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# 2011 IEEE Jordan Conference on Applied Electrical Engineering and Computing Technologies (AEECT

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Computation of Static and Dynamic Axial and Radial Forces on Power Transformer Windings Due to Inrush and Short Circuit Currents
Jawad Faiz B. M. Ebrahimi Wejdan Abu-Elhaija King Abdullah II School for Electrical Engineering, Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan Center of Excellence on Applied Electromagnetic Systems, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Abstract— In this paper, the radial and axial forces due to inrush and short circuit currents on both inner and outer surfaces of low voltage (LV) and high voltage (HV) windings are calculated. Static and dynamic aspects of these forces which are related to the variation of forces versus winding height and time are analyzed. Power transformer in the start-up mode and under short circuit fault is modeled using two-dimensional (2D) time stepping finite element method (TSFEM). This approach leads to the precise determination of the required signals including current, magnetic flux density, radial and axial forces. Calculated forces are analyzed significantly to compare impacts of the mechanical forces due to inrush and short circuit currents on the windings of the transformer. Three-dimensional (3D) TSFEM is utilized to evaluate aforementioned forces and compare with 2D TSFEM results. In the 3D TSFEM, geometrical and physical characteristics of the all components of the transformer, nonlinearity of the core materials and distribution of the primary and secondary windings are taken into account. 2D TSFEM results are verified by 3D TSFEM results. Keywords- Power transformer; time stepping; finite element; short circuit; inrush current; axial and radial forces.

I.

INTRODUCTION

Power transformers are one of the most important and costly power components in power systems that play important role in reducing the losses and power transmission capability over long distances by enhancing the voltage level. To provide reliable energy for user, transformer must be capable to operate in different conditions. One of the major reasons for inner faults is the wearing out of windings and conductors insulations caused by vibrations due to electromechanical forces at the rated currents and over currents. Therefore, the transformer coils must be mechanically protected and pre-fixed by ribbon, wedge and bolts. The criterion for this structural protection is the forces produced by the maximum possible current. Since this current is produced in the short-circuit case and therefore generates the maximum forces on the windings only short-circuit test is generally required by manufacturers [1].

The improved T-Ω method (T is the electric vector potential and Ω is the magnetic vector potential) has been used to calculate three-dimensional transient eddy current fields and also electromechanical forces applied on the transformer windings [2]. Although the number of unknown variables in T-Ω method is considerably decreased, in this method a fixed conductivity and linear homogenous magnetic permeance are considered. Based on the transformer model, 2D magnetic fields and shortcircuit forces exerted on the windings have been evaluated using FEM in [3]. The short-circuit forces composing of dc, fundamental frequency and 2nd frequency components and taking into account the following assumptions have been computed: 1) the ampere-turns of the primary and secondary are equal and opposite of each other, 2). Saturation and eddy currents inside if the windings are negligible. In [4], the short circuit conditions in a large power transformer have been analyzed and it has been concluded that the local axial force in both terminals of the winding (with a larger radial components) is very larger than the middle parts of the winding. FEM has been used [5] to calculate and compare the above-mentioned forces due to the perphase short circuit and inrush current. It is noted that the inrush current of transformer does not appear in steadystate mode but occurs in energizing the transformer. In fact, short circuit current is comparable with the inrush current. Exerted forces on the LV and HV windings of a shell-type transformer have been computed in [6]. It has been shown that the skin effect and proximity effect have no significant effect on the total force. It has been shown that the amplitudes of the axial forces in the yoke have a considerable difference with that of the outer points. Inrush current of a no-load transformer has been carefully analyzed in literature. Flux of legs at the transformer energizing time is proportional with the

TIME STEPPING FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF INRUSH AND SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENTS FEM is able to calculate the magnetic field distribution within the transformer from geometrical dimensions and magnetic parameters of the transformer. the numerical value of the current density over whole conducting region is not defined. n is the number of winding turns and Se is the cross-section of the conductors. Therefore. the corresponding inrush current with the excitation current can be taken identical with the II. In [9. Since. The difference between the inrush current and short circuit current is that the inrush current lasts several ten seconds while the fault current damps shorter than but it may disconnect the transformer from the power system 10 ms [7].07 13. In [2]. however magnetic saturation has a Figure 1. In [1.79 20 912/834 1074 1136 187 226 75/55 106/86 834/812 579 613 826 1071 1174 Unit kV kV MVA Hz mΩ mΩ % mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm major effect on the both current which has been ignored in the paper. In spite of this. For inrush current computation the transient mode of transformer must be analyzed. Other quantities of the transformer such as the induced voltage waveform. Since the current corresponding to the core losses is negligible compared with the magnetizing current. The transient current waveform during energizing the transformer cannot cause harm to the network but it may disconnect the transformer from the power system. Hopfield network energy minimization method has been used to calculate the forces caused by the inrush current and short circuit current. 11]. 10]. R is the core sheets reluctivity.2011 IEEE Jordan Conference on Applied Electrical Engineering and Computing Technologies (AEECT) integration of the voltage and it contains direct component which gradually damps. in addition to the magnetic potential vector magnetizing current (inrush current) is also unknown in (1). but there are different cases which must be distinguished including: axial force and radial forces. In the static analysis of the transformer. protective devices must be fixed such that they prevent undesirable disconnection of transformer from the network TABLE I. it is necessary to model the voltage source as input and also circuit elements of the external . Amplitude of the inrush currents is similar to that of the fault current and therefore produces large electromagnetic forces [1]. Two-dimensional finite element method solves the following Possion equation in order to evaluate and analyze the magnetic flux distribution: ∂ ∂A ∂ ∂A ni (ℜ )+ (ℜ ) = − ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y Se (1) where A is the magnetic potential vector. less work has been so far reported on the comparison of the forces caused by the inrush current and short circuit current [1. dynamic aspect of exerted forces has not been investigated. 11]. of secondary winding turns Secondary winding resistance/phase Impedance Width of window Height of 1st and 2nd rows of taps Height of HV winding Height of LV winding Distance of 1st row taps to yoke Distance of 2nd row taps to yoke Distance of LV winding to upper/lower yoke Distance of HV winding to upper/lower yoke Distance of 1st and 2nd row taps to upper/lower yoke Core cross-section diameter Inner diameter of LV winding cylinder Inner diameter of HV winding cylinder Inner diameter of taps winding Outer diameter of taps winding Value 66 11 40 50 1200 123. the dynamic analysis of the transformer is required. SPECIFICATIONS OF PROPOSED TRANSFORMER Quantity Primary voltage Secondary voltage Rated power Frequency No. This dc component can saturate the core which leads to the inrush current. the magnetizing current in (1) is known and the magnetic potential vector A is unknown. of primary winding turns Primary winding resistance/phase No. magnetic flux density and forces exerted on the windings can be determined knowing the magnetic field distribution. Two dimensional Scheme of the modeled core type power transformer magnetizing current. various algorithms have been introduced to discriminate the inrush current from the short circuit current. [8]. inner and outer of windings. 2. In this analysis. these two forces have been compared. LV and HV windings. Therefore.7 200 12. Meanwhile.