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Nip Impressions David R. Roisum, Ph.D. Finishing Technologies, Inc.

Neenah, WI 54956 ABSTRACT

A nonuniform nip is nearly synonymous with a nonuniform product. Uneven nips are also a common cause of web handling waste such as wrinkles, web breaks and other troubles. There are many causes for nonuniform nips. However, all are readily detectable by using nip impression paper. Nip impression paper is an indispensable tool for process and product troubleshooting as well as for nip roller system maintenance. This technique is good, fast and cheap. There are few good alternatives.

KEYWORDS Nip, roller, pressure, uniformity, quality, safety WHAT IS A NIP IMPRESSION? A nip is the pressure between two rollers that are forced together. A nip impression is a measure of the uniformity of that pressure. The pressure profile is sometimes referred to as a footprint. It can be measured in many ways. The simplest is to make sure that there is pressure everywhere across the width. This can be done by shining a light through the nip. Light escaping through a gap between the rollers tells us that there is no nip there. However, even if there is contact everywhere, the pressure may still be quite uneven. A better approach is to measure the width of the footprint. If the width is uneven, the pressure profile must also be uneven. However, measuring nip widths accurately can be difficult if the width is narrow. Also, as we will see, nip width variations are not a very sensitive measure of nip uniformity. The very best measure of the nip is to measure the pressure profile directly. Both nip widths and nip pressures can be measured with paper thin products often referred to as nip impression paper, even though some are these products are made of plastic rather than paper. Nip impression paper behaves like carbon or carbonless paper which turns color when a sufficient pressure has been applied such as by typing or writing with a pen. Nip impression paper is an indispensable tool for machine PM or process troubleshooting.
AN IMPORTANT SAFETY NOTE

Nip impressions, like most maintenance procedures, require people to be in proximity of a potentially hazardous area, namely, the nip. Thus, every one involved must take every precaution to ensure safety of their people. The most important precaution is to never enter the area until the drive and machine have been locked out and tagged out and the nip mechanically blocked open. Another requisite precaution is to limit the procedure only to those who have been trained and tested in machine safety in general and taking safe nip impressions in specific.

Many of the checks. There are few good alternatives.WHY IS A UNIFORM NIP PRESSURE IMPORTANT? Our motives to measure nip pressure uniformity are to improve product quality and reduce customer complaints and waste. Perhaps the most universal is roller deflection. This variation is called TIR for Total Indicator Runout. which again causes the pressure in the middle to be less than the ends. If the width and/or color come out uniform. force gages for loading systems and cover hardness measurements. this is the hard way to get things done. A similar design issue is thin shell wall deflection. station-to-station or taper. the static technique ‘stamps’ the paper while the dyamic technique ‘rolls’ the paper through. theodolites for alignment. The same is true for many converting processes including calendering. Even so. the radius of the roller may vary around the circumference. It is uniform. you no longer need to concern yourself with the nip. It is up to the machine designer to make judgments about roller diametral sizing to avoid excessive deflection. Also. dial indicators for TIR. the nip impression will almost always direct you to the exact cause. Even if you did take the time. Another maintenance source is roller misalignment as seen in Figure 4. Equally useful is that if width/color does not come out uniform. As seen in Figure 3. web handling can suffer with more wrinkles. Finally. rollers in nip will bow apart in the middle making the nip there less than on the ends. The amount of bending can be calculated and can even be countered with techniques such as crowning. how would you know if you did it right? Even more crucial is how would you know if a given variation was too much? The simple alternative and the first line of defense is to use nip impression paper. fast and cheap. There are two methods of using nip impression papers. Using nip impression paper is good. static and dynamic. coating. Either one or both can be put on the same paper sample. You would need calipers for diameter. crowning or other compensations are seldom successful. rollers might be aligned but still have a side-to-side error because the force on one side is greater. such as roller diametral and shell wall sizing. Even if you did take the time. As seen in Figure 1. This behavior is inescapable because it is determined by immutable laws of physics. . This variation can be defined either as pk-pk. The very few applications where nip uniformity is less important may include some extremely thick webs or light loading of high modulus materials. Less than perfect maintenance is also a source of nip pressure variations. a roller’s diameter varies across the width. However. Alternatively. At most you may need to only do one calculation or measurement and then only for verification. HOW DO I KNOW IF MY NIP PRESSURE IS UNIFORM? The brute force method to check a nip would be to check all of the possible causes of an uneven nip such as given above. In this case. A nonuniform nip is nearly synonymous with a nonuniform product for a variety of forming processes from paper making to rubber calenders. laminating and printing. involve calculations that would be difficult and time-consuming at best. as seen in Figure 2. As seen in Figure 5. web breaks and other troubles if the nip is uneven. WHAT CAN MAKE A NIP UNEVEN? There are many factors that can make a nip uneven. Cover hardness is but another source of nip pressure variation. Both can typically be done in less than a half an hour. how would you know if you did it right? Even more crucial is how would you know if a given deflection was too much? Many of the checks involve measurements that would be difficult and time consuming at best. it is possible to make errors in calculation or machining that may be difficult to detect without checking the nip uniformity.

18. If a thick or flexible product is to be run. All steps. 7. 6. 10. namely. 15. THE DYNAMIC NIP IMPRESSION The dynamic technique is preferable to the static in three situations. it is unfortunately insensitive. are repeated here for convenience. the most important measure of uniformity here is the width of the footprint line. Open the nip Lock out and tag out the machine Lock out and tag out the drives Mechanically block open the nip Cut a sheet of nip impression paper corresponding to the width of the rollers Label the sheet with date. the dynamic technique can be hypersensitive. 2. or up to a dozen CD (cross direction) positions or as best serves the application or study. The second is if your objective is to measure the effects of roller runout or TIR. however. While the static nip impression is most convenient. The dynamic technique differs from the static in only a couple of steps. 1. The first is if your objective is to measure pressure. With the dynamic technique. 8. After all people are safely distant from the nip. The third is if your objective is to maximize the sensitivity of the measurement. 4. Width measurements might be taken every couple of inches or so across the width. nipped roller set name. 5.THE STATIC NIP IMPRESSION The static nip impression is used when you primary objective is to get nip width rather than pressure or roller TIR. The steps are as follows: 1. The nip width footprint is obtained by closing the nip momentarily on the paper. Thus. However. This may require two technicians and tape to hold the paper in place. 12. 7 and 13. you can do the nip impression on top of the web product. crown values. 16. roller ID #’s. 19. 4. 3. machine #. 11. 9. cover hardness. front side / back side Center the paper under the nip. While the static technique is insensitive. All personnel are cleared from the machine Locks and tags are removed The operator makes a last visual inspection of the nip area and yells “Clear Nip” While observing the nip area. 2. 3. Open the nip Lock out and tag out the machine Lock out and tag out the drives Mechanically block open the nip . 13a. the operator closes the nip The nip load is set at a running or test value and held for 10 seconds The nip is opened Lock out and tag out the machine Lock out and tag out the drives Mechanically block open the nip Remove the nip impression paper Inspect the nip footprint for the uniformity of the footprint Gaps in the line indicate that any product with similar thickness/modulus will have zero pressure there. 17. 14. The nip load ratio is the square of the width ratio because pressure also increases with nip width for a given roller set. Footprint width is measured with a ruler (if wide) or a magnifying reticule if narrow. the pressure profile is obtained by rolling the nip paper through the nip. a 2:1 ratio of maximum to minimum line width is in reality a 4:1 variation in nip load. the nip block is removed.

At this value. If the color of your nip impression is white. Cut a sheet of nip impression paper corresponding to the width of the rollers Label the sheet with date. crown correction formulas given below assume the real value of nip width is known. 18. All personnel are cleared from the machine Locks and tags are removed The operator makes a last visual inspection of the nip area and yells “Clear Nip” While observing the nip area. Second. 19. roller ID #’s. the paper saturates at 500 PSI. 2. The first is the onset of color which begins at the threshold pressure. for example. the nip pressure at least as high as the saturation value is present across the entire width. INTERPRETING THE COLOR. 12. Now. This pressure is well above zero for most products. No coloration – load range of the paper is too high for this application Completely saturated color for dynamic technique – load range is too low for this application . you will have a complete revolution but not a complete width. crown values. 14. 11. Nonetheless. In any case. however. After all people are safely distant from the nip. The intensity of the paper can be matched like a color chip to calibrated pressures. HOW DO I KNOW IF I HAVE DONE THE MEASUREMENTS WELL? If you have a clear imprint.000 PSI. While these are limitations. LOAD RANGE AND NIP WIDTH The pressure curve for the nip impression paper is shown in Figure 6. Use the technique most suited to the problem you are trying to troubleshoot. cover hardness. the calculation of peak pressure based on nip width and nip load will be compromised. if provided by the supplier. it may well be a representative sample. 13b. you can at least learn something. the load range of that paper product is too high for that application and nothing can be learned. If. This has two implications. front side / back side Position the paper at the leading edge of the nip. the load range of the paper is too low. Here. you probably have done the measurements well. 15. If you feel the need to document the entire circumference at some location you can run the paper through with the lengthwise direction with the paper oriented in the MD (machine direction). 17. make a quality or uniformity statement. nipped roller set name. the paper will be completely colored. machine #. here are some conditions that indicate problems with the measurement. One subtlety of a nonzero threshold pressure is that the actual nip width is wider than the width of the impression. There are two values of most interest. You can not. First. 7. This may require two technicians and tape to hold the paper in place. If the color of your nip impression is completely colored and saturated. roller runout can not be completely checked using the technique given here because the width of the paper is usually far smaller than the circumference of the roller. however. The second is the saturation pressure. The most sensitive measure is if the paper turns out partly colored. the nip block is removed. grey if you like. 9. 8. they are seldom an issue except in certain niche situations. 6. the impression would appear uniform (completely dark) even if the nip pressure varied from 500 to 5. 13a. 10. Here.5. you can use a standard or special web brightness meter to quantify the color and thus pressure. 1. 16. However. the operator closes the nip The nip load is set at a running or test value and held for 10 seconds While observing the nip area the operator jogs the drive to run the paper through the nip The nip is opened Lock out and tag out the machine Lock out and tag out the drives Mechanically block open the nip Remove the nip impression paper Inspect the nip footprint for the uniformity of the footprint Obviously.

This frequency allows you to get ahead of the problem. particularly two-component products. to see if the problem moves correspondingly. not necessarily a cause. you may expect that the diametral variations were responsible. worse or different than the middle. Only in a couple of cases might the source be ambiguous. Do nip impressions before the roller wears out and the customer complains. This is something like matching fingerprints on a door knob to a suspected burglar. All you have established so far is that the nip is a candidate. Take care. If for example. In other words. If so. HOW DO I KNOW WHAT CAUSES MY NON-UNIFORM NIP? The causes for a non-uniform nips given above are usually quite easy to determine by looking at the nip impression results. the big opportunity and the one that most people miss is PM (preventative maintenance). If so. if the error were severe. The dynamic nip impression would be darker on the ends than the middle or vice versa. then you might look at doing a nip impressions every week. For example. The static nip impression footprint might be concave (hourglass) or convex (barrel) shaped. Figure 7 shows how the static and dynamic nip impression footprint color intensity can vary with common sources of problems. If. Check the nip impression. or rebuild to a larger roller. don’ wait until the customer complains about streaks in the product. long before it even needs changing. The next step would be to verify a crown/deflection mismatch by calculation (1) or by varying the load to see if the nip impression shape changes. so one is higher than the other. Proactive instead of reactive. you only get a month. slips or shears during the procedure. HOW DO I KNOW IF NIP NONUNIFORMITIES ARE A PROBLEM? The easiest way to troubleshoot the nip is to match the shape of the problem to the shape of the nip profile (2). if the error were modest. The application for maintenance would be to check rollers as they are taken out and put into service. The former is to establish a ‘threshold of pain’ and the latter is a sanity check to make sure the loading system and roll grind are in good shape. Another technique is bias the loads on the side. WHEN SHOULD I DO A NIP IMPRESSION? Nip impressions can be done for troubleshooting. 7. The application for troubleshooting was discussed above. if the CD (cross-direction) location of a web steak or web defect lines up with a band in the nip impression. 6. If the nip impression were similarly shaped. By this I mean that the ends are better. Results are incompatible with other measurements or knowns. in the thin wall case the gradient (change) on the ends is extremely high while the under crown tends to vary smoothly and gently across the width. The paper puckers or wrinkles – paper not squared and mounted carefully Paper. do a nip impression every quarter at a convenient down time.3. However. A repeat of the procedure does not yield similar results. on the other hand. However. spare parts and maintenance. 4. One example is that thin wall deflection and under crowning look similar. Your problem might also be smile or frown shaped. however. Supporting evidence would be if the width of the streak/defect lane is within a factor of two of the width of the nip impression band. because many elements of web machines are similarly shaped. the next step would be to crown. a roller tends to last one year between grinds. maintenance or PM’s. . you may be suspicious of a causal connection. You can use service history to estimate a frequency that might be appropriate. 5. Don’t wait until QA does a thumbs down before changing the rollers. Often to the point of predicting when the roller will need changing. the next step would be to replace or regrind the offending roller(s). This allows you to plan downtimes. High temperatures that damage the nip impression paper.

this technique is very time consuming to profile. You should do this even if you are not aware of a problem caused by nip uniformity. The products also differ in their useful load ranges. The non-foil products may be either one-part or two-part products. The electronic nip sensors are even more complex and include sensors. The use of such techniques makes me shake my head in disbelief. The costs of these products vary enormously. There are a number of ad hoc ways to check nip uniformity. One can correct the crown by two crude but simple approximation techniques. Most machines give nip cylinder pressure in PSI and are not calibrated as they should be to PLI (kN/m in the Metric system). The first is to alter the loading until the nip impression is flat and uniform. OTHER NIP IMPRESSION PRODUCTS AND TECHNIQUES We already mentioned the sources of nip uniformity problems and the tools that would be required to check them directly. In either case. instrumentation. You may just discover why you product is uneven (which it almost certainly is). The calculation is simply the sum of the bending deflections of both rollers caused by gravity and the loading system. Using a force gage. Finally. Some people put sticky notes into both sides of a static nip and then measure the distance between the pairs. film or foil. The corrected crown would be the present crown multiplied by the load ratio. winders etc. In other words. The two-part product has a separate sheet for the dye and the blank or the dye and developer sheets.) should be done on occasion because they are the heart of the machine and process. Again. this technique is time consuming. a tiny variation in a metal-metal gap can represent a huge variation in pressure. coating.WHICH ROLLERS SHOULD BE CHECKED? Any nipped roller which has worn out in the past or is expected to wear out would be candidates for nip impression PM’s. The nip width can be measured by the area where the grease has squeezed away. You should do this on any transport nip (pull rollers. NewCrown(mils ) = OldCrown(mils ) CurrentLoad ( PLI ) FlatLoad ( PLI ) The challenge here is that most people will not readily know the nip load in appropriate units of force or force/width. Any nipped roller which is a process roller (calendering. Why people would improvise such crude methods to check rollers which cost thousands if not hundreds of thousands of dollars? HOW TO CUT AND CORRECT A CROWN? An initial crown is usually cut to a value either determined by long and studied experience or by calculation (1). This presumes that the equipment is capable of reaching those loads. Finally. errors of omission or commission can make the crown inappropriate for the loading as seen in Figure 8. printing etc. The one part products are slightly easier to handle. Film spans the middle pressure ranges. computers and software and are thus outrageously expensive. there are at least two commercial electronic nip sensors as well as a number of others that have been used for special R&D projects. but does not require saleable product. one might measure the profile of gap. faster and cheaper. laminating. one can measure the variation require to pull the strips out. . wrinkles or web breaks are troublesome at that location. Contact the machine builder or an engineer to get loads in the correct units for use for product and process design. Film is highly engineered and is thus very expensive.) if puckers. doesn’t consider deflection and is very insensitive for hard nips. especially for products thinner than 10 mils or so. Nip impression paper may be paper. We have concluded that nip impression paper is almost always better. Foil has the lowest threshold while paper has the highest. It is also not suitable for nip loads much above 10 PLI which preclude almost everything but winders. However. Using feeler gages. Another technique is to nip strips of shimstock or product in various places across the nip. Specifically. some people make up a sandwich of grease inside a plastic bag.

Cutting an accurate crown is something that will tax the best numerically controlled grinders. CALCULATING PEAK NIP PRESSURE. The bottom line is that we will use the nip impression paper technique to determine whether the crown is correct. While one could use a parabola. negative if too much crown) We = Nip width on the roll ends Wc = Nip width at the roll center D1 = Diameter of roller 1 D2 = Diameter of roller 2 These techniques give an approximation for the value or magnitude of the diametral difference for the crown. Another application would be as a sanity check for nip load values.The other technique is to measure the nip width at the roll ends. and the roll center. The crown deficiency is calculated in a consistent set of units as: ( − )( ) C = We Wc D + D 2 2 1 2 2 × D1 D2 where: C = Diametric crown deficiency (positive if too little crown. The resulting width or color will tell us the direction we need to move as was given in Figure 7. They say nothing about the shape. Wc. One application would be to get peak pressure or stress to select the right nip impression paper product or to engineer contact stresses.277 N W where. the convention is to cut the crown as a 70 degree cosine as seen in Figure 9. The shape is a best convenient fit for the beam deflection. psi. σc = peak nip pressure or stress (lb/in2. We. PLI or N/m) W = actual nip width (in or m) . you can calculate the third. or N/m2) N = lineal nip load (lb/in. NIP LOAD OR NIP WIDTH If you know two of the above. Specifically. σ c = 1.

September 1975. of Applied Physics. October 1978. vol 80.BOOKS 1. Modeling Rubber Covered Nip Rollers in Web Lines. David R. Web Handling Research Center. and Moschel. July 1997. Moore. 20. Parish. May 1988. pp 277-280. TAGA Proc. TAPPI PRESS. Press Nip Maintenance using Electronic Nip Impressions. 1963. David R. Tony. TIS 40510. pp 121-124. Stephen. British J. of Applied Physics..a new diagnostics tool. Paper Age. David J. How to specify rubber rollers. 7. May 2003 Brink. David R. What is the best nip control? Converting Magazine. Data Sheet G-20. William B. D. British J. 2. vol 77. vol 77.. Canadian Pulp and Paper Assoc. Film & Foil Converter. J. Paper Technology. Tappi J. Electronic Nip Impression Facilitates Faster Roll. Twitchen. 14. 3. Canadian Pulp & Paper Association. TAPPI PRESS. 6th Int'l Conf. Using Nip Impressions to get Uniform Water Removal. Calculation of the Behavior of Rubber-Covered Pressure Rollers. June 10-13.. Kennedy. 10. no 12. TAPPI. J Keith. 115-118. vol 77. Tappi J. December 2002. 13. 9. Robert H. vol 77. no 5.H. Web Works Column. 6. vol 21. Roll Crown Specifications and Definitions. 15. 2000 Huff. Roisum. Nip and Crown Diagnostics. Mark. pp 50-53. Sam F. May 1991. 19. January 1991. no 10. R. 11. Joseph A. Measure Pressure with Thin Film. Parish. Deshpande. pp 48-53. pp 45-47. Beloit Corporation. . pp 333-336. pp 158-161. 17. Pulp & Paper. R. Bentley. March 1998. pp 81. vol 12. 1996. no 5. G. R. Converting Magazine. Genisot. 4. Charles C. vol 74.H. Williamson. G. pp 117-122. Tappi J. no 5. on Web Handling Proc. William B and Moore.. Crowning and Dubbing Information for Covered Rolls.BIBLIOGRAPHY . pp 103-117. Keller. July 1961. no 5. vol 61. pp 246-250.. pp 64. April 1958. vol 9. William B and Moore. no 9. J. Nip Impressions . no 5. Tappi J. January 1979. 77th Annual Mtg. Measurements of Pressure Distribution Between Metal and Rubber Covered Rollers. March 1994. no 7. William B. 8. Oklahoma State Univ. A Tool for the Engineered Nip.. Good. 12. Manual J099-10015. The Mechanics of Rollers. vol 20. 5.. September 1994. Swinak. Kennedy. Narayan V. Instrumentation for Roll Nip Studies. Technical Section. Calculation of Nip Width Between Elastomeric Cylinders. July 1992. Tappi J. Beloit Corp.a tool for troubleshooting and maintaining quality. Kennedy. 2002 BIBLIOGRAPHY – SELECTED ARTICLES 1. Electric Nip Impressions . Paper Machine Roll Grinding Tolerances. May 2003. Paper. May 2000.. 2. Techniques for Nip Impressions. Roisum. Tappi J. 18. Nip Impressions. Roisum. TAPPI Technical Information Sheets. Kennedy. Critical Thinking in Converting. no 3. Measurement of the Pressure-Time Profile in a Rolling Calender Nip. May 2003. vol 83. 16.

Figure 1 – Roller Beam Deflection Figure 2 – Roller Thin Wall Shell Deflection Figure 3 – Cylindricity Error R adial Runout (T IR) Measured with a Dial Indic ator Diameter Variation Measured with a Micrometer (pk-pk. station-station) Θ R(Θ) z R(z) Figure 4 – Roller Misalignment . taper.

Grinding .R oller Wear.Nip Width Good Static . Grinding Banding .Figure 5 – Static and Dynamic Nip Impression Techniques S tatic Nip Impression Dynamic Nip Impression 1 2 Figure 6 – Nip Impression Paper Color Curves S aturation T hreshold P ressure Color Nip Pressure Footprint P ressure (psi) Meas ured Nip W idth Actuall Nip W idth Figure 7 – Reading Nip Impressions Static .Nip Width Good Crown T oo Low for Given Load Crown T oo Low for Given Load Crown T oo High for Given Load Crown T oo High for Given Load Unbalanced Loading or Misaligned Unbalanced Loading or Misaligned Banding .R oller Wear.

Figure 8 – Crown Errors Light Nip Load and/or Heavy Crown Matched Load/Crown Heavy Nip Load and/or Light Crown Figure 9 – 70 Degree Cosine Approximation of Crown Shape Deflected Shape Cosine Curve 70 degrees 70 degrees .

Everyone should be aware that the torque loads generated by most drives are easily enough to pull a person through the nip. The second hazard is jogging the drive which is used only in the dynamic technique. The drive should not be engaged until the operator has loudly yelled “Drive On” and waited for at least 5 seconds. even at thread speeds the human reaction time is so slow that at least one foot of material will be entrained before the drive stops. Nip impressions should not be taken unless all people involved can and will take all precautions such as listed here. The drive should not be engaged until the operator has made certain that all personal are clear The drive should not be engaged until the operator has a clear view of the entire length of both sides of the nip. Mounting the paper – Step 7 Engaging the nip and drive – Step 13 .SAFETY Nip impressions. namely the nip. They are: 1. There are at least two hazards represented by the nip. The first hazard is closing the nip which may pinch a body part. Rather. These hazards can maim or kill if proper precautions are not taken. even narrow converting machinery can deliver dangerous nip loads. However. However. The nip should not be closed until the operator has a clear view of the entire length of both sides of the nip. The helper will stand in an area with good visibility but which is clear of the machine. The most important precaution is to never enter the area until the drive and machine have been locked out and tagged out and the nip mechanically blocked open. Another requirement is to limit the procedure only to those who have been trained and tested in machine safety in general and nip impression methods and nip impression safety in specific. Everyone should be aware that nips do not open suddenly like an elevator door when contacting a body. every one involved must take every precaution to ensure safety of people in the area. Everyone should be aware that the nip loads generated by cylinders are easily enough to crush and kill on most machines. Nip impressions should not be taken unless all people involved have been trained and tested in machine safety and nip impression safety. The nip should not be closed until the operator has loudly yelled “Closing Nip” and waited for at least 5 seconds. Thus. This step has an even higher potential hazard because the driven nip will often be able to pull a person into the nip. This would include both people involved with the maintenance as well as those visitors which may stray into the area. They are when people may be in proximity to the nip. Everyone should be aware that drives do not stop suddenly. the nip load can easily exceed 10 tons. On wide paper machines and metal mills. The nip is closed in both the static and dynamic technique. You will be crushed long before anyone can open the nip. even when using a ‘dead man switch’. If the entire length of one/both sides can not be seen from the operating panel. Rather. The nip should not be closed until the operator has made certain that all personal are clear. 2. the nip load will be developed so fast as to exceed human reaction time. On wide paper machines and metal mills. like many maintenance procedures. even narrow converting machinery can deliver dangerous torque loads. the torque load can easily exceed 1000 lbs. A single thumb up is the universal ‘All Clear’ signal and should not be used for any other meaning. There are three time periods which are most hazardous. the operator will use one/two helper(s) as an extra set of eyes. require people to be in proximity of a potentially hazardous area.

Nips should never move quickly. . The switch is usually a supplement rather than a replacement to other switches such as pull cords and mushroom buttons. It is safest to block both front and back of the machine. Think about and plan every move before you make the move. The best place to block is usually with a pin through a hole on a point provided by the machine builder. Removing the paper – Step 18 Special attention and diligence and focus are to be maintained everyone at these times. The nip must be blocked open when personnel are inside the machine. 3 4. such as cylinders and arms. activated by lifting and depressing the foot. It is better to be a fink than be party to an accident. Make sure all guards. You are ultimately responsible for your safety and the safety of those around you. as they may also present a pinch hazard. interlocks. tagged out and the nip mechanically blocked open. Watch out for the nip loading mechanism itself. No access to the machine is to be allowed unless it is locked out. controls. Consult the machine builder if you have any concerns. Any changes will immediately stop the drive and open the nip. Other Safety Tips 1. Keep nonessential people out of the area when performing any maintenance including nip impressions. but may be slow enough to get out of the way. If not provide by the OEM. A rule of thumb is 10-20 second nip open and closing time. Consult your machine builder and your safety department if you have any concerns. The former is forgivable. signage and other safety elements are in place and operating correctly. Report anyone whose behavior and actions put someone at risk. This is fast enough to notice movement. Consult your plant and machine builder for lockout tag out procedures for your machine. Do not do anything that does not seem right or violates safe practice. Be familiar with the machine and consult you machine builder if you have any concerns. the latter is forever. A slight taper on the spacer block will prevent it from dropping through a nip with a vertical web run. is an extra layer of safety when in the proximity of the nip. The speed of opening and closing is usually adjustable by flow control valves. Watch out for your buddy to make sure he/she is also acting in a safe and predictable manner. Here. Side conversations and other duties should cease at these times. A dead man’s switch. Do not rush anything. 5. 7. 6. you might design spacers to go between the nip if the nip opening is not large such as on a winder.3. the operator must maintain a specific amount of pressure on the foot pedal. The spacers must be slightly narrower than the maximum opening of the nip. 2.