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COMPETENCY SHEET FOR SEITAI MODULE 6 – THE UPPER EXTREMITY Student 1.

Prerequisites for Module 6 Student has shown knowledge of the bones and joints of the arm and shoulder 2. Location of anatomy Student is shown how to locate and palpate the following bones: Phalanges and metacarpals Carpals Ulna and Radius Clavicle Scapula 3. Pleural Dome Ligaments Student has been shown the location of the pleural dome ligaments Student is able to test the function of: Transverse pleural ligament Costo-pleural ligament Pleuro-vertebral ligament 4. Integrated Assessment of the Upper Extremity Student is shown how to perform the following techniques: Review of muscle tests Asymmetry, range and texture Subclavius test Clavicle assessment © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA), April 2006 1

Tutor

Pleural dome assessments 5. Correction of the Upper Extremity Student is shown how to: Load and engage the foot to engage the spine “Walking” up the arm whilst holding the stack Use of kyushu at the thumb Use of kyushu at the 1st rib st 1 rib release rd 3 rib release and its importance in lymphatic drainage Bicipital groove 6. Distal Effects of Upper Extremity Protocol Student understands the distal effects as a result of balancing the arm and shoulder Student understands the need to check the following before and after the balance: Fossae Gaits Pitch, Roll and Yaw 7. Distal Effects of Spine and Rib Protocol Student understands the distal effects as a result of balancing the Spine and Ribs Student understands the need to check the following before and after the balance: Fossae Gaits Pitch, Roll and Yaw -

© Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA), April 2006

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SEITAI MODULE SIX

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.............. April 2006 4 ..................................................................................................................THE UPPER EXTREMITY CONTENTS CONTENTS................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8 Ligaments and Tendons ............................................................................................................. 13 © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA)...................................................... 12 Blood Vessels ........................... 9 Muscles ........................ 7 THE SHOULDER ..................................... 13 Bursae ............................................................................................................................................................................. 12 Nerve .................................................... 4 THE UPPER EXTREMITY AND THE SHOULDER ............. 7 Bones and Joints ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 16 Ligaments and Tendons ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 22 Blood Vessels ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 33 Osteoarthritis .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 39 Correction of the thumb ............................................. 25 Osteoarthritis of the acromio-clavicular joint............................ 35 THE FIRST RIB .................................................. 24 CONDITIONS OF THE SHOULDER ....................................................................... 26 Osteoarthritis of the gleno-humeral joint ............. 29 Ulna Neuritis ........... 30 Olecranon Bursitis ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 29 Cubitus Varus or Valgus ........................................................... 30 Osteoarthritis ................................................................................................................................................................................... 34 Summary ......................................... 39 HAND-HOLDS FOR CORRECTING THE SHOULDER ......................... 37 Assessment of First Rib...... 20 Wrist ligaments .......................................................................... 26 Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Shoulder............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 30 Pulled Elbow ................................................ 18 Nerves ............................. 38 Assessment of the thumb .................................. 26 Dislocation ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 20 HAND ANATOMY ............................................................................................................................... 27 Postural Conditions .................................................................................................................................................................... 37 Correction of the First Rib ............................................................................................................... 29 Golfer’s Elbow ................................................................................................................ 19 Blood Vessels ..................................................................................................................................... 28 Tennis Elbow .................................................... 42 Shoulder ........................................................................ 42 © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA).................................................................................................................................................................................................... 34 A BIO-TENSEGRITY MODEL ............................................. 25 Rotator Cuff Tears .......... 20 Bones and Joints ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 32 Ganglions ............................................................................................................................ April 2006 5 ........... 33 Ulna Carpal Tunnel ................................................................................................................................................ 16 Muscles ................................................................ 25 Impingement Syndromes.......................................................................................................... 27 Cautions ................................................................................................................................ 21 Nerves .............................................................................. 33 Rheumatoid Arthritis ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 30 Rheumatoid Arthritis ................................................................................... 28 CONDITIONS OF THE ELBOW ......... 33 Carpal Tunnel ........................... 25 Frozen Shoulder .. 37 THE THUMB ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 14 Bones and Joints .................................. 30 CONDITIONS OF THE WRIST ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ELBOW ANATOMY ............................................................................................................................ 32 Colles’ Fracture............................

.............................................................................................................................. 46 THE MERIDIANS........................................................................................................................................ 52 Small Intestine Meridian ........................................................................................................................................................................ 47 MERIDIANS OF THE BODY ................................................................................................................... 64 BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................ 65 © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA).......................................................................... 48 Conception Vessel ...................................................................................................... 44 ENERGY BASICS ....................................................................................................................................................... 46 THE AURA .... 57 Gall Bladder Meridian .................................................................................................................................................. 46 THE CHAKRAS ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 59 Liver Meridian .................... 61 Lung Meridian .......... 55 Triple Warmer .............................. 52 Bladder Meridian .............................................. 62 Large Intestine Meridian .............................................................................................................................Scapula ................................. 54 Circulation Sex/Pericardium ......... 49 Spleen Meridian ....................................................................................................................................... 43 Sterno-Clavicular Joint ........................................................................................................................................................ 48 Governing Vessel ................................................ 53 Kidney Meridian .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 49 Stomach Meridian ...................................................................................................................... April 2006 6 ................... 50 Heart Meridian ...

THE UPPER EXTREMITY AND THE SHOULDER

THE SHOULDER The shoulder is a very complex joint. It has many actions and articulations within its structure. It is vital that each part is working well because the shoulder affects every other part of the body significantly. The obvious connections are into the head, neck, upper extremity and the whole of the back. Postural changes have dramatic effects on the whole of the Godai. Because of the complexity of the articulations and muscle structure, injuries can be very persistent, complex and tend to cause whole body problems. The shoulder can cause dramatic changes to the cranial system because of the direct link of the trapeziums muscle to the occiput, mastoid process and the TMJ. The shoulder is an elegant piece of machinery. It has the greatest range of motion of any joint in the body. However, this large range of motion can lead to joint problems. Understanding how the different layers of the shoulder are built and connected helps the understanding of how the
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shoulder works, how it can be injured, and how challenging recovery can be when the shoulder is injured.

SHOULDER ANATOMY

Bones and Joints The bones of the shoulder are the humerus (the upper arm bone), the scapula (the shoulder blade), and the clavicle (the collar bone). The roof of the shoulder is formed by a part of the scapula called the acromion. There are actually four joints that make up the shoulder. The main shoulder joint, called the gleno-humeral joint, is formed where the ball of the humerus fits into a shallow socket on the scapula. This shallow socket is called the glenoid cavity.
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The acromio-clavicular (AC) joint is formed where the clavicle meets the acromion. The sterno-clavicular (SC) joint supports the connection of the arms and shoulders (clavicle) to the main skeleton on the front of the chest (sternum). A false joint is formed where the shoulder blade glides against the thorax (the rib cage). This joint, called the scapulo-thoracic joint, is important because it requires that the muscles surrounding the shoulder blade work together to keep the socket lined up during shoulder movements. Articular cartilage is the material that covers the ends of the bones of any joint. Articular cartilage is about one-quarter of an inch thick in most large, weight-bearing joints. It is a bit thinner in joints such as the shoulder, which don't normally support weight. Articular cartilage is white and shiny and has a rubbery consistency. It is slippery, which allows the joint surfaces to slide against one another without causing any damage. The function of articular cartilage is to absorb shock and provide an extremely smooth surface to make motion easier. Articular cartilage exists where two bony surfaces move against one another, or articulate. In the shoulder, articular cartilage covers the end of the humerus and the glenoid cavity.

Ligaments and Tendons There are several important ligaments in the shoulder. Ligaments are soft tissue structures that connect bones to bones. A joint capsule is a watertight sac that surrounds a joint. In the shoulder, the joint capsule is formed by a group of ligaments that connect the humerus to the glenoid cavity. These ligaments are the main source of stability for the shoulder. They help hold the shoulder in place and keep it from dislocating.

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Coracoacromi al ligament Trapezoid ligament Conoid Ligament © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). April 2006 10 .

Muscles move the bones by pulling on the tendons. to the glenoid cavity. across the front of the shoulder. When viewed in cross section. Together these form the coraco-clavicular ligament. Tendons are much like ligaments. connect the clavicle to the scapula by attaching to the coracoid process.Acromioclavicular Ligament Conoid Ligament Trapezoid Ligament Coraco-humeral ligament Gleno-humeral ligament The acromio-clavicular ligament attaches the clavicle to the acromion in the AC joint. the conoid and the trapezoid ligaments. the labrum is wedge-shaped. This © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). The shape and the way the labrum is attached create a deeper cup for the ball of the humerus to fit into. A special type of ligament forms a unique structure inside the shoulder called the labrum. like a ring. except that tendons attach muscles to bones. This is important because the glenoid cavity is so flat and shallow that the ball of the humerus can not fit tightly into it without the presence of the labrum. At the very top of the glenoid cavity. Two ligaments. The labrum is attached almost completely around the edge of the glenoid cavity. the biceps tendon attaches to the bone and actually becomes part of the labrum. The labrum is also where the biceps tendon attaches to the glenoid cavity. The biceps tendon runs from the biceps muscle. a bony knob that sticks out of the scapula in the front of the shoulder. April 2006 11 .

The deltoid is the largest. The nerves also carry signals back to the brain about sensations such as touch. . Three main nerves begin together at the shoulder: the radial nerve. The supraspinatus muscle initiates this action but is not strong enough to sustain full abduction. the ulnar nerve. April 2006 12 . pain. They are involved in many day-to-day activities. and temperature. The deltoid muscle takes over lifting the arm once the arm is away from the side. This group of muscles lies just outside the shoulder joint. The rotator cuff comprises the following four muscles: o o o o Supraspinatus Infraspinatus Teres Minor Subscapularis The large deltoid muscle is the most superficial layer of shoulder muscle. These muscles help abduct the arm and rotate the shoulder in many directions. Nerves All the nerves that travel down the arm pass through the axilla (the armpit) just under the shoulder joint. strongest muscle of the shoulder. Four rotator cuff tendons connect the deepest layer of muscles to the humerus. Muscles The rotator cuff tendons attach to the deep rotator cuff muscles.connection can be a source of problems when the biceps tendon is damaged and pulls away from its attachment to the glenoid. and the median nerve. The rotator cuff muscles and tendons also help keep the shoulder joint stable by holding the humeral head in the glenoid cavity. These nerves carry the signals from the brain to the muscles that move the arm. © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). The tendons of the rotator cuff are the next layer in the shoulder joint.

the shoulder joint is also responsible for placing the hand in the right position for © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). They are found wherever two body parts move against one another and there is no joint to reduce the friction between them. you produce some friction. April 2006 13 . The large axillary artery travels through the axilla. The axillary artery has many smaller branches that supply blood to different parts of the shoulder. If you place your hand in your armpit. In fact. The shoulder has a very rich blood supply. Bursae are everywhere in the body. Besides lifting. Bursae Sandwiched between the rotator cuff muscles and the outer layer of large bulky shoulder muscles are structures known as bursae. Now imagine that you hold in your hands a small plastic sack that contains a few drops of salad oil. the shoulder is extremely complex.Blood Vessels Travelling along with the nerves are the large vessels that supply the arm with blood. you may be able to feel the pulsating of this large artery. A single bursa is simply a sac between two moving surfaces that contains a small amount of lubricating fluid. Think of a bursa like this: If you press your hands together and slide them against one another. This sack would let your hands glide freely against each other with less friction. when your hands are cold you may rub them together briskly to create heat from the friction. with a design that provides maximum mobility and range of motion. As you can see.

any function. When you realise the many different positions we put our hands in every day. ELBOW ANATOMY © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). it is easy to understand how hard daily life can be when the shoulder isn't working well. April 2006 14 .

April 2006 15 .© Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA).

You can feel this tendon crossing the front crease of the elbow when you tighten the biceps muscle. the ulna (the larger bone of the forearm. But there is a second joint where the end of the radius (the radial head) meets the humerus.g. Together these two ligaments connect the humerus to the ulna and keep it tightly in place as it slides through the groove at the end of the humerus. it has to slide against the end of the humerus as the elbow bends and straightens. two of the most important ligaments are the medial collateral ligament and the lateral collateral ligament. and the radius (the smaller bone of the forearm on the same side as the thumb). articular cartilage covers the end of the humerus.Bones and Joints The bones of the elbow are the humerus (the upper arm bone). The elbow itself is essentially a hinge joint. The joint is even more complex because the radius has to slide against the ulna in order to rotate the wrist as well. If they do not heal correctly the elbow joint can be too loose. meaning it bends and straightens like a hinge. the end of the radius. The biceps tendon attaches the large biceps muscle on the front of the arm to the radius. The medial collateral is on the inside edge of the elbow. and the lateral collateral is on the outside edge. and the end of the ulna. bend while lifting a weight). To allow these movements. In the elbow. They can be torn when there is an injury or dislocation to the elbow. © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). the end of the radius at the elbow is shaped like a smooth knob with a cup at the end to articulate with the end of the humerus. on the opposite side of the thumb). Ligaments and Tendons In the elbow. These ligaments are the main source of stability for the elbow. and therefore unstable. This joint is complicated because the radius has to rotate so that you can turn your hand palm up and palm down. It allows the elbow to bend with force (e. The edges are also smooth where it glides against the ulna. At the same time. April 2006 16 . There are several important tendons around the elbow.

The inside. It allows the elbow to straighten with force. © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). or medial. Most of the muscles that straighten the fingers and wrist all come together in one tendon to attach to this area. such as when you perform a push-up.The triceps tendon connects the large triceps muscle on the back of the arm with the ulna. The outside. April 2006 17 . Most of the muscles that bend the fingers and wrist all come together in one tendon to attach to this area. These two tendons are a common location of tendonitis. bump just above the elbow is called the medial epicondyle. or lateral. The muscles of the forearm cross the elbow and attach to the humerus. bump just above the elbow is called the lateral epicondyle.

© Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). the wrist extensors (attaching to the lateral epicondyle) and the wrist flexors (attaching to the medial epicondyle).Muscles The main muscles are the biceps. the triceps. April 2006 18 .

pain. Each nerve travels through its own tunnel as it crosses the elbow.Nerves All of the nerves that travel down the arm cross the elbow. The nerves also carry signals back to the brain about sensations such as touch. Some of the more common problems around the elbow are problems of the nerves. Constant bending and straightening can lead to irritation or © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). and the median nerve. These nerves carry signals from the brain to the muscles that move the arm. Three main nerves begin together at the shoulder: the radial nerve. and temperature. the ulnar nerve. April 2006 19 . the nerves must bend as well. Because the elbow must bend a great deal.

Further into the palm. The largest artery is the brachial artery that travels across the front crease of the elbow. numbness. the radius and ulna. called carpals. and weakness in the arm and hand. The structures that form and move the hand require proper alignment and control in order to produce normal hand function. Small bone © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). Blood Vessels Travelling along with the nerves are the large vessels that supply the arm with blood. The brachial artery splits into two branches just below the elbow: the ulnar artery and the radial artery that continue into the hand. One metacarpal connects to each finger and thumb. Bones and Joints There are 27 bones in the wrist and hand.pressure on the nerves within their tunnels and cause problems such as pain. the carpals connect to the metacarpals. forming the wrist joint. HAND ANATOMY The hand needs to be mobile in order to position the fingers and thumb. April 2006 20 . If you place your hand in the bend of your elbow. The carpals join with the two forearm bones. you may be able to feel the pulsing of this large artery. The wrist itself contains eight small bones. The muscles in the hand must be co-ordinated to perform fine motor skills with precision. There are five metacarpals forming the palm of the hand. Damage to the brachial artery can be very serious because it is the only blood supply to the hand.

These joints are called the metacarpo-phalangeal joints (MCP joints). called the distal row. The UCL stabilizes the TFCC and keeps the wrist from bending too far to the side (toward the thumb). The other goes to the triquetrum (a small carpal bone near the ulnar side of the wrist). The MCP joints work like a hinge when you bend and straighten your fingers and thumb. It is thinner in joints such as the wrist that don't support much of weight. a thick band of tissue that crosses in front of the wrist. called carpal bones. Articular cartilage can be up to one-quarter of an inch thick in the large. This structure is called the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC). and triquetrum. It starts at the ulnar styloid. meets the proximal row a little further toward the fingers. One part connects to the pisiform (one of the small carpal bones) and to the transverse carpal ligament. Beginning with the thumb-side of the wrist. There are two parts to the cord-shaped UCL. There are 15 bones that form connections from the end of the forearm to the hand. The UCL adds support to a small disc of cartilage where the ulna meets the wrist. The distal row is made up of the trapezium.shafts called phalanges line up to form each finger and thumb. capitate. The proximal row is where the wrist creases when you bend it. hamate. the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) is on the ulnar side of the wrist. and pisiform bones. April 2006 21 . such as the hip. These bones are grouped in two rows across the wrist. The wrist itself contains eight small bones. The main knuckle joints are formed by the connections of the phalanges to the metacarpals. the small bump on the edge of the wrist (on the side away from the thumb) where the ulna meets the wrist joint. trapezoid. The second row of carpal bones. It crosses the ulnar edge (the side away from the thumb) of the wrist. lunate. © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). weight-bearing joints of the body. Wrist ligaments As its name suggests. the proximal row of carpal bones is made up of the scaphoid.

Problems occur when the central slip is damaged. April 2006 22 . © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). The extensor tendons of the fingers begin as muscles that arise from the backside of the forearm bones. where they eventually connect to the extensor tendons before crossing over the back of the wrist joint. as can happen with a tear. The tendons that allow each finger joint to straighten are called the extensor tendons. The ligament tightens as the joint is straightened and keeps the PIP joint from bending back too far (hyperextending). This ligament connects the proximal phalanx to the middle phalanx on the palm side of the joint. Nerves The radial. The extensor hood flattens out to cover the top of the finger and sends out branches on each side that connect to the bones in the middle and end of the finger. These muscles travel towards the hand. The RCL prevents the wrist from bending too far to the side (away from the thumb).The radial collateral ligament (RCL) is on the thumb side of the wrist. the strongest ligament is the volar plate. the extensor tendons become the extensor hood. When the extensor muscles contract. As they travel into the fingers. median and ulnar nerves travel to the hand cross the wrist. the carpal bone below the thumb. In the PIP joint (the middle joint between the main knuckle and the DIP joint). Finger deformities can occur when the volar plate loosens because of disease or injury. they tug on the extensor tendon and straighten the finger. The place where the extensor tendon attaches to the middle phalanx is called the central slip. It starts on the outer edge of the radius on a small bump called the radial styloid. It connects to the side of the scaphoid.

The radial nerve runs along the thumb-side edge of the forearm. a motion called opposition. and the ligament that connects them. the ulnar nerve branches out to supply feeling to the little finger and half the ring finger. The median nerve travels through a tunnel within the wrist called the carpal tunnel. The nerves that travel through the wrist are subject to problems. long finger. The ulnar nerve travels through a separate tunnel. It gives sensation to the back of the hand from the thumb to the third finger. It also sends a nerve branch to control the thenar muscles of the thumb. index finger. This tunnel is formed by two carpal bones (the pisiform and hamate). and half of the ring finger. The median nerve gives sensation to the palm sides of the thumb. After passing through the canal. April 2006 23 . It wraps around the end of the radius bone toward the back of the hand. Constant bending and straightening of the wrist and fingers can lead to irritation or © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). The thenar muscles help move the thumb and allow the pad of the thumb to touch the tips each of each finger on the same hand. called Guyon's canal. It also goes to the back of the thumb and just beyond the main knuckle on the back surface of the ring and middle fingers. Branches of this nerve also supply the small muscles in the palm and the muscle that pulls the thumb toward the palm.

fingers. Other arteries travel across the back of the wrist to supply the back of the hand and fingers. closest to the thumb. supplying the front of the hand and fingers. © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). and thumb. The ulnar artery runs next to the ulnar nerve through Guyon's canal (mentioned earlier). The radial artery is where the pulse is taken in the wrist. The ulnar and radial arteries arch together within the palm of the hand. and weakness in the hand. The largest artery is the radial artery that travels across the front of the wrist.pressure on the nerves within their tunnels and cause problems such as pain. Blood Vessels Travelling along with the nerves are the large vessels that supply the hand with blood. April 2006 24 . numbness.

This most commonly occurs subacromially. A minor trauma can then set off the condition. Rotator Cuff Tears This most commonly occurs as a result of trauma. It can also happen as a result of weakening due to repetitive minor injuries. Pain is often severe and causes sleeping problems. This condition normally occurs either from sporting injuries or in people with degenerative changes. degenerative changes can occur causing collapse of the bone leading to the need for joint replacement. If the condition is not treated it can become very similar to the symptoms of frozen shoulder. Pain from nerve root can be referred into the shoulder. On other occasions the acromion is affected and a painful arc syndrome occurs. It is more © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). It is seen more in middle age. often from degeneration of the rotator cuff. The condition can cause a “chicken and egg” effect with the neck affecting the shoulder and the shoulder then affecting the neck in return. April 2006 25 . In severe cases. Most commonly the supraspinatus is involved giving problems with abduction. with no treatment. especially when the client leans on it during the night. Impingement Syndromes Compression of the shoulder joints may occur during gleno-humeral movements.CONDITIONS OF THE SHOULDER The most common cause of pain to the shoulder is cervical Spondylosis. Compression may also occur in the subacromial joint where there will be pain in the last 30° of motion. Frozen Shoulder This condition has many different causes but can be identified by the general loss of movement in many different planes. causing a painful arc of movement between 70-120° abduction.

It is very easy to over treat this condition causing more pain from over mobilisation. Kyushu in the subclavicular triangle is also often useful here. Fibrotic changes can occur especially around the coraco-humeral ligament. This can be done using circuit locking. as its function is to lift the clavicle to allow the full movement of the arm. Correction of this allows the humerus to once again “float” in its joint space and prevents the bones grinding together. Osteoarthritis of the acromio-clavicular joint This presents as pain and restriction of the shoulder with localised tenderness of the acromion. April 2006 26 . in Amatsu. Osteoarthritis of the gleno-humeral joint This condition is rare and usually occurs from pathological damage caused by disease to the joint itself.common in the left arm and in diabetics. but ideally the tensegrity of the joint should be considered and the inhibitor to the restriction should be identified by circuit locking. swelling. Massage to the area is often contra-indicated as it can cause any inflammation to flare up. Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Shoulder Rheumatoid arthritis is an auto-immune condition and generally affects several joints at a time. It can also occur after radiotherapy to the breast but again this is uncommon. Instead. heat and pain around the joints with a limited range of motion. The Subclavius muscle is often involved. we would look for the inhibitors to the restrictions and reinstate the bio-tensegrity of the joint. The range of motion can be improved by working out the inhibitor to the restriction. Lipping of the joint from arthritic changes can also occur. Often the muscles of the neck and upper back lock the shoulder and will be under much stress when used in movements of the gleno-humeral joint. © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). Gentle mobilisation of the joint can help. The symptoms are redness.

The posture of the shoulders will have dramatic effects on the whole of the rest of the body. possibly taking several treatments to © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). Circuit locking. The areas you need to pay attention to are:• Pectoral muscles • Sacrum and lumbar spine mobility • T6. Correcting the neck is effectively dependent on a well functioning shoulder. T12 • Latissimus Dorsi • Occiput • Sternocleidomastoid Any problems in these areas can adversely affect the correction of a shoulder problem.Dislocation Recurrent dislocation is often seen in the 20-40 years age group. Repeated dislocations can then occur with less and less trauma involved. each one affecting the other. Surgery may stop the dislocations but will often leave them with reduced range of movement or mobility. The link between the back and shoulder is complex. anma and repatterning with a gentle approach are most useful when treating shoulders. It generally starts with a trauma that damages the ligaments holding the shoulder in place. the upper back and the neck. April 2006 27 . Great care must be taken when working on a client with this condition as induction of a dislocation can occur quite easily from repatterning. Postural Conditions This is the cause of many problems found by clients. You may see a client post operatively. You may have to do considerable work on these areas before attempting direct shoulder work. Obviously this works both ways. These changes can cause symptoms to occur in the shoulder. Often it is necessary to work at releasing the areas affecting the shoulders first. Changes in the curves of the spine will cause the position of the shoulder girdle to change considerably.

The client will usually say that painkillers had no effect. Pronation and supination can also cause problems at the elbow. Because of the tight nature of the joint. Pay close attention to the pronator teres. It is difficult to predict when this might happen because on leaving the clinic the sphenoid may well be in the correct position. in the shoulder itself. Strains can be caused by problems with triceps during forced extension or with biceps during flexion. biceps and supinator muscles. the line of force usually travels up the arm and can affect each joint the whole way up to the shoulder. before finally reaching the heart of the problem. stable joint. CONDITIONS OF THE ELBOW The elbow is a very close fitting. The client may complain of the above symptoms at the next session and treatment will often resolve the problem. When someone attempts to break a fall by putting out their arm. © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA).do this. the occiput can be affected by reactive spasm 24-48 hours later. Cautions Sometimes. Often this can cause headaches around the occiput and across the eyes because of the sphenoid and occiput fixing in flexion. neck and into the head. April 2006 28 . wrist and hand. quadratus lumborum. or repetitive strain. The interosseous tissue between the radius and the ulna is extremely strong and will cause large distortion patterns if traumatised by either falls or RSI problems. any changes can cause a range of symptoms including fractures. when you release the shoulder. strains and long term regular overuse. If it occurs again the symptoms will usually be milder. achieved by both a very tight fit between the ulna and the trochlea and strong collateral ligaments. You must look at the tatara as a whole. When a trauma occurs the line of force must travel somewhere.

It is vital that the sacrum and latissimus dorsi are checked when presented with this condition. or have been advised to have steroid injections. Cubitus Varus or Valgus This is when the angle at which the elbow is carried is decreased or increased. This is far less common now than 5-10 years ago. Often the clients have had. Golfer’s Elbow This is far less common than tennis elbow. the cause may not be corrected. It is very rare to find a tennis elbow without a latissimus dorsi weakness.Tennis Elbow This is commonly seen in clinic. Although this may treat the inflammation. It is more accurately called lateral epicondylitis. April 2006 29 . therefore the condition often repeats itself with little provocation. When the fracture has not been corrected properly there may be deterioration to the joint or there may be palsy of the ulna nerve. Localised treatment to the elbow will be far more effective when stability to the pelvis and the shoulder is attained. This is pain and tenderness to the medial elbow and affects the common flexor tendon. This often occurs because of a fracture at the elbow. It is generally thought to be a strain to the common extensor origin or fibrosis in extensor carpi radialis brevis or even nerve entrapment. Even on the most common elbow condition the cause is not really known. © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). so conventional physiotherapy has limited success. and is more correctly called medial epicondylitis.

The radial head slides out from under the annular ligament. Often supination and pronation is affected with the elbow held in fixed flexion. This may cause too much mobility of the ulna nerve leading to frictional damage. but it is important to remove the pattern of the torsion from the limb. The swelling is often painless except if accompanied by an infection. © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). please refer them to their GP or diabetic nurse. Often loose pieces of tissue may break off inside the joint capsule and “lock” the joint. It can be because of trauma at the elbow. possibly by a parent. If the client is known to have diabetes. which usually holds the radial head against the ulna during pronation and supination. It can also be as a result of rheumatoid arthritis. to prevent problems in later life. Rheumatoid Arthritis This condition can affect the elbows as well as other joints. Pulled Elbow This occurs when a child under 5 is pulled sharply. The client may be able to unlock the joint themselves although this may just sustain the problem leading to further damage. Olecranon Bursitis This can be caused by repeated trauma to the posterior elbow. April 2006 30 . Spontaneous reduction often occurs within 48 hours. Pain and loss of supination are often the symptoms. as neuritis can be a sign that their diabetes is not well-controlled. .Ulna Neuritis This condition often causes muscle wasting and sensory impairment in the hand. Osteoarthritis This can occur due to over use or poor positioning of the joint.

April 2006 31 .© Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA).

Pay attention to where the client is noticing pain and where exactly any sensory or motor disturbances are. April 2006 32 . As a result of the fracture the common problems are deformity. © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). Swelling and stiffness of the fingers can occur a few weeks after the fracture. Colles’ Fracture A Colles’ fracture occurs at the distal end of the radius. sports and lifting and carrying children may all indicate the underlying cause. Take a history of their occupations and hobbies. The common deformity is the radial deviation of the hand. This is called Sudeck’s atrophy. ulna and the meta-carpals. Activities such as computer use. This will indicate which nerves are involved and what cervical spine region needs to be examined. It is the most common type of all fractures and is usually due to a fall on an outstretched hand. Examine all directions of mobility. The inferior radio-ulna joint is also affected with a Colles’ fracture leading to pain lateral to the ulna styloid. Wrist problems are common. They are subject to compression. Wrist function is dependent on how it is supported both physically (from the shoulder and elbow) and neurologically. restriction of movement and pain. ICV dysfunctions often manifest as wrist problems.CONDITIONS OF THE WRIST The carpals form complex articulations with each other. look for swelling and any changes in tissue texture. the opponens pollicis muscle and the area around acupuncture point Large Intestine 4 (the web between the thumb and forefinger) are often involved in ICV dysfunction. the radius. Most of these conditions depend on how well the break has been set as a better repair means a lesser chance of deformity. The anatomical snuff-box. Carpal decalcification is often a problem with this condition. due to fluid retention causing compression on the nerves and structures of the wrist. extension and all directions of motion during the working day. Identify particular actions of the client that may be contributing to the client.

loss of function and changes in sensory ability. They are filled with synovial fluid that is unable to return to the joint because the pouch of membrane becomes cut off from the tendon sheath or joint. They can cause pain and swelling with some discomfort and loss of use of the wrist. They are often spherical. April 2006 33 . They tend to dissipate spontaneously. on occasions. firm to the touch and have no real connection to any other underlying structure. Often symptoms are worse in the early hours of the morning. but it may be caused by lack of correct nerve and muscle ability in the tension/compression aspect of the © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). Normally there is compression of the medial nerve leading to pain. They are formed from outgrowths of synovial membrane lining tendon sheaths. Rheumatoid Arthritis The wrist and hands are a very common site for this condition with synovial thickening of the joints and tendon sheaths leading to gross swelling and pain. or with fractures on the articular surface of the radius. fluid filled sacs.Ganglions These are very common in the wrist and the hand. It is. The client may claim that all the fingers are involved but the little finger should not be. Paraesthesia (pins and needles) may radiate from the elbow down and pain can occur here as well. good results can be obtained. because it has a different nerve supply. Osteoarthritis This is relatively rare in the wrist and only tends to occur after necrosis of the scaphoid after a fracture. but by finding the inhibitors to the restrictions that are causing the ganglion. difficult to differentiate from conditions caused by neck problems. She may or may not have. Cervical spondylosis can cause similar symptoms so care must be taken when a client says that she has carpal tunnel. Carpal Tunnel Usually found in women between 30-60 years of age.

the rest of the body will know the tatara. Summary You must always consider that conditions of the wrist may occur as a result of trauma to the wrist itself. Ulna Carpal Tunnel The ulna nerve can become compressed as it passes through the ulna tunnel between the pisiform and the hook of hamate. April 2006 34 . Sensory and/or motor functions may be affected but it is less common that both are affected. You must deal with the tatara and tensegrity of the whole body and not just the local symptoms.whole body. Again. which typically causes compression in this area and leads to nerve impingement. but it could also occur as part of the tensegrity pattern of the whole body. check that the cervical spine has good function to make a differential diagnosis. This condition is often linked with ICV dysfunction due to the accumulation of fluid in the body. Remember that although RSI may be a result of a particular behaviour. © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). Muscle wasting and weakness in the hand may occur.

the shape of the wheel is maintained by all of the spokes. © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). the scapula floats freely with no bony articulations. According to Levin (1995) by applying Newtonian laws to natural movement. The scapula acts as a relay station from the extremity to the axial skeleton. When considering a bicycle wheel with wire spokes the weight is distributed evenly across all members. Levin states that tensegrity structures are omni-directional load distributors. The shoulder. When Levin applied the bicycle wheel in modelling the shoulder. April 2006 35 . the result would be severe damage to the stabilising back muscles. 25Kg L 1m E F This class 1 lever shows that the stresses on the body are very large and if this model were true it would not work efficiently. each of the spokes must be rigid and capable of handling the whole weight of the carriage. It is important to remember that muscles and ligaments are always under some tension and this helps maintain the tensegrity structure. becomes a much more efficient structure as levers become eliminated. so the tension is even throughout.A BIO-TENSEGRITY MODEL Amatsu practitioners view the body as a bio-tensegrity model rather than a classical Newtonian model. anterior deltoid contraction to raise the humerus with a 25Kg weight. When the bio-tensegrity model is understood. Consider a wagon wheel. for example. it can be applied to the whole body. therefore any forces are transmitted omni-directionally as in the tensegrity model. It is designed with four spokes and a hub in the middle. he considered the hub of the wheel to be the scapula and the spokes are the muscular attachments around the scapula. therefore.

In doing this correctly. Structures that are omni-directional so that the tension elements always function in tension. as the tensioned elements adjust accordingly. Skin drag will reveal linear pulls which are areas which will need to be worked upon. then any applied force will register in the whole. © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). The word tensegrity is a merging of two words: tensional integrity. April 2006 36 . any unnatural forces applied through Newtonian laws will not fit the bio-tensegrity model of the body and are therefore unnatural. Any contact made must be in keeping with the client’s tensegrity.When working. The combinations of anatomical knowledge and taijutsu will give a predictable change of forces through the tensegrity of the extremity. a multi contact (often forming a triangle) is useful to get feedback as the limb is engaged and loaded. If the human frame can be seen as a bio-tensegrity structure. you will get a sense of the whole person. practitioners should always consider the interplay between themselves and their clients as extremely important. This will allow you to be led to the most influential points for change. no matter what the direction of applied force. To enhance this skill.

• Palpate the dynamics of the first rib and clavicle by placing the thumb at the split tendon of the S. April 2006 37 . just above the first rib. The inhibitor is often posterior to the clavicle. clavicle and acromion process. Consolidate this by checking the first rib again by therapy localisation. In other words. © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). Use taijutsu to feel the movement potential of the rib and clavicle. first rib and sternum functionally. It can be found using skin drag and therapy localisation. challenging and palpation. It plays an important role in drainage at the thoracic inlet. Do this on both sides. • Challenge the clavicle. It also helps unlock the clavicle in shoulder movements and crucial any restrictions there will affect the head on neck reflexes. then change the shape of your Ningu to facilitate disengagement at the area of dysfunction. Tension couple and fire the inhibitor by using taijutsu. Correction of the First Rib Load the structures as detailed above and get a sense of the tensegrity of the area.M and the other fingers take position at the 1st and second rib.C. find the inhibitor to the restrictions.THE FIRST RIB The first rib can be viewed as a major balance point for the upper extremity. Assessment of First Rib • Therapy localise the 1st rib.

This then is obviously related to the neck and back. With any condition of the upper extremity. April 2006 38 . Although not directly used for upright gait. look very carefully at the cervical spine and the cervical plexus. A careful case history must be taken when assessing any condition of the upper extremity. Commonly this includes computer work. free cervical spine and shoulder before embarking on localised treatment. © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). muscle dysfunction and any relationships to the cervical vertebra. This will allow you to appraise symptoms. Often long running repetitive actions cause the background postural problems that then allow an acute injury to occur. On many occasions. notice what is happening above and below the injury site. Make sure that there is a stable pelvis. When looking at any injury. the problem comes from lack of support from the shoulder. its dexterity allows the hand to be used with great precision. driving and repetitive sports.THE THUMB When looking at the upper limb you must consider it as a whole. The thumb should be viewed with the same importance as the big toes. Also consider the Lovett Reactor and check the “brother relationship” in the lumbar area.

and some will be further up the arm. Inhibitors are often found in the inter-osseous tissue between the radius and ulna. both palm up.The opposition of the thumb with the fingers is the first function to be examined. Assess the presence of linear pulls. this will not only show you a weakness. © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). such as wrist or elbow problems or ICV involvement but more important than the test is the client’s ability to get the extremity into the position for the test. probably in the anatomical snuff-box. and palm down. The opponens pollicis test gives us a great deal of information. April 2006 39 . but also it will indicate where the problem might be. distract the thumb whilst monitoring any pulls at the wrist or into the elbow/arm. Correction of the thumb From the Ningu described above. and incorporating a PIM. to assess if a particular direction is a problem. • Perform the opponens pollicis muscle test. • Challenge the thumb by moving it in different vectors. the other fingers should support the thumb at its medial aspect leaving the little finger cradling underneath. Assessment of the thumb • Place the index finger in the anatomical snuffbox and the thumb on the thenar eminence. Some of the inhibitors will be local. Quite often they show some compensation in their movements. Find the best position for release by feeling for inhibitors to any restrictions. • Therapy localise the segments of the thumb to ascertain the area of concern.

© Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). April 2006 40 .

© Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). April 2006 41 .

The most effective method for correct shoulder problems is to engage. In fact there are often other kyushu points or inhibitors to the restrictions further up the arm. April 2006 42 . by holding the arm with one’s elbow and chest. More local corrections may be performed by monitoring the shoulder with one hand and finding inhibitors to the restrictions in the area around the scapula with the other hand. starting with the thumb or fingers.HAND-HOLDS FOR CORRECTING THE SHOULDER The upper extremity is a much more mobile structure than that of the lower extremity. This is performed by engaging each part in turn. by holding the stack in place with one hand. Not all the repatterning needs to be done from the thumb. shoulder or even into the ribs. and once engagement has occurred. Use the body to hold the stack in place. Shoulder Take the thumb at the anatomical snuff box while monitoring the ball and socket joint of the shoulder with the other hand. These can be monitored by placing a hand onto one of these areas to feel the release occurring. or to facilitate the release. © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). “walk” up the arm. and feeling for the next part of the stack with the other hand. stack and load as many parts of the upper extremity as possible.

Placing the fingers around the edge of the scapula will give access to potential spots which will fire inhibitors. in a similar way to the talus. maintaining the stack. Work up the arm. and fire by using taijutsu. remembering that the scapula is a relay station. © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). April 2006 43 . Take time to load the appropriate points.Scapula Take the thumb at the anatomical snuff box and engage the stack.

Circuit locking will show which inhibitor is key to the release. The inhibitors to any restrictions can be fired from either of the sterno-clavicular junctions. taijutsu and flexibility in the approach are vital. © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). and work up the arm whilst maintaining the stack.Sterno-Clavicular Joint Stack the thumb at the anatomical snuffbox. As with all these techniques. April 2006 44 .

© Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). April 2006 45 .

the innermost level of the aura. It is composed of many layers or levels of vibration. has similar energy. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) there are 12 main meridians that flow on each side of the body. and is a little further from the body. It is proposed that the meridians run beneath the skin. Each successive level of the aura is connected to the next higher chakra. If the energy flow is disturbed or disrupted. The next auric field is connected to the sacral chakra and is a little further out. The outermost or seventh layer extends out to four or five feet for the average person. The sacral chakra is linked with physical enjoyment and attractiveness. disease and ultimately death. is connected to the root chakra. April 2006 46 . which is very close to the surface of the body. This auric field is linked with physical health and vitality. THE AURA The aura is a field of subtle energy that penetrates and extends out from the physical body. Specific meridian pathways are linked to specific muscles in the body and specific organs although energy also extends into the chakras and the aura so the above model is over simplistic and can be studied in great depth. the areas where the meridians come close to the surface of the skin are referred to as acupuncture points. © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). The layers interpenetrate each other and are said to be composed of different kinds of consciousness. Up the centre of the front of the body runs the Central Meridian. which is similar to the energy of the root chakra. Because of this there is more than one way of accessing and clearing the energies in the meridians.ENERGY BASICS THE MERIDIANS In simple terms. the result is sickness. the meridians are energy pathways that supply our physical and subtle bodies with vital energy. Each level of the aura is connected to a respective chakra and has a similar vibration and energy as that chakra. and down the centre of the back is the Governing Meridian which links each side of the 12 meridians. As an example.

April 2006 47 . and ending with the crown chakra at the top of the head. They can also be thought of as points where the soul connects to the physical body. Its colour is yellow. 2. © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). There are seven basic chakras starting with the root chakra at the base of the spine. It is also called the power centre. after receiving healing or an energy therapy. need to be released in order for healing to take place. It is involved with reproduction. SACRAL CHAKRA: This is connected to the sacrum and its colour is orange. 1. It is also one of the places people hide guilt and humiliation.The overall size of the aura can increase or decrease. They take the Qi that is all around us and transform it into the various frequencies we need and bring it into our subtle energy system. SOLAR PLEXUS CHAKRA: This is connected to the solar plexus area. The chakras are responsible for creating the various kinds of consciousness operating within our energy systems and are also connected to the complete spectrum of human experience. if present. sometimes as far as twenty to thirty feet or more. THE CHAKRAS The chakras are part of the subtle energy system and play an important role in health and healing. if someone has had a bad day. On the other hand. their aura may recede to only two or three feet from their body. shelter and the basic necessities of life. 3. physical enjoyment and the attractive aspects of relationships. and is feeling tired and defeated. Blocks and negative energy are sometimes lodged in the chakras and. It brings in and sends out energy necessary for selfexpression. the aura can extend out much further than normal. The chakras are like subtle energy transformers. sexuality. purpose and will. Confidence. The auric field may be skewed to one side if someone has been “knocked sideways” by a shock or trauma. As an example. ROOT CHAKRA: The root chakra is connected to the base of the spine and points down between the legs toward the ground. Its energy is involved with our need for food. as well as fear and anger can be located here. depending on the quality of one’s thoughts and feelings and on the kind of recent experiences.

respect and surrender. Muscle Vertebral reflex C1. THIRD EYE CHAKRA: This is located between the eyebrows. Its colour can be green or pink. 7. visualization and conceptual thinking. It connects directly with “the higher power” and spiritual consciousness.2 Fixation indicator Emotional problems Nerve supply Organ Supraspinatus C5. joy. Its colour is purple or white.6 Brain © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). Spiritual guidance and higher consciousness can also come through the heart chakra. clairvoyance. 6. and the way we relate to others. HEART CHAKRA: This is connected to the centre of the chest near the physical heart. April 2006 48 . Its colour is indigo and it is involved with self-awareness. MERIDIANS OF THE BODY Conception Vessel This is the vessel through which original energy was thought to enter the body at conception.4. It is also involved with contemplation. wisdom. It is involved in the expression of creativity through speaking and writing. and some aspects of thinking and planning. 5. It includes the umbilicus which is the obvious point of entry for such energy. It is related to love. THROAT CHAKRA: The fifth chakra is located at the throat area. Its colour is sky blue. CROWN CHAKRA: This is located at the top of the head and extends far above the head. higher consciousness.

It includes GV20.6. Muscle Vertebral reflex T2 Fixation indicator Thoracic Nerve supply C5. It is paired with the spleen. the very top of the head. belching. there is an upward direction to the symptoms. regurgitation. If the stomach function is impaired. so its associated emotion is worry and anxiety. It rules descending action. April 2006 49 . hiccups. moving things downward. The stomach is associated with honouring of self and nurturance. nausea and vomiting. e.g. This point is known as “the cure of one hundred diseases”. Muscle Vertebral reflex Fixation indicato Nerve supply Organ © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA).7 Organ Teres major Thoraci c spine Stomach Meridian The stomach has the function of receiving food and separating the “essence” or chi before it passes on to the spleen.Governing Vessel This vessel passes from the tip of the coccyx to the top lip. The natural function of the stomach is to send the chi in a downward direction.

The spleen and pancreas meridians run in the same channel.4.6.6 Stomach Spleen Meridian In Oriental medicine.7 Neck flexors Neck extensors C2 C1-8 Sinuses C2 Sacrum Iliac C1-8 Sinuses Biceps C5.r Levator scapulae Lungs Parathyroid s Stomach T8. The energy from this channel is responsible for transforming food into energy and regulating the © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA).5 PMC T5 C5. the spleen is seen as the primary organ of digestion and conversion from food energy to available chi. C5 C3. April 2006 50 .

Healthy spleen Good appetite Good digestion Plenty of energy Good muscle tone Good concentration Clarity of thought No easy bruising Smooth tongue edge to Unhealthy spleen Poor digestion Abdominal distension and diarrhoea Fatigue and obesity Poor muscle tone and flabby muscles Poor concentration Muzzy head Easy bruising Scalloped edge of tongue (tooth marks) Muscle Latissimus dorsi Middle Trapezius Lower Trapezius Opponens pollicis Triceps Vertebral reflex T7 T5.8.3.4 C6.8 C2. The emotion associated with the spleen is worry.7 C6. anxiety. The pancreas is associated with caring and devotion.7. April 2006 51 .4 Organ Pancreas Spleen Spleen Stomach Pancreas Thoracodorsal C2. The spleen rules ascending transformation and is associated with high self-esteem and forgiveness.3.6 T6 C4 T1 Fixation indicator Nerve supply C6.maintenance of the body’s blood. Concentration problems are also associated with this organ.T1 © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA).7.

Sweating is also governed by the heart so excess sweating may indicate a problem with the heart meridian. The heart’s function is manifested in the skin. leaving the remaining matter to be eliminated as waste. The small intestine separates pure from impure. It allows extraction of chi under the control of the spleen. this represents the myriad of mental. so a healthy glow means the heart meridian is fine and a dull complexion shows a deficiency or block in the meridian.4 Organ Small intestine © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). Muscle Vertebral reflex T10 Quadricep s Fixation indicator Sagittal suture Nerve supply L2. The yin energy that circulates in the heart channel rules the head and houses the spirit. Impaired functioning of the heart meridian may lead to cold extremities. psychological and spiritual faculties that constitute a central feature of the human condition.Heart Meridian The heart is associated with controlling blood flow through the vessels of the body. It performs this function with bodily fluids. The emotion associated with the heart is joy.6 Organ Subscapular is Heart Small Intestine Meridian The small intestine energy channel is responsible for drawing out the energy contained in food. Muscle Vertebral reflex T2 Fixation indicator Nerve supply C5. so is linked to the heart. It also houses the “Shen”.3. April 2006 52 . after which the impurities are passed to the large intestine and the bladder. Its associated emotion is joy and is associated with self-acceptance and integrity. abnormal pulse patterns and chest pain.

April 2006 53 . S1 Bladder © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). S1 Organ Peroneus Bladder Posterior tibialis Sacrospinal is L5 L5. In Oriental medicine this means that the bladder receives waste body fluids from the lungs. It is also associated with risk-taking and an affirmation of life. The bladder is paired with the kidney.Abdominal s T6 Various Small intestine Bladder Meridian The bladder stores urine and controls excretion. Its associated emotion is fear and fright. small and large intestines and under the influence of the kidneys. Westerners do recognize this link in the phrase “to wet oneself with fear”. Muscle Vertebral reflex T12 Fixation indicator Nerve supply L5. S1 Bladder T12 Various Bladder Anterior Tibialis L5 L4. it stores and excretes this as urine.L5.

known as the life essence. It is also associated with spontaneity and independence.Kidney Meridian The kidney meridian is involved in the storage of the energy that you were born with. April 2006 54 . so the maintenance of the arch of the foot is vitally important for the kidney meridian. This determines our constitutional health. Muscle Vertebral Fixation Nerve Organ reflex indicator supply © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). The kidney channel oversees the maintenance of the bones and stores the body’s reproductive energy. like the bladder. and consequently the whole body. The navicular has links with the kidney. lifeless and brittle hair • Premature greying and/or baldness • Feelings of weakness and timidity The emotions associated with the kidney are fear and anxiety. If the kidney meridian is impaired in any way this can lead to: • Retarded growth • Learning difficulties • Infertility • Sexual disorders • Senility • Tinnitus • Blurred vision • Impaired thinking • Back pain • Fatigue • Poor digestion • Asthma and breathing difficulties • Hearing problems • Dull.

3.4 Reproducti ve Reproducti ve Piriformis S1 Iliac S1. It is also obvious that the presenting features of a weakness in these muscles may be back or pelvic pain. April 2006 55 .4 Kidney Eye / Ear Circulation Sex/Pericardium This involves the energy that supplies the sexual organs.2.S1 Organ Reproducti ve Adductors L1 Pubic L2.Psoas T12 Occiput L2. The emotion linked to the pericardium is that of joy as the yin energy that circulates in the pericardium protects and oversees the heart. and the circulation of blood and sex hormones.5.2 © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA).3 Kidney Navicul ar Kidney Iliacus T11 ICV L1. The muscles that are linked to this channel are the large muscles around the pelvis. Muscle Gluteus medius Vertebral reflex L5 Fixation indicator Nerve supply L4.3 Upper Trapezius C7 C3. It is obvious that imbalance of these may lead to a change in position or function of the reproductive organs.

April 2006 56 .Gluteus maximus C2 Upper cervicals L5.2 Reproducti ve © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA).S1.

Muscle Vertebral reflex T2 Fixation indicator Nerve supply C5 Organ Teres minor Adrenals Thyroid Thyroid Adrenals Sartorius T11 L2. It is linked to the pericardium.4 Adrenals Soleus T11.12 S1. It co-ordinates water functions in the body.3 Gracilis T12 L3.Triple Warmer This may be described as the San Jiao. Problems associated with an imbalance in the triple warmer may be linked to hormonal problems. April 2006 57 . Upper extremity and neck problems.12 S1. facial pain and TMJ dysfunction may also be linked. In modern terms this can be translated as the endocrine system and the maintenance of homeostasis.2 Adrenals Gastrocnemiu s T11. The triple warmer is associated with discernment and acceptance.2 Adrenals © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA).

© Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). April 2006 58 .

The gall bladder is also associated with creativity and motivation. Muscle Vertebral reflex T4 Fixation indicator Cervicodorsal junction Nerve supply C5. TMJ dysfunction. symptoms may present such as headaches. back pain. hearing and eye problems. and facial pain. April 2006 59 .6 Organ Anterior deltoid Lung Gall Bladder Popliteus T12 Lower cervicals L4.Gall Bladder Meridian The gall bladder stores bile and excretes it into the digestive tract to aid digestion and transform food into energy.5. depression. sciatica. Physically.S1 Gall bladder © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). It is linked to the liver meridian and the associated emotion is irritability. Gall bladder imbalances can lead to either an inability to make decisions or to the making of ill-thought out decisions. The theory of Chinese medicine sees the gall bladder as bestowing the capacity to make judgments.

April 2006 60 .© Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA).

7. The liver is also associated with healthy change and exploration. nail brittleness and eye problems such as glaucoma. April 2006 61 . In women this is closely associated with menstruation. Muscle Vertebral reflex T5 Fixation indicator Nerve supply C6. The liver is seen as the control centre.8. It is associated with blood storage and the regulation of blood in circulation. so if the liver is balanced and functioning well. so many gynaecological problems are likely to be related to a liver imbalance. rigid and inflexible or to have lack of self-control leading to the main emotions associated with the liver: anger and irrationality. Other physical problems linked to liver meridian imbalance are headaches. Liver meridian imbalances are always present in any stress-related disorder.5 Liver © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA).T1 Organ PMS Liver Rhomboids T5 C4. If the liver meridian impairment occurs there may be a tendency to become over controlling. muscle problems. we can exercise control over the events in our life.Liver Meridian The liver channel regulates the flow of energy throughout the body and oversees the maintenance of the body’s blood supply.

5 Lung © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). the skin.7 Organ Anterior serratus Lung Coracobrachialis T2 C6.6. The lung meridian governs the energy that is obtained from inhaled air. In other words.4. i.6 Lung Diaphragm T12 T11. Lungs also control the energy in the outermost parts of the body. Muscle Vertebral reflex T3.e. and also the regulation of the passage of water through the body.4 Fixation indicator Nerve supply C5. C3. April 2006 62 . the lungs rule the circulation and dissension of Qi therefore regulate the entire energy system of the body.4 Cervicodorsal junction C5.Lung Meridian Lungs in Eastern medicine have a different role from that perceived by Western doctors.L1 Phrenic.7 Lung Deltoids T3. Dysfunctions in the lung meridian may lead to symptoms such as: Asthma and other chest problems Rough dry skin Eczema Allergies Emotions linked to the lung meridian are grief and melancholy.12.

April 2006 63 .© Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA).

Muscle Vertebral reflex L2 Fixation indicator Iron deficien cy Sacral fixation Nerve supply L4. and perhaps gut problems and back pain.S1 Large intestine.Large Intestine Meridian The large intestine has the role of expelling impurities from the body. The muscles linked to this meridian are those that join the pelvis to the legs. also with release and moving on.5.5 L5.2. and the emotions associated with the large intestine meridian are grief and melancholy. rectum Large intestine.5 T12.3 © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). appendix Quadratus lumborum L4.L1. It is linked with the lung.S1 Organ Tensor fascia lata Large intestine Hamstrings L4. Any imbalance in these may cause pelvic instability. Irritable bowel syndrome will usually cause a weakness in these muscles. April 2006 64 . and to extract any remaining nutrient and energy from the matter passed from the small intestine.

A practical guide to health improvement based on the book Touch for Health by John Thie D.E. . © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA).2 and 3 Touch for Health. • Dennis Bartram Amatsu notes from conversations. published by Toni Gralton. Amatsu Training School Langston J. Langston J. The Physiology of the Joints Vol.A. Life Skills Centre Myers T. Hand P. William Doolan and Christopher Rowarth. Australia Dananberg HJ DPM. personal tuition and direct oral transmission of ancient historical scrolls from Dr. 2 and 3. Anmajutsu Modules 1. 1. Amatsu Modules 1 & 2. Hatsumi directed teachings form 1995 onwards.BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES • Bartram D. Amatsu Training School Faruqi T. The Thinking Body Prof. Amatsu Association Training Bates S Active Balance Training Limited 2004. E. Hatsumi Lectures Japan 1995 • Prof. A History of Anatomy for the Somatic Therapist Walther. Subtle gait malfunction and chronic musculoskeletal pain Todd M. Directed Learning Exercises for Seitai. Hatsumi. Muscle Testing. April 2006 65 . Attitude Anatomy. Applied Kinesiology Synopsis 2nd Edition Kapandji I. Personal tuition to Dennis Bartram.C. Books 1&2. Amatsu Notes Active Balance Ltd Duffy C.

What are the functions of the kidneys? 8. The endocrine system is a big subject. Read up on the endocrine and excretory systems. Revise the structures of the hand and elbow. Differentiate between diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. 7. CSF and spinal cord © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). The cranial nerves ii. How is urine produced and what factors affect urine production? 9. thus explaining the detrimental effect excess stress can have on health and in particular on the immune system. insertion and actions of all muscles. Read up on: The bones of the head and neck i. 5. Compare and contrast an example of a positive feedback loop and a negative feedback loop. 2. 4. 10.Year 2: Module 5 & 6 Homework 1. Keep learning the origin. Define “endocrine” and “exocrine”. 6. 3. Apply your Amatsu knowledge to explain in detail the interaction between the emotions and the endocrine system. April 2006 66 .

Do not just paraphrase Tortora!! 14.iii. What are the functions of the paranasal sinuses? 13. The immune system 11. What are the functions of each cranial nerve and where can they be found? 16. © Amatsu Association Ireland (AAI) and Amatsu Therapy Association (ATA). 15. April 2006 67 . How many of each is there? 12. List the cranial bones. How do cranial nerves differ from spinal nerves? How many spinal nerves are there? What is a dermatome? What is a synapse? List the meningeal layers. 19. 17. Describe the structure and functions of the immune system with respect to the Godai. 18. What are the functions of CSF? Where is CSF made and where does it circulate? Draw diagrams to illustrate your answer. 20.

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