box.
A
P I P
B P I
C 2 1
3 I
1. into the page 2. out of the page 3. zero
1 2 3 4 5 For each situation below, determine the direction of the magnetic field at point P caused by the current in the short section of wire in the dashed box. 2 E D 1
P
2 1
P
3
I
I
1. into the page 2. out of the page 3. zero
M&I 17.7
ˆ j
Magnetic field of a straight wire
... of length L, carrying current I
l yˆ j
r
y y
r ˆ
xˆ i yˆ j
Magnitude of r : r
x2
r r
y
2
r
B
Then
ˆ i
ˆ r
xˆ i yˆ j x2 y
2
x
ˆ k
I
Then magnetic field B ˆ yˆ j r 0 I due to small piece only = 4 x 2 y 2
I yˆ j 4 x2 y 2
0
xˆ i yˆ j x2 y
2
Magnetic field of a straight wire …2
B ˆ I y j 0 4 x2 y 2
0
xˆ i yˆ j x
3 2
ˆ j
2
xˆ i yˆ j
ˆ xk
2
y
B
I x y x2 y2
4
ˆ k
Let y 0 and integrate over entire length L of wire (only Bz is nonzero): L Tables of integrals 2 dy 0 Bz Ix 3 2 2 4 L x y 2
2
L 2
Bz
0
4
Ix x
y
2
x
2
y
2
L 2
...
0
LI L2
2
4 x x2
Magnetic field of a straight wire …3
Bwire
0
LI L2
2
4 r r2
can write r = x
Check the result ... units? ... direction? Special case L Then
r :
0
r r2
L2
2
r L2
2
r L2
Bwire
2I 4 r
L : Bwire
Another special case r
I l 4 r2
0
I
Direction of B wire ? ... use right hand rule
B wire
Magnetic field of a straight wire …4
Bwire
0
LI L2
2
4 r r2
B wire curls around the wire
B
I
VPython script Bwire_with_r.py Go to worksheets ... Electric currents produce magnetic fields (1 & 2)
M&I 17.8
Magnetic field along the axis of a circular loop of wire
l
ˆ j
r ˆ
... with radius R and current I
l ˆ i R ˆ i
r
ˆ Rˆ j zk
R2 z2
R
r
B
Magnitude of r : r Then
ˆ r r r
ˆ Rˆ j zk R2 z2
z Then magnetic field due to small piece only =
ˆ k
0
I
4
ˆ l r r2
0
R I
ˆ i R
2
ˆ Rˆ j zk z
2
3 2
4
Magnetic field along the axis of a circular loop of wire …2
R I R
0
B
0
ˆ i
2
ˆ Rˆ j zk z
2
3 2
R zR
ˆ i
ˆ Rˆ j zk ˆ j R2 ˆ k
4
B
4
I
+zR R
2
ˆ j R2 z
2
3 2
ˆ k
ˆ r
B
R
See: B_loop_with_r_dB.py
z
Bz
Only Bz will be nonzero:
Bz
0
IR 2 R
2
4
z
2
3 2
Now let
Bz
0
0 and integrate around loop
loop of wire …3
I R R2
0
2
3 2
2
4
d
0
2
3 2
=
0
I R2 R2 z2
3 2
z2
4
2
Bloop =
2 I R R
2
I
B
4
z
2
Check the result ... units? ... direction?
Special case: centre of the loop, z = 0 I 0 2 Bloop = 4 R 2 2 Another special case z R: R z
Bloop =
0
3 2
z
2
3 2
z3
4
2 R2 I z3
Magnetic field at other locations outside the loop
… use a computer program …
B_loop_xy_xz.py
1 2 3 4 5 What is the direction of magnetic field at the observation location? A. B.
1. ˆ i i 2. ˆ ˆ 3. k ˆ 4. k 5. zero magnitude
1 2 3 4 5 Which components of
B1 at the observation location are nonzero?
1. z 2. y 3. x 4. y & z 5. x & y 6. x & z 7. all components
1 2 3 4 5 Which components of
B 2 at the observation location are nonzero?
1. z 2. y 3. x 4. y & z 5. x & y 6. x & z 7. all components
1 2 3 4 5 What is the direction of magnetic field at location A? ... and B?
1) +x 2) –x 3) +y 4) –y 5) +z 6) –z 7) zero magnitude
For each situation below, determine the direction of the magnetic field at point P caused by the current in the entire wire. A P I B P I into page C
1 2 3 4 5
P
I
D P
E P 1. into the page 2. out of the page 3. 4. 5. zero
I
I
M&I 17.9
Baxis =
Magnetic dipole moment,
0
4
2 R2 I r3
R
0
A
B
μ
B
for r Write Baxis =
4
2 r3
I
Where the magnetic dipole moment
= IA
In an applied magnetic field, a currentcarrying loop rotates so as to align the magnetic dipole moment μ with the field.
M&I 17.10
The magnetic field of a bar magnet
S
N
2 Baxis = 4 r3 … for both the bar magnet and ring of current
0
Be careful of pictures like this ...
… what about magnetic monopoles?
The magnetic field of the Earth
BEarth at Cape Town
2.6 10
5
T
Magnetic dipole caused by a current loop Determine the direction and magnitude of the magnetic dipole moment produced by each current loop shown below:
20 cm I = 2.0 A r = 20 cm
r = 20 cm I = 2.0 A
15 cm
I = 2.0 A
A
B
C
Worked example: A circuit in the Antarctic
Say that a circuit containing a ¾ loop of wire of radius 5 cm lies on a table in a lab in the Antarctic. There is a 5 ampere current in the wire. Say that you have a bar magnet with magnetic moment 1.2 A m2. How far above location A (at the centre of the loop), and in what orientation, should you hold the bar magnet such that the net magnetic field at A is zero. Take the Earth’s magnetic field at the Antarctic to be 6 105 T.
A
I
B Earth points out of the page (out of ground at Antarctic) B circuit points out of the page (out of table)
Therefore bar magnet needs to be orientated with its north pole downward (into the page).
Antarctic loop …2
B Earth 6 10
5
dl
ˆ T k
r ˆ
ˆ axis out k
Bstraight wires
0
B3/4 loop
dB
I dl r ˆ 4 r2
0
A
R
Put the origin at the centre of the loop.
r R (constant)
At all locations d l
2
ˆ r ˆ therefore d l r
2 0
dl sin
dl
0
Rd
2 2
B3/4 loop
2
I Rd 4 R2
IR = 4 R2
0
2
IR d = 4 R2
B3/4 loop
3 Iˆ k = ... = 4.7 10 4 2R
0
5
ˆ T k
Antarctic loop …3
B Earth 6 10
5
ˆ T k
5
B3/4 loop = 4.7 10
ˆ T k
B Earth
B3/4 loop
4
1.06 10
4
ˆ T k
Therefore want B magnet
1.06 10
4
T
ˆ k
B magnet
0
4
2 z3
1 3
1.06 10
T
0
z
4 Bmagnet
2
1 10 T m A
7
1
(2)(1.2 A m )
4
2
1 3
1.06 10
T
0.13 m
M&I 17.11 The atomic structure of magnets
Bohr atomic model ...
B
B
Each atomic current loop contributes an amount 2 2 2 R I 0 0 of magnetic field: = 3 4 r 4 r3
I e T e 2 R v ev 2 R
and A
R2
IA
ev 2 R
R
2
1 eRv 2
Estimating the magnetic dipole moment: a simple model of the atom
dv m dt v2 m R
Fnet
v2 m R
1 4
0
e2 R2
+
R
v
1 4
0
e2 R2m
1 2
23
… get v
1.6
106 m s1 for R
10
1010 m
Then
1 eRv 2
1.3 10
(1.6 10
19
C)(10
m)(1.6 106 m s1 )
A m 2 per atom
Estimating the magnetic dipole moment: quantized angular momentum Orbital angular momentum: L Then
Rmv
1 eRv 2
1 e Rmv 2m
1 e L 2m
= 1.05 1034 J s
34
L is quantized in units of
1 e 2m
1 2
(1.6 10 19 C) (1.05 10 31 (9 10 kg)
Js)
0.9 10
23
A m 2 per atom
The modern theory of magnets
... Bohr model too simplistic, really
Situation closer to ...
... information about location of electron is probabilistic ... spherically symmetric probability distributions average to zero ... non spherically symmetric probability distributions (p, d, f) orbitals can contribute a nonzero magnetic dipole moment ... most atoms also have more than one electron!
Spin The electrons themselves also have spin ... which contributes a significant magnetic dipole moment. ... but it is problematic to think of the electron as a spinning ball of charge ... ... protons and neutrons in nuclei also have spin, but magnetic dipole moment is much smaller, and can be ignored for this purpose ... 1 e
2m
where m = mp or mn
... but not for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) ... and the technology of magnetic resonance imaging (MR)
Alignment of the atomic magnetic dipole moments Most materials have no net orbital or spin magnetism. In some materials (e.g. iron, nickel, cobalt, ...) the orbital and spin motions of neighbouring atoms line up with each other and can produce a sizable magnetic field ... “ferromagnetic” materials. ... explained by quantum mechanics ... alignment due to electric interactions between atoms, not magnetic interactions.
Magnetic domains In an ordinary piece of iron that is not a magnet, the material can be thought of being made up of a “patchwork” of small regions called magnetic domains within which the alignment of the atomic magnetic dipole moments is nearly perfect ... ... many of the individual atomic magnetic dipole moments are then aligned wit the external field ... causing a significant field associated with the material ... ... but normally these domains are randomly orientated ... net magnetic effect is not significant ... if the iron is placed within an external magnetic field, the domains nearly aligned with the field tend to grow, and others might rotate to align with the field If the external field is removed, this induced magnetism may remain... can be destroyed by external force or heating.
M&I 17.13
The magnetic field inside a solenoid (by the application of the BiotSavart law)
Tougher mathematics ... try it yourself ... ... otherwise see later (Ampere’s Law) N loops If L L II
R :
Bz
0
NI L
R
solenoid_drag.py
M&I Chapter 18
A Microscopic View of Electric Circuits
electron current i = no. of electrons per second passing a point electron current flows in direction opposite to E conventional current I = no. of coulombs per second = E conventional current flows in the direction of q i
“Static equilibrium” : no charges are moving “Steady state” : charges are moving, but their velocities do not change (significantly) over time (and there is no change in the deposits of excess charge anywhere)
M&I 18.2
Current in different parts of a circuit 1 2 3 4 5
Consider a simple circuit:
A
B 3. iA < iB
+
+
1. iA = iB
2. iA > iB
What is being “used up” in the light bulb? What is a light bulb?
The current node rule
In a steady state, the electron current entering a node in a circuit is equal to the electron current leaving that node. ... consequence of the principle of conservation of charge Also known as the “Kirchhoff node rule”
i1 i2 i3 i4 i1 = i2 = (i3+i4) But i3 need not be equal to i4
i2 = ? i1= 5 A i3= 8 A i4 = 6 A i1= 5 A
i2 = ? i3= 8 A i4 = 1 A
M&I 18.3
The startstop motion of electrons in a wire
In order for electrons to move in a wire (i.e. for there to be a current), there must be an electric field present to drive the sea of mobile electrons. Why is a (constant) electric field necessary …? … and what is the source of the electric field in the wire?
Why is a field necessary? ... the mobile electrons are constantly colliding with the lattice of atomic cores, increasing the thermal motion of the atoms. ... electrons cannot “push” each other through the wire!
The Drude model A mobile electron in a metal, under the influence of an electric field inside the metal, accelerates, gains energy, but then collides with the lattice of atomic cores, which is vibrating because of its own thermal energy. The electron then gets accelerated again, collides, … The metal heats up as a result of this process. Speed of a single electron
v
v = “drift” speed
time
The Drude model …2 Momentum principle:
p t
Fnet
eE
p 0 eE t
If an electron loses all its momentum in a collision, p
If speed of electron << c, write v
p me eE t me
Averaging over all collisions: v
where u
e t me
eE t me
uE
is the electron “mobility”
Different metals have different electron mobilities. Then electron current: i
nAv nAuE
Electric field and drift speed in different elements of a circuit Consider a part of a circuit where a wire leads into a thinner section made of the same material ...
vthick
vthin
Since ithin
nAthin vthin
ithick nAthick vthick
or
vthin
Athick vthick Athin
The electrons move faster in the thinner section of wire. ... hence the electric field is larger in the thinner section.
Direction of electric field in a wire The current is the same in all parts of a series circuit, hence the electric field E must be the same in every part of the wire in a circuit in a direction parallel to the wire at every location, even if the wire twists and turns … E
… E must also be uniform across a cross section of the wire …
Convince yourself by thinking A about VABCDA E dl
A
E
A D
B C
M&I 18.4
What charges make the electric field in the wires? In a steady state circuit ... ... there must be an electric field in the wires ... the magnitude of the electric field must be the same throughout a wire of the same geometry and material ... the direction of the electric field at every location must be along the wire, since the current follows the wire.
Consider a very simple circuit consisting of a bulb connected by long wires to a battery… Does the bulb shine any differently depending on where the bulb is in relation to the battery?
… No … ! … so where is the excess charge that creates the electric field that drives the current in the circuit ?
A mechanical battery A “conveyor belt” replenishes electrons that have left the negative plate and travelled around the circuit to the positive plate.
v
v
A mechanical battery ...2 Connected a bent Nichrome wire across the terminals of a mechanical battery … Think about E due to plates of battery and v at points 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
E
v
Huh !?
A mechanical battery ...3
+
Ebends + Ebattery Excess electrons build up here on the surface of the wire + +
Excess positive charge builds up here on the surface of the wire
A mechanical battery ...4 … until Ebends > Ebattery and net field electric field points to the left
Ebends
Ebattery
+ + + + ++
This is an example of “feedback”
A mechanical battery ...5 Charge buildup will occur at many points in the wire (not only at bends) until in the steady state every point in the circuit will have the same magnitude of E E
v
++
++ ++ ++
+ + + +
The distribution of excess surface charge in a circuit can be quite complicated …
Remember that the real situation is in 3D.
Think about this simple case:
What is the direction of the electric field here?
Typical electric fields: 5 V m1 … and only about 106 electrons per cm of wire near the negative end of a 6 volt battery
M&I 18.5
Connecting a circuit: the initial transient
gap
At t = 0, there is a gap in the circuit ... and E = 0 everywhere in the wire
Connecting a circuit: the initial transient …2 Look more closely at the gap region and consider electric field inside the wire due to surface charges in gap region: Egap faces Net electric field inside the wire must be zero, hence other charges must contribute Eother, as shown: Eother
Connecting a circuit: the initial transient …3 Now close the gap. Charges on facing ends of wire neutralize each other, and net field is given by Eother only… But there is a large unstable discontinuity in surface charge distribution: Electrons will move under the influence of Eother … After a fraction of a nanosecond, the new distribution might look like this (a more gradual change in the charge distribution):
Connecting a circuit: the initial transient …4
All this happens at the speed of light. The electrons do not have to move very far in order to effect a significant surface charge distribution. The electric field is still zero at other locations in the circuit (information hasn’t yet reached these regions!)
After a few nanoseconds the rearrangement of charges will have extended to all parts of the circuit … … leads to the “steady state” situation where E has uniform magnitude everywhere ..
E=0
E
0
If a typical electron drift speed is around 5 105 m s1, why does the light come on “immediately” when you throw the switch?
M&I 18.6
Feedback
Feedback during the initial transient produces the right amounts of surface charge to create the appropriate steady state field. … it also maintains these steadystate conditions … … feedback leads to current equalisation … Two cases: i1 i1 > i2 i2 i2 i1 i1
i1 < i2
i2 + + + i2 + + + Positive surface charge buildup until i1 = i2
i1
      
Negative surface charge buildup until i1 = i2
What happens if we bend a wire which is carrying a current? Extra charge builds up on the bend until there are enough there to repel oncoming elections just enough too make them turn the corner, without running into the side of the wire.
     i       
In summary … Feedback in a circuit leads to surface charges and steady state current: E 0 inside a metal. Feedback in static electricity situations leads to static equilibrium: E 0 inside a metal.
M&I 18.7
Surface charge and resisitors Consider a circuit container a “resistor” comprising a thin section of Nichrome wire … Charge will build up at various places on the wire, as discussed before, but in particular, a significant amount of charge will build up on either side of the thin section. Why?
“resistor”
Eresistor i Ewire
The electric field in the resistor needs to be high enough for there to be the same current in the resistor as elsewhere in the circuit.
nAthick uEthick nAthin uEthin
or
Ethin
Athick Ethick Athin
A wide resistor: charges on the interface What about a wide resistor? It would need to be made of a different material (say carbon) to the (Nichrome) wire, and hence will have a different mobility u. The steady state electric field in the carbon needs to be much larger than the wire, hence electrons will tend to build up not only on the outer surfaces of the wire and resistor, but also on the interfaces between the wire and resistor in order to make an electric field of large enough magnitude. +++ ++ + + Ewire + + Eresistor Ewire i
+++ ++ +
M&I 18.8
Energy in a circuit
Consider the path of a single electron as it moves around a circuit: energy gained as it moves across the mechanical battery, then lost in collisions with atomic cores … Or we can think about the energy per unit charge gained or lost in a trip around the circuit.
* We know that over any path the roundtrip potential difference must be zero.
The loop rule (energy conservation)
V1 V2 V3 ... 0
along any closed path in a circuit
This is essentially the energy principle, but on a per unit charge basis.
Potential difference across a battery Turn on the belt (with no external circuit) and transport electrons from the left, to the right hand plate. The belt exerts a “nonCoulomb” force FNC on each electron. Charge build up on the plates. These charges exert a “Coulomb” force on each electron being transported. Eventually FC eEC FNC and the motor cannot pump any more charge and the plates are charged up as much as they can be.
FNC
FC
eEC FNC
EC of plates
FC
FNC
EC of plates
Potential difference across a battery …2 If the distance between the plates of the mechanical battery is s and the electric field EC of the charged plates is uniform between the plates, then the potential difference across the battery is FNC s Vbattery EC s e
The quantity FNC s e is the energy input per unit charge (a property of the battery and is called the emf of the battery.) The emf of a battery is measured in volts, although it is not a potential difference. Role of a battery: A battery maintains potential difference across the terminals of the battery, and this potential difference is numerically equal to the battery’s emf.
Internal resistance Connect a wire across the terminals of the battery FC eEC ... for a steady state, the transport of electrons in the battery must equal the current in the wire. If there is no resistance to the movement of charge in the battery, then FC FNC
FNC
v
However, in any real battery there is “internal resistance.” FNC EC The drift velocity in the battery: v u e Since FNC is fixed, the maximum drift speed is when EC =0, which means there is no charge on the ends of the battery and Vbattery 0 We will assume (“ideal battery”) that u is high inside the battery, so is reasonable even if FC is nearly as large as FNC, and v hence Vbattery emf [... see later how to deal with real batteries ...]
Field and current in a simple circuit In the situation alongside, the electric field inside the mechanical battery points in the opposite direction to the electric field in the neighbouring wires ... Starting at the negative plate and going anticlockwise ... ... potential increase of +emf across the battery ... then a potential drop of EL along the wire of length L. Vwire 0 For the round trip: Vbattery emf or emf ( EL) 0 E L ... gives a way of determining E and hence I enAuE Einside battery FNC
E
Two different paths Following the dashed path through wires L2 and L3: Potential rise: +E2L2 along L2 Potential rise: +E3L3 along L3 For the round trip: +E2L2 +E3L3 i3 E3 L3
i3 i1 i2 E2
L2
i3 = i1 + i2
Potential drop: emf through the battery emf = 0
L1
E1
And along path through L1 and L3:
For the round trip: +E1L1 +E3L3 This implies that E1L1 = E2L2 emf = 0
... which makes sense since with the same starting and ending points the two wires have the same potential difference Also i3 = i1 + i2 due to the current node rule.
General use of the loop rule
Consider one loop of a multiloop circuit:
B loop 1 A
C loop 2 F V2 = VC VB
D
Any round trip potential difference must be zero: V1 + V2 + V3 + V4 = 0
Hence: (VB + (VC + (VF + (VA B
E
C
VA) VB) VC) VF) = 0
V1 = VB VA
loop 1
V3 = VF VC
A V4 = VA VF 0
F
M&I 18.9
Energy conservation circuits Consider the circuit shown which contains a (thin) resistor: The electric field is the (negative) gradient of the potential.
E1
E1
E4
A D B
L1
E1
L2
C
E3 L3 E2
E3
V
VB VA VC VB VA VD VD VC
E2
E4 E3
Going around the circuit: V1 + V2 + V3 + Vbattery = 0 ( E1L1) + ( E2L2) + ( E3L3) + emf = 0
E
E1
M&I 18.10
Applications of the theory
• The current node rule (conservation of charge): In the steady state, for many electrons flowing into and out of a node: Electron current: net iin = net iout where i
nAuE
Conventional current: net Iin = net Iout where I • The loop rule (conservation of energy): In the steady state, for any roundtrip path:
V1 V2 V3 ... 0
q nAuE
1 2 3 4 5
1. iA > iB
2. iA = iB
3. iA < iB
1 2 3 4 5 What comprises a current in a circuit?
1. Electrons push each other through the wire 2. Since there is no friction, no force is needed to keep electrons moving 3. A nonzero electric field inside the wire keeps the electrons moving
1 2 3 4 5
1. i1 > i2 2. i1 = i2
3. i1 < i2
4. Not enough information
1 2 3 4 5
1. v1 > v2 2. v1 = v2 3. v1 < v2
4. Not enough information
1 2 3 4 5
A1 = 4*A2
1. E1 = 4*E2
2. E1 = (1/4)*E2 3. E1 = (1/16)*E2 4. E1 = 16*E2 5. Not enough information
1 2 3 4 5
n1 = (1/3)*n2
1. E1 = 3*E2 2. E1 = (1/3)*E2 3. E1 = (1/9)*E2
4. E1 = 9*E2
5. Not enough information
1 2 3 4 5
In the next tiny fraction of a second, what will happen at the RIGHT bend in the wire?
1. Nothing will change 2. The right bend will become negative 3. The right bend will become positive
1 2 3 4 5
In the same tiny fraction of a second, what will happen at the LEFT bend in the wire?
1. Nothing will change 2. The left bend will become negative 3. The left bend will become positive
1 2 3 4 5
Where will the excess positive charge of the right bend be located?
1. Inside the wire 2. On the surface of the wire 3. Both inside the wire and on the surface of the wire
1 2 3 4 5
At location 4, what is the direction of E due only to the charges on the surface of the wire?
1. Esurface = 0
2. Esurface to the right
3. Esurface to the left
1 2 3 4 5
The wires have the same length L and crosssectional area A, but are from different materials. Same u’s, but n1 = 2*n2
1. E2 = emf/(1.5*L) 2. E2 = emf/L 3. E2 = emf/(2*L) 4. E2 = 1.5*emf/L
1 2 3 4 5 What is the pattern of electric field in this steadystate circuit? 1. 2.
3.
4.
1 2 3 4 5
What charges make the electric field inside the wire in this circuit?
1. 2. 3. 4.
The moving electrons inside the wire Charges on the battery and the surface of the wire Only charges on the battery Only charges on the surface of the wire
1 2 3 4 5 Circuit 1: 1 battery, NiCr wire length L crosssectional area A electric field E1 inside wire 1 battery, NiCr wire length (3L) crosssectional area A electric field E2 inside wire. Which statement is correct? 1. E1 = E2 2. E1 = 3*E2 3. E1 = E2/3
Circuit 2:
1 2 3 4 5 Circuit 1: 1 battery, NiCr wire length L crosssectional area A electric field E1 inside wire 1 battery, NiCr wire length L crosssectional area (4A) electric field E2 inside wire. Which statement is correct? 1. E1 = E2 2. E1 = 4*E2 3. E1 = E2/4
Circuit 2:
1 2 3 4 5 Circuit 1: 1 battery, NiCr wire length L crosssectional area A 1 battery, NiCr wire length L crosssectional area (4A)
Circuit 2:
Which statement is correct? 1. i1 = i2 2. i1 = 4*i2 3. i1 = i2/4
1 2 3 4 5
Energy conservation (loop) equation:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. +emf – E*(2L1 + L2) = 0 +emf + E*(2L1 + L2) = 0 +emf – 2E1L1 – E2L2 = 0 +emf + 2E1L1 – E2L2 = 0 None of the above
1 2 3 4 5
Current conservation (node) equation:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. i1 = 2*i2 2i 1 = i 2 i1 = i2 i1 = (A2/A1)*i2 None of the above
emf = 1.5 V n = 9 1028 electrons/m3, u = 7 105 (m/s)/(V/m) L1 = 0.2 m, L2 = 0.05 m A1 = 9 108 m2, A2 = 1.5
1 2 3 4 5
108 m2
What is E2? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 50.4 V/m 12.86 V/m 3.15 V/m 0.788 V/m None of the above
Applications of the theory ...refer to laboratory on circuits ... Bulbs in parallel
Connect two identical light bulbs in parallel with a battery ... Both shine with same brightness ...
i1 i2 i3 = i1 + i2
Remember “brightness” equates to “resistance” For a path through one bulb: 2 emf And the other: 2 emf
EL 0 EL 0
(L = filament length) 2 emf Electric field is thus the same in each light bulb: E L
Bulbs in parallel ...2 Why does the current divide through parallel resistors? Consider the circuit alongside ... in steady state ... ...containing two wide resistors in parallel ... Electrons move into the deadend until the surface charge there becomes so negatively charged that no more electrons can enter. (Effect is that the wire seems slightly wider at the junction, but no more electrons move into the deadend branch.)
Bulbs in parallel ...3 Now complete the parallel connection ... leads to a rearrangement of the surface and interface charges. Some electrons now take the upper branch and some the lower branch. There is also a larger current through the battery and a larger gradient of surface charge along the wires to drive the larger current. Current in each branch depends on the mobility in each branch ... ... surface charge might build up differently in each branch ... and hence a different current in the branches.
Very important !
Work through .... M&I Example problem: A circuit and a wide wire No shortcuts!
A circuit and a wide wire …2