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**Peter Debney, Oasys, Leeds, United Kingdom Michael Willford, Arup, San Francisco, California
**

With more efﬁcient design utilizing stronger materials leading to lighter structures, the problem of human-induced vibrations on floors is increasing. Conventional methods of predicting ﬂoor accelerations are only suitable for a narrow range of ﬂoor layouts and materials. Originally developed for internal use in Arup, Oasys GSA is a structural analysis program commercially available to other consultants. One of the most popular features added within the past ﬁve years is the ability to calculate the vibrations caused by footfall and other human activities on any type of structure, including ﬂoors, bridges and stadia. The possibility of human footfall loading leading to excessive vibration of structures has long been recognized. In 1831, soldiers marching across a cast iron bridge generated vibrations that caused the bridge to collapse, thus the reason why some bridges now display notices instructing soldiers to break step when crossing (see Figure 1). There have been other collapses of ﬂoors and stadium structures induced by crowds dancing or jumping in unison. The introduction of lightweight, long-span, composite construction and open-plan ofﬁces in North America in the 1960s led to concerns that normal walking caused uncomfortable vibrations for occupants of the buildings. Until this time, serviceability was checked using only simple stiffness-based criteria, such as limiting imposed-load deﬂections to a ratio of the span or ensuring that the natural frequency was higher than a certain limit.

Figure 1. Albert Bridge, London.

Market Drivers

There are now numerous market forces causing clients to insist on ﬂoor vibration checks: • Design codes – AISC and IBC recommend that ﬂoor vibrations be checked. • Commercial – on lively ﬂoors, computer users complain because their screens wobble, making it difﬁcult to work. • Bridges – need to comply with bridge codes. • Laboratories – equipment, such as optical and electron microscopes and laser research systems, are very sensitive to vibrations. Floors for such equipment ﬂoors must comply with the BBN or ASHRAE standards. • Hospitals – operating theaters require the utmost stability for delicate operations, and the latest scanning technologies require even lower vibration levels. • Airports – Airport owners are concerned that ﬂoor vibrations in heavily trafﬁcked waiting areas can upset seated travelers. • Retail – many major retailers require assurance that vibrations on display ﬂoors, such as a display of glasses on glass shelves, will not be excessive. If the ﬂoor is too lively, then the glasses will rattle

However, a number of problems emerged with this solution. The ﬁrst was that ﬂoors can be excited into resonance at higher harmonics of a pedestrian’s footstep frequency. The second was that while shorter spans had higher natural frequencies, they also had lower mass, making them easier to excite. This, combined with the modern trend for irregular ﬂoor bays, open plan ofﬁces and electronic storage rather than ﬁling cabinets (reducing the mass and damping of ﬂoors) made the vibration problem more difﬁcult to assess and solve. Floor vibration problems are not restricted to steel/composite ﬂoors. While most reinforced concrete ﬂoors, such as shown in Figure 2, are adequate for ofﬁce and residential use, vibration must still be checked for more sensitive occupancies such as laboratories. Post-tensioned slabs, such as shown in Figure 3, are thinner and lighter than those of conventional reinforced concrete, and are thus more susceptible. Therefore, what the industry needed was a reliable design method for all construction forms, materials and framing layouts.

Industry Solutions

Industry experts recognized that ﬂoor frequency was not the crucial issue, but how much the ﬂoor responds to the footsteps of a person walking over it – a footfall response calculation. Various trade organizations, such as the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC),1 the Steel Construction Institute (SCI),2 and the Concrete Society3 have produced guides to assist engineers in predicting this ﬂoor response. Measuring the Vibration Problem. Human comfort is often the key design objective for footfall-induced vibration, but in research, medical, microelectronics and other “vibration-sensitive” occupancies, vibration may need to be restricted to levels well below the threshold of human perception. Response Factors for Humans. Setting simple criteria for human acceptance, such as shown in Figure 4, is complicated by the fact that human tolerance of vibration varies with the direction, frequency and duration of vibration. To account for direction and frequency dependencies, the response factor R is deﬁned as a multiplier of the level of vibration, at the average threshold of human perception, in the direction of concern at any frequency. Therefore, a response factor of 1 represents the magnitude of vibration that is just perceptible by a typical human, while a response

SOUND & VIBRATION/NOVEMBER 2009

Vibration Problem

For many years, serviceability requirements have been a part of structural design. Initially, these were just deﬂection limits to prevent ﬁnishes from cracking and building occupants noticing ﬂoors sagging. These proved adequate for decades, until advances began to be made into more efﬁcient, lighter structures, such as composite beam or post-tensioned slab ﬂoors, and open-plan rather than cellular ofﬁces became more common. Unfortunately, users of some of these buildings found that the ﬂoors could be rather lively. The ﬁrst proposed remedy to this problem was to restrict the natural frequency of the ﬂoor beams, since it was thought that if this were kept above walking pace, then resonance should not occur. For simple ﬂoor layouts, the fact that this frequency could be found by a simple hand calculation encouraged this approach.

www.SandV.com

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Regular and Irregular Structural Layouts. Hz 100 Figure 4. each of the colored lines in Figure 4 represents the vibration level corresponding to a particular response factor. • Applicable to structures whose structural properties may be ascertained by: hand calculation undertaken early in the design (or to verify more complex analyses). If we then add the posts under the atrium beams using staged analysis. This is supported by an example in the AISC design guide (shown in Figure 5) where “unacceptable walking vibrations occur throughout most of the ﬂoor. many modern buildings do not have simple and uniform ﬂoor bays. Most existing methods rely heavily on “rules” that classify different structural forms. ﬁnite-element analysis. Figure 3. this is not the case in practice. then the assumptions made are likely to be inaccurate. because susceptible vibration modes are sometimes localized to small areas. www.01 1 10 Frequency. and measurement. d In alls m en ce s or equipment-speciﬁc) apply. different types of criteria (BBN.3 The research conﬁrmed that when the walking frequency (or a multiple of it) coincides with a natural frequency of the ﬂoor. While this simplicity enables calculations to be carried out by hand. when modal frequencies fall below four times the footfall rate (resonance to the ﬁrst four harmonics of the footfall force). post tensioned slab. Eight-meter bay. factor of 2 is twice that.2. ﬂoors with irregular bays can be livelier than regular ones. In this way. example from AISC. then vibrations will build up in a resonant manner. enabling the consequences of various design iterations to be readily and quickly assessed. peak criteria) after AISC. Peak Acceleration.2 For sensitive equipment. If the structure does not readily ﬁt into one of these classiﬁcations. 100 10 Stro tirin ngly p go e ver rcept ib lon g p le erio ds Cle a dist rly pe r rac ting ceptib le s. then approximations must be made. s n ge da rid d tb an o fo ing or in do . whether simple or complex. If the underlying assumptions for the basis of these empirical rules are not fully understood.r es id es Bar 0. But there is some knock-on effect to adjacent bays (see Figure 7). thus the details of the analysis to be used. • Straightforward to use. Floor vibrations due to human activity. itie s tiv idge c a r ic tb m foo yth oor h g R td pin ou op sh cing . ASHRAE.1 ely per cep tible IS O ba s n eli e cu e rv 0. This can be predicted with GSA Footfall as shown in Figure 6. reinforced concrete ﬂat slab. the ﬂoor in this area does improve. Eight-meter bay. Figure 5. these methods have been very extensively validated against measurements on completed structures and have been adopted in several of the most recent industry design guides. This means that the modes have low modal mass and can be more easily excited to high acceleration responses under footfalls. The difﬁculty with some ﬂoor vibration guidelines is that they offer procedures only for regular rectangular ﬂoor layouts. Building vibration z-axis curves for acceleration (RMS baseline.” In fact. %g The Ideal Solution The ideal methodology for assessing the susceptibility of a structure to footfall vibration would be: • Applicable to as many structural forms as possible. and a response factor of 8 is eight times that. A new set of methods was developed by Arup in the 1990s and is based on extensive fundamental research into the nature of footfall forces and the manner in which structures respond to them. Resonant vibrations tend to dominate on low-frequency ﬂoors (<10 Hz).0 Per c ept ible O ffic .SandV.com 1.Figure 2. 12 SOUND & VIBRATION/NOVEMBER 2009 . particularly adjacent to the atrium. In the past 10 years. While some software suppliers have suggested that irregular frames cannot experience resonant problems.

pre.com Figure 10. because GSA is based on the ﬁrst principles of structural dynamics. Using GSA. including forces for use with stairs. On higher-frequency ﬂoors (>10 Hz). composite. GSA has been one of the leading PC-based packages for structural analysis. sponse to determine sensible locations for sensitive equipment or activities. you get quick and accurate predictions of ﬂoor’s resonant and transient response to footfall forces. Response factor vs. you can calculate the footfall response of any ﬂoor. vibration induced by each footstep tends to decay substantially before the next footstep occurs. you can check particular areas. Figure 7. A properly conducted ﬁnite-element analysis (FEA) is the only reliable way to predict the footfall response of any ﬂoor that is not part of a regular rectangular frame (see Figure 8). walking frequency. reinforced.or post-tensioned concrete or timber. Developed by Arup to meet its own demanding and diverse requirements as one of the world’s leading ﬁrms of international consulting engineers. bridge or other structure constructed of steel. Figure 6. GSA’s capabilities are proven on thousands of complex and prestigious projects worldwide.4. Also. Because you can deﬁne exactly where to examine a model. including response factors. such as the effect of running down a corridor next to an operating theatre. not empirical formulae to speciﬁc layouts. Finite element analysis of irregular ﬂoor frame. Figure 9. FEA is often quicker than using hand calculations. Appropriate dynamic loading functions for walking and other human activities as recommended by Arup research and the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) are automatically available. Composite frame.5 GSA Footfalls analyzes structures using extensively validated Arup methods.Figure 8. and transient vibrations due to each individual footstep dominate the response. Even with a regular frame. peak and RMS accelerations and velocities. Floor response before remedial work. It also allows you to assess quickly the cost effectiveness of localized modiﬁcations to ﬂoor structures to meet the design criteria for humans or sensitive equipment.SandV. GSA analysis enables you to locate regions of high and low rewww. Floor response after addition of new posts. GSA Footfall For many years. You can also examine the SOUND & VIBRATION/NOVEMBER 2009 13 .

com .debney@arup.. adjust minimum References 1. Hicks S. C. “Floor Vibrations Due to Human Activity. www. and Young. the area of excitation. “Design of Floors for Vibration: A New Approach. deﬁne your own dynamic load factors.com. 2006. and Young. Step-by-Step Guide 1. bridge. L. These are typically 10 Hz. Omaha. E. and Devine P.. American Institute of Steel Construction.” AISC. Mode 2 of composite frame. P. footfall rates and damping. damping by user input values. and periodic excitation (see Figure 9). GSA Footfalls is for structural engineers who need to predict reliably the response of a structure to footfall-induced loading. R. 3. modal P-delta. Steel Construction. Other Vibration Analyses: harmonic analysis. NB. Ritz P-delta). ﬂoor or stair)..” Steel Construction Institute. choice of excitation force methods (Arup/Concrete-Centre. 2. response spectrum. Footfall Analysis – Run a footfall response analysis as shown in Figure 13. It is a FEA program that provides the ability to analyze any structure for footfall response. resonance of a structure to vibrating machinery and dance loads using harmonic analysis.SandV. M.. Sub-Frame Model – Create a model of the ﬂoor in question using beams and/or shells as shown in Figure 10. Ritz.oasys-software. The authors can be reached at: peter. ﬂoor or stair. Concrete Centre and SCI methods. D. Willford. E. Murray. M. linear time history. 14 SOUND & VIBRATION/NOVEMBER 2009 www. Dynamic Features of GSA Modal Analysis: choice of eigenvalue analysis (modal. Figure 11 Mode 1 of composite frame.” Architectural Engineering National Conference. Field.. 2006.com. and contour plots of vibration levels on ﬂoor. 2.. 5. “A Design Guide for Footfall Induced Vibration of Structures.Figure 13. vary number of footfalls for resonant response. Willford. E. detailed chart views of results. “Improved Methodologies for the Prediction of Footfall Induced Vibration. 15 Hz or twice the fundamental frequency (see Figures 11 and 12). 4.” The Concrete Centre. Footfall Analysis: check full model or selected areas. Footfall vibration response contours. include additional horizontal or vertical restraints. and include stiffening effects of loads. Options include selection of harmonic or impulsive forces. Summary Figure 12. 3. J. it gives you the tools to assess your structure using the AISC..com/GSA. and maximum walking frequencies (footfall rates). vary weight of walker. specify mass or derive mass from applied loads and self weight. M.willford@ arup. and Ungar.. whether steel or concrete. modal damping or table. T. 2007. 2003.. or conduct a linear response analysis. michael. chose number of vibration modes and start mode. P. Allen. Unlike other programs or manual methods. J... Smith A. Modal Analysis – Run a modal analysis to ﬁnd the modes up to the limit speciﬁed in the relevant design guide.

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