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“Cities have the capability of providing something for everybody, only because, and only when, they are

created by everybody.” Jacobs What is urban sprawl? Sprawl is a low-density, auto-dependent land development taking place on the edges of urban centers, often “leap-frogging” away from the current denser development nodes, to transform open, undeveloped land, into single family residential subdivisions and campus-style commercial office parks and diffuse retail uses. It separates where people live from where they work and therefore requiring cars. There is also rigid segregation between residential, offices and shopping areas. It often develops at the semirural land at the periphery of an urban area. Sprawl was defined as ‘the lack of continuity in expansion’. It can refer to dispersed development which increases pressure on local government resources such as public transport or water and sewage. The term was first used in 1937 by Earle Draper. Sprawl is defined in terms of:  Density attributes of a settlement system  Structure and form of settlement  Socially relevant effects of land use Originally, development of suburbs was a solution for families to begin new communities free from the characteristics of overcrowded and congested cities. Unfortunately, the result in decades of increased population growth and unplanned development has severely affected the nation.

fragmented development)  Concentration (open space protection. Other major impacts of sprawl are ecological. Residents conduct more driving. Due to massive land consumption. As a result of spending more time and money commuting in vehicles. infrastructure costs)  Clustering (urban form/ design. Public health is another major concern of sprawled communities. a sedentary lifestyle can result in obesity and increase of stress levels. and climate change. personal automobiles are the primary mode of transportation. social and health related. discontinuous development. Sources of drinking water are vulnerable to contamination. impervious surfaces)  Centrality (relationship to CBD)  Nuclearity  Mixed uses (Spatial mismatch. degradation of air quality.The 8 dimensions of sprawl are:  Density (residential units per acre)  Continuity (leapfrog. no centralized ownership of land or planning of development. contributing towards traffic congestion. Unplanned and irresponsible sprawl developments have had severe effects on the natural environment. unsustainable oil consumption. forests. and agricultural land are converted to subdivisions. With a lack of alternatives. These lands no longer perform natural processes crucial to ecosystem health. and social divides. wetlands. transportation by privately owned vehicles. shopping centers and roads. . congestion)  Proximity (distance between uses) What are the consequences of urban sprawl? The main consequences of urban sprawl are: low residential density. widespread commercial strip development along major roadways. human health. spatial segregation of different type of land uses through zoning regulations.

“With humility and common sense. She explained how each element of a city – sidewalks. parks. communitybased approaches to urban planning. persistent questioning and discovery. Her faith in the wisdom of local citizens lives on in the civic battles in which she participated and her wisdom lives on in the writing of her nine seminal books. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. and the ocean. What is Jane Jacobs view about urban sprawl? Jane Jacobs (1916-2006) was an urban writer and activist who championed new. streets and neighborhoods function as dynamic organisms. Her 1961 treatise.Converted land reduces natural water filtration resulting in runoff (sedimentation and chemicals) penetrating rivers. lakes. she taught the world how to understand and value cities through direct observation. neighborhoods. became perhaps the most influential American text about the inner workings and failings of cities. . Social divides of race and class are common throughout sprawl. government. inspiring generations of urban planners and activists. in the same manner as the natural ecosystem. and economy – functions together synergistically.” — The Center for the Living City at Purchase College Jane Jacobs viewed city as an ecosystem where buildings.

Jacobs favored mixed use development. and indeed as many of its internal parts as possible. She said in her book that. whether residential or commercial. they represent a complex and highly developed form of order” Jacobs favored high density because she considered it vital for the economic growth and prosperity of city. old or new. the diversity can be . must serve more than one primary function. preferably more than two. but who are able to use many facilities in common” “Intricate mingling of different uses in cities are not a form of chaos. “The district. These must ensure the presence of people who go outdoors on different schedules and are in place for different purposes.the integration of different building types and uses. On the contrary. In the case of enough people in enough dwellings.

generated and people can develop attachment and loyalty to their unique neighborhood mixture of things. Density means good stores. This is to promote social interaction chances and healthy community living. cafes. and restaurants. without overcrowding. This also reduces crime opportunities. Jacobs contested the traditional planning approach that relies on the judgment of outside experts. good services. Jacobs recommended that small blocks should be used instead of large blocks. . proposing that local expertise is better suited to guiding community development. Jacobs understood that density provides critical mass. It also means street life and round-the-clock activity—all of which means safety. The city is safe these days not only because the Police Department has fought crime strategically but also because the streets are full of people day and night.

After all we are all experiencing at current. Urban sprawl is characterized by low density developments along the periphery of a city whereas Jacobs is with the high density development. This causes man to depend more and more on private commuting and hence increases traffic congestion and health problems. Jacobs is against the segregation of primary and secondary land uses. . what Jacobs predicted long ago. Similarly. City is for the people and people themselves have to stand up for it. It is therefore important to deal with the ever-growing negative consequences of urban sprawl using the theory of Jane Jacobs. the approach of Jane Jacobs is against urban sprawl. Because a city can be a never ending phenomenon if we let it grow that way and it can ultimately destroy our natural ecosystem. Urban Sprawl is on the other hand produced by the separation of land uses.CONCLUSION: Clearly.

The Life and Death of Great American Cities http://thumbnails.jpg .jpg Jacobs.pps.html http://courses.BIBLIOGRAPHY: http://en.files.