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Prof Andy Buffler

Room 503 RW James
andy.buffler@uct.ac.za
PHY1004W 2010
Electricity and Magnetism
Part 3
M&I
Chapter 19
Capacitors, Resistors and Batteries
Capacitors in circuits
M&I
19.1
Surface charge rearrangements are rapid … nanoseconds!
… a steady state is soon reached.
… capacitors can be used to cause a slower change of the
current in a circuit …
Capacitor: or
A capacitor is made of a sandwich of
two metal foils separated by an
insulating material and coiled up into a
small package.
… no conducting path through the
capacitor … charges cannot jump
between the plates.
insulating
material
external
connections
A charged capacitor (charge Q on each plate):
fringe
0
2
Q A s
E
R c
| |
=
|
\ .
Radius, R
Plate
separation s
E
fringe
Plate area A
There is a fringe
field just outside the
charged capacitor
plates, where ...
M&I
19.2
Charging a capacitor
Connect a 6V battery, a light bulb
and a capacitor in series ...
At t = 0.1 s after starting, the bulb
shines brightly ...
At t = 1 s after starting, the bulb is
down to medium brightness ...
At t > 10 s after starting, the
bulb is not glowing at all ...
Charging a capacitor ... 2
After some time, there is significant positive and negative
charge on the capacitor plates ...
... the fringe field of the capacitor acts in a direction opposite to
the conventional current, thus decreasing the net field and the
current decreases.
Eventually the current stops when there is enough charge on
the capacitor to create large enough fringe field to counteract
the field made by the other charges.
The initial establishment of surface charges takes a few
nanoseconds, while it takes several seconds to reach static
equilibrium (zero current).
Discharging a capacitor
Now remove the battery completely ...
t = 0.1 s t = 1 s t > 10 s
The light bulb initially burns brightly again and decays in
brightness until the current in the circuit is once again zero ...
The fringe field of the capacitor plus the electric field of the charges
on the surfaces of the wires drives the current so as to reduce the
charge on the capacitor plates ... and on the wire surfaces ... the
electric field is reduced and so thus the current.
a. Different plate radius R:
fringe,1
2
0 1 0 1 1
2 2
Q A s Q s
E
R R R c c t
| | | |
= =
| |
\ . \ .
R
1
R
2
> R
1
Same charge Q distributed on
plates after 0.01 s of charging in
each case ...
fringe,2 fringe,1
2
0 2 0 2 2
2 2
Q A s Q s
E E
R R R c c t
| | | |
= = <
| |
\ . \ .
Smaller fringe field means a larger net
field, hence current in circuit with larger
capacitor has decreased less than smaller
capacitor.
Applications
M&I
19.5
b. Different plate separation s:
Same charge Q distributed on
plates after 0.01 s of charging in
each case...
s
1
s
2
< s
1
1
fringe,1
0
2
s Q A
E
R c
| |
=
|
\ .
2
fringe,2 fringe,1
0
2
s Q A
E E
R c
| |
= <
|
\ .
Again, a smaller fringe field means a
larger net field, hence current in circuit
with larger capacitor has decreased less
than smaller capacitor.
Applications ...2
c. Different dielectric materials
between the plates:
fringe,1
E
fringe,1
E
plastic
E
Same charge Q distributed
on plates after 0.01 s of
charging in each case...
The field of the polarized
plastic is in opposite direction
to the fringe field, so field due
to battery and surface charges
is reduced by a smaller
amount ... net field in wire is
larger than it is without the
plastic ... and hence current
flowing has decreased less
than without the dielectric
material.
Applications ...3
Capacitors in parallel
Two capacitors in parallel can be thought of as
one capacitor with plates that have the sum of
the areas of the individual capacitors.
An isolated light bulb
Why does the light bulb light up?
What are capacitors used for?
What will happen to the light bulb
if we break the circuit (briefly)
here??
... capacitors are used in all kinds of circuits to
even out rapid changes in voltage ...
... for example, in a power supply, parallel
capacitors filter out high frequency (AC)
voltage changes that are riding on top of a
constant DC voltage
... the circuit is caused to behave “sluggishly”
... unable to change voltage conditions rapidly.
Energy considerations
Consider the charging and
discharging of a capacitor ...
In terms of +E or ÷E, what was the energy change of the
battery, capacitor, light bulb and surroundings during each
phase? ... fill in the missing six spaces below ...
Charging Discharging
Battery:
Light bulb:
Capacitor: + E
Surroundings: + E
M&I
19.6
The current node rule in a capacitor circuit
M&I
19.7
In a steady state, the electron current entering a node in a circuit is
equal to the electron current leaving that node.
... consequence of the principle of conservation of charge.
Also known as the “Kirchhoff node rule”
I
1
I
2
I
4
I
3
I
1
= I
2
= (I
3
+I
4
)
But I
3
need not be equal to I
4
But what about a capacitor …?
The current node rule cannot apply to one of
the plates of the capacitor in isolation, only
to the capacitor as a whole, since there is not
a steady state situation on each plate.
No current here!
I I
M&I
19.8
Capacitance
+
+
+
+
+
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
+Q ÷Q
Plate area A
Plate separation s
E
As more and more charge
congregates on the plates, the
potential difference ΔV between
the plates increases.
Define capacitance: Q C V = A
Units: C V
-1
, or farads, F
The magnitude of the electric field between the plates is
0
Q A
E
c
=
And since
0
Q A
V Es s
c
A = =
Therefore for a parallel plate capacitor
0
A
C
s
c
=
If there is a dielectric (insulating) material between the plates, then
0
A
C K
s
c
=
… where K is the dielectric constant
Material Dielectric constant K
Vacuum 1.00000
Air (dry) 1.00059
Silicone oil 2.5
Polystyrene 2.56
Teflon 2.1
Nylon 3.4
Paper 3.7
Pyrex glass 5.6
Water 80
A macroscopic analysis of circuits
M&I
19.10
A microscopic view has been very useful to understand some
fundamental processes, but it is not easily to measure electric
field, surface charge, electron drift speed or mobility.
On the other hand, it is easy to measure conventional current
(rather than electric current), potential difference (rather than
electric field) and “resistance” (rather than mobility) …
… so, then, a macroscopic view might be useful …
M&I
19.11
Resistance
Conventional current: I q nAv q nAuE = =
Grouping the material properties together: ( ) I q nu AE =
And define ( )
I
J q nu E E
A
o = = =
Where J is the current density (A m
-2
)
and σ is the conductivity (A V
-1
m
-1
) q nu =
We consider to be a vector pointing in the direction of
the conventional current, which is in the direction of the
electric field …
Where is the absolute value of the charge on each carrier
n is the number of charge carriers per m
3
u is the mobility of the charge carriers
q
E
J
+
E
o = J E
Conductivity with two kinds of charge carrier
Apply a potential difference across a solution of NaCl …
The flow of Na
+
ions to the right constitutes a conventional
current to the right and the flow of Cl
÷
ions to the left also
constitutes a conventional current to the right.
The total current is
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
I q n Av q n Av
q n Au E q n Au E
= +
= +
And the current density
1 1 1 2 2 2

I
J
A
q n u E q n u E E o
=
= + =
Hence the conductivity
1 1 1 2 2 2
q n u q n u o = +
E
Na
+
Cl
÷
Resistance combines conductivity and geometry
Consider the potential difference
ΔV across a length L of wire of
constant cross sectional area A and
uniform composition …
In the steady state, the electric field is uniform everywhere in
the wire, hence
A
L
V d A = ÷ -
}
E r
V EL A =
Since this gives
I
J E
A
o = =
V
I
A L
o
A
=
Rearranging:
( )
V V
I
L A R o
A A
= =
Resistance:
L
R
A o
=
Units: ohms, Ω
… a quantity which depends on the properties of the material (σ)
and the geometry of the resistor (L and A)
Summary … this should all make sense to you …
( )
I q nAv q nA uE = =

V V
I q nA u
L
L
q nAu
| | A A
= =
|
| |
\ .
|
\ .
v uE =
V EL A =
for a straight wire, so
V
E
L
A
=

V
I
R
A
= where with
L
R
A o
=
q nu o =
Starting with
of course …
V IR A =
… but never
V IR =
Why?
Microscopic view Macroscopic view
v uE = J E o =
1
I q nAv V
R
| |
= = A
|
\ .
i nAv nAuE = =
*** Do the Ex.(ercises) in the M&I book!
Constant and varying conductivity
By experiment … we can determine that the current through one
light bulb is less than twice the current through two light bulbs in
series since the mobility u is lower at higher temperatures …
… the conductivity depends on u and hence the resistance R
changes for different amounts of current.
Ohmic resistors
Ohmic materials: the conductivity remains constant,
independent of the current through the material.
V
I
R
A
=
for an ohmic resistor
V A
I
Nichrome wire and carbon resistors are
nearly always ohmic, while most metals
are only ohmic at low temperatures
for a
metal
Semiconductors
Some materials and elements such as silicon and germanium are
non-ohmic … in these “semiconductor” materials, the density of
mobile electrons n and hence the conductivity σ depends
exponentially on the potential difference.
… in a metal, n is a fixed number (the number of free electrons
(or holes) per unit volume).
… in a semiconductor, at low temperatures there are no free
electrons or holes and the material behaves very much like an
insulator for small applied fields
… need a large enough electric
field to free up (some) electrons,
so n is variable and depends on
potential difference.
Raising the temperature can also
free up electrons.
V A
I
for a
semi
conductor
Other non-ohmic circuit elements
Capacitors are not ohmic …
for a capacitor
Q
V
C
A =
Batteries are not ohmic … if you double the
current through a battery then the potential
difference should not change much at all, in fact
will decrease slightly.
V
I
R
A
=
… has limited validity, and should only
be applied to resistors
+
÷
M&I
19.12
Series resistance
R
1
R
3
R
2
emf
Loop equation:
1 2 3
emf 0 R I R I R I ÷ ÷ ÷ =
1 2 3 equivalent
emf = ( ) R R R I R I + + =
equivalent 1 2 3
= R R R R + +
Assuming that:

• the conductivity σ is independent of the current for that material
• the magnitude of the sum of all the resistor potential drops is equal
to the potential rise across the battery
• the steady state current I is the same in every element
R L A o =
M&I
19.12
Parallel resistance
R
1
R
3
R
2 emf
I
1
I
2 I
3
I
ΔV is the same across each
resistor and is numerically
equal to the emf of the battery
1 2 3
I I I I = + +
1 2 3
emf emf emf
0 I
R R R
÷ ÷ ÷ =
1 2 3 equivalent
1 1 1 emf
emf I
R R R R
| |
= + + =
|
\ .
equivalent 1 2 3
1 1 1 1
R R R R
| |
= + +
|
\ .
M&I
19.13
Work and power in a circuit
Moving a small amount of charge Aq from one location to
another in a circuit requires potential energy AU
e
where
e
U q V A = A A
If this work is done in time At then the power
e
U q V
P
t t
A A A
= =
A A
But since the current in the circuit,
q
I
t
A
=
A
Power P I V = A
In a resistor, then V IR A =
2
2
V
P I R
R
A
= =
In a capacitor, then the work done W to charge a
capacitor from no charge to charge Q :
V q C A =
2
1
2
Q
W
C
=
M&I
19.14
Internal resistance
Recall our “mechanical battery” ...
The electrons on the motor-driven belt
are acted on by both the non-Coulomb
force exerted by the motor F
NC
and the
Coulomb force exerted by the charges
on the plates F
C
= ÷eE
c
.
In general,
because of the finite mobility of the charges ...
NC C
F F >
NC C
F F ÷
s
E
C
NC
F
C
F
... leads to an average drift speed of the ions in the battery, which
in turn is proportional to ...
Then
(force per unit charge)
NC
C
F I
J E
A e
o o
| |
= = = ÷
|
\ .
Internal resistance ...2
NC
C
F
J E
e
o
| |
= ÷
|
\ .
If then
NC
C
F I A
E
e o
= ÷
If the short length of the battery is s , the electric field is nearly
uniform, and the potential difference across the battery is
C
V E s A =
then
NC
F s s
V I
e A o
A = ÷
work per unit charge,
or emf of the battery
call the “internal resistance”
r
int
of the battery
s A o
Write
battery int
emf V r I A = ÷
r
int
emf
M&I
19.15
The ammeter
... used to measure current in a circuit
Ammeter sign convention: If conventional
current flows into the socket marked “+” then
the ammeter indicates a positive current.
Ammeters are connected in series and therefore
should have as small a resistance as possible so
as not to change the current that you are trying to
measure.
In order to measure large currents, a
“shunt” resistor is placed in parallel
with the ammeter to shunt part of the
current around the ammeter.
A
A
M&I
19.15
The voltmeter
V
... used to measure potential difference
An ammeter with a resistor in
series forms a voltmeter
Voltmeter sign convention: If the potential is higher at the socket
marked “+” then the ammeter indicates a positive potential difference.
Voltmeters are connected in parallel and therefore should have as
large a resistance as possible so that as small a current as
possible flows through it.
Two useful examples with meters …
1. The ammeter. Say we have a galvanometer which has a full
scale defection current of 50 mA and internal resistance 20 Ω, and
want to use it as an ammeter to measure a (full scale) current of
5 A, what shunt resistance R
S
must be connected in parallel?
G
r
int
R
S
2. The voltmeter. If we now want to use the same galvanometer
as a voltmeter with a full scale deflection at 10 volts, what shunt
resistance must be connected in series?
G
r
int
R
S
Quantitative analysis of an RC circuit
Charging a capacitor through resistor
+Q
÷Q
C
R
I
ε
Suppose the capacitor is
uncharged at t = 0.
At some time t > 0, a
current I is established and
a charge Q builds up on
the capacitor.
Energy equation for this circuit:
round trip
0
Q
V RI
C
c A = ÷ ÷ =
or

Q dQ Q
RI R
C dt C
c = + = +
Differential equation
Solution:
( ) 1
t
RC
Q t C e c
÷ | |
= ÷
|
\ .
M&I
19.16
See RCcircuit.py
τ
τ
Charging a capacitor through resistor …2
( ) 1
t
RC
Q t C e c
÷ | |
= ÷
|
\ .
Q(t)
t
εC
0.63 εC
V
R
(t)
ε
V
C
(t)
t
ε
I(t)
t
ε/R
0.63 ε/R
t
RC = time constant
t t
RC
e e
R R
t
c c
÷ ÷
= =
( )
( )
dQ t
I t
dt
=
( ) ( )
(1 )
C R
t
V V IR
e
t
c c
c
÷
= ÷ = ÷
= ÷
( )

R C
t
V V
e
t
c
c
÷
= ÷
=
Discharging a capacitor through resistor
Suppose the capacitor has
charge Q
0
at t = 0.
At some time t > 0, a current I
is established as the charge
drains off the capacitor.
Energy equation for this circuit:
round trip
0
Q
V RI
C
A = + =
or
0
Q dQ Q
RI R
C dt C
= + = +
or
0
( )
t
RC
Q t Q e
÷
=
+Q
÷Q
C
R
ε
I
Write
1

dQ
dt
Q RC
= ÷
} }
giving
1
lnQ t K
RC
= ÷ +
0
ln K Q =
τ
Discharging a capacitor through resistor …2
0
( )
t
Q t Q e
t
÷
=
Q(t)
t
Q
0
0.63 Q
0
V
R
(t)
÷Q
0
/C
V
C
(t)
t
Q
0
/C
I(t)
t
Q
0
/RC
e Q
0
/RC
t
RC = time constant
0 0
t t
RC
Q Q
e e
RC RC
t
÷ ÷
= ÷ = ÷
( )
( )
dQ t
I t
dt
=
0

t
C
Q Q
V e
C C
t
÷
= =
0
0

t
R
t
RQ
V IR e
RC
Q
e
C
t
t
÷
÷
= ÷ = ÷
= ÷
Which graph shows current versus time
while discharging?
1 2 3 4 5
The capacitor is initially
charged (left plate negative)
When the circuit is connected and there is a current:
1. Charge on the plates stays constant.
2. Left plate gets less negative.
3. Left plate gets more negative.
1 2 3 4 5
Which graph shows current
versus time while charging?
1 2 3 4 5
The capacitor is initially uncharged.
When the circuit is connected:
1. Electrons jump across the gap between the plates.
2. Electrons pile up on the left plate.
3. Electrons pile up on the right plate.
1 2 3 4 5
Which graph shows magnitude
of charge on the right plate
versus time while charging?
1 2 3 4 5
The capacitors are
initially uncharged.
|
.
|

\
|
c
=
R
s A Q
E
fringe
2
0
After 0.01 s of charging:
1. The fringe field of each capacitor is the same
2. The smaller capacitor (#1) has a larger fringe field
3. The larger capacitor (#2) has a larger fringe field
1 2 3 4 5
The capacitor is initially uncharged.
Which graph shows the magnitude of
the fringe field of the capacitor at
location A while charging?
1 2 3 4 5
The capacitor is initially
uncharged. Which graph shows
the magnitude of the net field at
location A while charging?
1 2 3 4 5
Circuit problems 1
What is the current through each resistor in the circuit below?
Circuit problems 2
What is the current through each resistor in the circuit below?
Circuit problems 2
M&I
Chapter 20
Magnetic Force
Remember the magnetic field of a moving charge ...
Biot-Savart law:
0
2
ˆ
4
q
r
µ
t
×
=
v r
B
0
2
ˆ
4
I
r
µ
t
A ×
A =
l r
B
for a point charge
and for a small current element
... does not change the
speed of the charge, only its
direction, since
M&I
20.1
Magnetic force on a moving charge
Magnetic force on a moving charge:
magnetic
q = × F v B
where: q is the charge (including the sign) of the moving charge
is the velocity of the moving charge
is the applied magnetic field (in tesla)
v
B
magnetic
F
v
B out the page
× v B
( ) e = ÷ × F v B
e ÷
magnetic
± F B
Magnitude of :
magnetic
sin
d
qvB
dt
u = =
p
F
magnetic
F
for v c
magnetic
q = × F v B
A charge follows a circular path
when traveling in a magnetic
field ...
v
B
e = × F v B
e +
Recall that for any rotating vector : X
d
dt
e =
X
X
Momentum principle:
The momentum of the particle above is a rotating vector ...
p
sin90
d
p q vB
dt
e = = °
p
2 2
1
mv
q vB
v c
e =
÷
2 2
1
q B
v c
m
e = ÷
See helix_in_B.py
Circular motion at low speeds:
q B
m
e ~
if v c <<
... can also get this result starting from the centripetal
acceleration of the particle:
2
v R
2
mv
q vB
R
= Then:
and since :
v
R
e =
q B
m
e =
• Time T for one complete circular orbit:
2
T
t
e = since ,
2
m
T
q B
t =
• Momentum p:
since
d v
p p q vB
dt R
e = = =
p
... momentum: p q BR = ... valid even for relativistic speeds.
The magnetic force on a charge moving in a magnetic field
For each situation below, decide if the magnetic force on the
charge is zero. If not zero, then indicate the direction of the force.
(a) (b)
(c) (d)
+
v
B
+
v
B
-
v
B
- into paper v
B
. . . .
The magnetic force on a charge moving in a magnetic field …2
-
0 = v
B
(e) (f)
(g) (h)
-
B
+
v
× × ×
× × ×
× × ×
+
v
into paper B
. . . .
. . . .
out of paper B
What is the direction of the magnetic force on the proton?
1. +x
2. –x
3. +y
4. –y
5. +z
6. –z
7. zero magnitude
1 2 3 4 5
An electron is traveling in the –y direction.
At its location there is a magnetic field in the –z direction.
What is the direction of the magnetic force on the electron?
1. +x
2. –x
3. +y
4. –y
5. +z
6. –z
7. zero magnitude
1 2 3 4 5
Applications: The cyclotron
= 0 in “dees”
E
E
B out the page in “dees”
accelerates charged particles across the gap
We need to flip the electric field rapidly in the gap in order to
synchronize the acceleration of the particles.
iThemba LABS
Faure, South Africa
200 MeV separated sector cyclotron
See http://www.tlabs.ac.za
M&I
20.2
Magnetic force on a current-carrying wire
Consider a bunch of positive
charges contained in a small
volume with length Δl and cross
sectional area A, moving with drift
velocity .
If there are n moving charges per unit volume, then there are
moving charges in this small volume.
Then the force on this wire due to an external magnetic field
is
magnetic
( ) nA l q = A × F v B
( ) qnAv = A × l B
magnetic
I = A × F l B
nA l A
v
B
B
v
Al
Magnetic force on a current-carrying wire …2
Consider this situation …
magnetic
I = A × F l B
magnetic
sin
sin90
I lB
ILB ILB
u = A
= ° =
F
All the way around the loop,
points outwards.
The resultant force on the side
pieces is zero (although the
bottom wire is stretched!?)
The magnitude of on the bottom wire is
… with the direction of downwards.
+-
L
out the page
B
h
I
magnetic
F
magnetic
F
magnetic
F
B
I
E
v
Magnetic force on a current-carrying wire …2
Why does the wire move at
all … if the magnetic force
only acts on the drifting
electrons??
The answer relies on the
Hall effect …excess charge
builds up on the top and
bottom surfaces on the
wire… and an electric field
builds up until
and the resultant force on
the drifting electrons is zero.
±
E
E vB
±
=
However also acts on the stationary positive atomic cores
which experience a net downwards force …
±
E
Magnetic force between
two parallel wires
Consider two very long parallel straight wires of length L, a
distance d apart. The upper wire carries conventional current I
1
and
the lower wire conventional current I
2
in the same direction.
No external magnetic fields present.
Magnetic field at bottom wire due to top wire:
0 1
1
2
4
I
B
d
µ
t
~
Then force on lower wire due to B
1
:
0 1
21 2 1 2
2
sin90
4
I
F I LB I L
d
µ
t
| |
= ° =
|
\ .
… in a direction upwards.
Similarly the force on the upper wire due to B
2
from lower wire:
0 1 2
21
2
4
LI I
d
µ
t
= F
… in a direction downwards
If I
1
and I
2
were in opposite directions, then the two wires
will repel each other.
L
I
1
I
2
×
B
1
d F
21
What is the direction of the magnetic force on the wire?
1. +x
2. –x
3. +y
4. –y
5. +z
6. –z
7. zero magnitude
1 2 3 4 5
A proton moving in the +y direction
experiences a magnetic force in the
–x direction.
1. +y
2. –y
3. I = 0
4. Not enough information
What is the direction of the conventional current in the wire?
1 2 3 4 5
The Lorentz force
If a charge moves in region where there are both electric and
magnetic fields present, then the net force acting on the particle is
given by
resultant electric magnetic
= + F F F
q q = + × F E v B Lorentz force
In each of the situations below, what is the direction of the
Lorentz force on a proton at this instant? [and for an electron?]
y
x
z
B
E
0 = v
y
x
z
B
E v
y
x
z
B
E
v
y
x
z
B
E
v
v in z direction
M&I
20.3
What are the directions of the forces on the moving positive charge?
F
elec
F
mag
1 up up
2 down down
3 up down
4 down up
1 2 3 4 5
What are the directions of the forces on the moving negative charge?
F
elec
F
mag
1 up up
2 down down
3 up down
4 down up
1 2 3 4 5
A particle of charge +q travels in a straight line at constant speed.
Which is true?
1. qE = qvB
2. E = B
3. E = q / (vB)
4. qE = qB
1 2 3 4 5
E = 1000 V/m, B = 0.5 T, q = ÷2 nC
A particle travels in a straight line at constant speed.
What is the speed v of the particle?
1. 2000 m/s
2. 0.5 m/s
3. 500 m/s
4. 1000 m/s
5. 1.0 m/s
1 2 3 4 5
A positively charged particle moves through a hole in a plate into a
region with an electric field and a magnetic field. The two fields and
the velocity of the particle are all mutually perpendicular.
× × × × ×
× × × × ×
× × × × ×
+
v
E
into paper B
1. Draw arrows to indicate the directions of the electric and
magnetic forces acting on the particle.
(Are there any other forces acting on the particle?)
Applications: The velocity selector
The velocity selector …2
2. State in words the conditions that are necessary for the particle
to move straight ahead at a constant velocity.
3. Say now that the particle entered the region travelling at 2v.
What would now be its trajectory between the plates? Explain in
terms of the forces acting on the particle.
4. Say now that the particle entered the region travelling at half
of v. What would now be its trajectory between the plates?
Explain in terms of the forces acting on the particle.
Worked example: the electron and current loop
+Q
3R
I v
If the force on the
moving electron is
zero, then what is the
magnitude and
direction of the
current I?
mag electric
= F F
on electron
( )
2
0
1
4
3
eQ
evB
R
tc
=
2
0
1
4 9
Q
R
B
v
tc
=
The electron and current loop …2
The magnetic field of a loop is
( )
3
2
2
0
2 2
2
=
4
loop
I R
B
R z
µ t
t
+
At the centre of the 2 loops z = 0
0
2
=
4
loop
I
B
R
µ t
t

Hence for two loops:
2
0 0
1
4 9 2
2
4
Q
R I
R v
µ tc t
t
=
or
0 0
1
36
Q
I
Rv c µ t
=
Direction of I ?
Since is to the right,
I must be anticlockwise around the loops.
mag
= × F v B
B
I
E
v
The Hall effect M&I
20.4
Consider a metal block through
which there is a conventional
current I … the free electrons
will tend to drift in the opposite
direction to E with speed . v
Now apply a strong external magnetic field B perpendicular to E…
the magnetic force on the electrons will cause them to be deflected
towards the bottom of the block, where they will accumulate on the
surface … the top surface of the block becomes positive, and the
bottom surface negative.
The Hall effect …2
… more and more electrons pile up on the bottom surface of the block …
… a new electric field
builds up between the top and
bottom surfaces …and pile up
of electrons will cease when
(the net vertical force is zero)
and the electrons move
horizontally through the bar
with no vertical deflection.
±
E
I
B
±
E v
L
d
h
magnetic electric
= F F
sin90 eE evB
±
= °
When this happens:
or E vB
±
=
(similar to the velocity selector)
The voltmeter will read a value equal to E h vBh
±
+ = +
(The voltmeter will read zero when B = 0)
The Hall effect …3
The appearance of a sideways or transverse potential difference
across a current-carrying wire in the presence of a magnetic field is
called the Hall effect.
If we had positive particles moving to the right in our conductor,
instead of electrons moving to the left, then the bottom of the
block would have an excess positive charge with excess negative
charge on the top …
... and the voltmeter would read a negative voltage!
… therefore by measuring the Hall effect for a particular
metal, we can determine the sign of the moving particles that
make up the current.
The Hall effect …4
In a metal bar of length L, height h and width w, carrying a
conventional current : I q nAv =
Then:
Hall
I
V vBh Bh
A q n
A = =
So can be measured for different materials, and can be
used to confirm that in some metals (e.g. aluminium and zinc)
and “p-type” semiconductors, it is positive holes in the electron
sea, rather than the electrons themselves that are the dominant
charge carriers.
Hall
V A
Turn it around! … if is known for a particular material,
together with I, A, q, n and h (easy), then we can measure an
unknown B (… build an instrument to measure magnetic fields)
… a “Hall probe”
Hall
V A
What is the direction of inside the bar?
||
E

1. +x
2. –x
3. +y
4. –y
5. +z
6. –z
7. zero magnitude
1 2 3 4 5
If the mobile charges are negative, what is their direction
of motion inside the bar?
1. +x
2. –x
3. +y
4. –y
5. +z
6. –z
7. zero magnitude
1 2 3 4 5
If the mobile charges are negative, then what is the sign of the
voltmeter reading?
(Voltmeter reads positive if the + lead is connected to a higher
potential location)
1. positive
2. negative
3. zero
1 2 3 4 5
If the mobile charges are positive, what is the direction of
the magnetic force?
1. +x
2. –x
3. +y
4. –y
5. +z
6. –z
7. zero magnitude
1 2 3 4 5
If the mobile charges are positive, then what is the sign of the
voltmeter reading?
(Voltmeter reads positive if the + lead is connected to a higher
potential location)
1. positive
2. negative
3. zero
1 2 3 4 5
Motional emf: Currents due to magnetic forces.
M&I
20.5
If we move a wire through a magnetic field,
then can we generate a current?
Consider a metal bar of length
L that is moving through
region of uniform magnetic
field B, into the page ...
×
×
×
× ×
× ×
× ×
×
B
v
L
The mobile electrons inside the
bar experience a force
magnetic
( ) e = ÷ × F v B
downward
… with the result that the mobile
electron sea shifts downwards
and the bar becomes polarized
… electric field E
pol
inside the bar.
÷ ÷
×
×
×
× ×
× ×
× ×
×
B
v
E
pol
+
+
+
+
+ +
÷
÷ ÷
÷
Motional emf: Currents due to magnetic forces …2
At first the only force is downwards,
but as more electrons shift downwards, the larger the upward
electric force
magnetic
F evB =
electric pol
( ) F e E = ÷
Polarization continues until
magnetic electric
= F F
or
evB eE =
or vB E =
Think! … we have a non-zero electric field inside a metal in
static equilibrium … but there is no current!
(no net force on the
mobile electrons)
The potential difference between the ends of the bar is simply
V EL eBL A = =
Since there is no current in the bar, there is no net force on the
bar due to B and the polarized bar will coast along with no force
required to keep it going.
Now let the bar run along
frictionless metal rails through
the uniform magnetic field,
and connect a resistor R across
the rails (the bar and rails have
negligible resistance.)
×
×
×
× ×
× ×
× ×
×
B
v
R
A current will run in this circuit, driven by a “battery” (the moving
metal bar) … electrons are driven the “wrong” way, moving
towards the negative end of the bar.
The surface-charge
distribution on the circuit
looks something like …
×
×
×
× ×
× ×
× ×
×
B
v
R
+ + + + + + + + + + +
+ + + + +
+ +
+ + + + + + +
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷
Motional emf: Currents due to magnetic forces …3
The electron current in the resistor is continuously depleting
the charges on the ends of the moving bar … so the electric
field inside the bar is always slightly less than is needed to
balance the magnetic force …
i.e.
eE evB <
… so the electrons move towards the
negative end of the bar.
The magnetic force is a non-Coulomb force … the work
done by this force in moving an electron from one end of the bar
to the other is
NC
F
NC
W F L evBL = =
Then the non-Coulomb work per unit charge =
evBL
e
If the resistance of the bar is negligible, then emf V vBL A = =
“motional emf”
An external force ILB needs to applied on the bar to the right
to keep it moving with constant speed v.
Motional emf: Currents due to magnetic forces …4
A neutral iron bar is dragged at speed v through
a region with magnetic field B.
Which diagram best shows the state of the bar?
1 2 3 4 5
A neutral copper bar is dragged at speed v
through a region with magnetic field B.
Which diagram best shows the state of the bar?
1 2 3 4 5
In which direction will there be a conventional current?
1. Clockwise
2. Counter-clockwise
3. No current
1 2 3 4 5
There is a current as shown.
Is there a magnetic force on
the entire bar?
1. F
mag
on bar is upward
2. F
mag
on bar is downward
3. F
mag
on bar is to the right
4. F
mag
on bar is to the left
5. F
mag
on bar = 0
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
Four identical horizontal bars each start from rest and fall
vertically. The bars slide down vertical, frictionless rods that are
connected at the top by a resistor. In what order do the bars
reach the bottom of the vertical rods?
into paper B
. . . .
out of paper B
× × ×
× × ×
× × ×
× × ×
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
= 0 B
B
1 2 3 4
Magnetic forces in moving reference frames
M&I
20.6
Consider two protons initially traveling
parallel to each other with the same
speed v, a distance r apart ...
Proton 1 contributes an electric field
at the position of proton 2 which
experiences an electric force
21, 2 1 e
q = F E
1
E
2
21,
2
0
1
4
e
e
F
r tc
=
or downwards
21,e
F
1
E
r
proton 1
proton 2
v
v
1
B
21,m
F
×
ˆ r
Proton 1 also contributes a magnetic field at the position of
proton 2 where into the page.
0
1
2
4
ev
B
r
µ
t
=
1
B
Hence there is a magnetic force on proton 2, where
2 2
0
21,
2
4
m
e v
F
r
µ
t
=
upwards
21,m
F
Magnetic forces in moving reference frames ...2
The resultant force on proton 2 due to proton 1 is
21, 21, e m
+ F F
Taking the ratio of these two forces:
2 2
0
2
21, 2
0 0
2
21,
2
0
4

1
4
m
e
e v
F
r
v
e F
r
µ
t
µ c
tc
= =
But
( ) ( )
-12 2 -2 -7 -1
0 0
1 1
8.85 10 C N m 4π 10 T m A
µ c
=
× ×
16 2 -2 2
8.99 10 m s !!! c = × =
2
21,
2
21,

m
e
F
v
F c
=
So as ,
21, 21,

m e
v c F F ÷ ÷
Magnetic forces in moving reference frames ...3
Now considering the full Lorentz force of proton 1 on proton 2:
2 2 2
0
21, 21,
2 2
0
1
4 4
e m
e e v
r r
µ
tc t
+ = ÷ F F
downward
The resultant force on proton 2 is downward ... and the resultant
Lorentz force on proton 1 due to proton 2 is upward.
The two protons repel each
other and their trajectories are
curving line apart.
v
v
12,resultant
F
21,resultant
F
Read “Jack and Jill
and Einstein” in M&I .
Relativistic field transformations
M&I
20.7
Consider two frames of reference:
y
x
z
Lab frame y’
x’
z’
Moving frame
v
(moving at speed v
relative to lab frame)
How do electric and magnetic fields transform from one
reference frame to the other? …. Need special relativity …
'
x x
E E =
'
x x
B B =
( )
'
2 2
1
y z
y
E vB
E
v c
÷
=
÷
( )
'
2 2
1
z y
z
E vB
E
v c
+
=
÷
2
'
2 2
1
y z
y
v
B E
c
B
v c
| |
+
|
\ .
=
÷
2
'
2 2
1
z y
z
v
B E
c
B
v c
| |
÷
|
\ .
=
÷
Relativistic field transformations …2
Now consider a positively charged particle at rest in the lab frame.
2
0
1
ˆ
4
q
r
r tc
= E
In the lab frame:
0 = B
In the moving reference frame the particle is seen to be moving
with speed v in the ÷x direction …
In the moving frame above the particle, E
y
> 0, therefore:
2
2
'
2 2 2 2
1 1
z y
y
z
v
v
B E
E
c
c
B
v c v c
| |
÷
÷
|
\ .
= =
÷ ÷
At low speeds, : v c <<
'
2 2 2
0
1
4
z y
v v q
B E
c c r tc
| |
= ÷ = ÷
|
\ .
'
2 2 2
0
1
4
z y
v v q
B E
c c r tc
| |
= ÷ = ÷
|
\ .
Relativistic field transformations …3
In the moving frame:
y’
x’
z’
v
B
' '
0
x z
B B = =
2
0 0
1
c
µ c
=
and since :
'
0
2
4
z
qv
B
r
µ
t
= ÷
…as predicted by Biot-Savart
Similarly, below the particle: ,
'
2
z y
v
B E
c
=
At this position: ,
'
2
y z
v
B E
c
= ÷
' '
0
y x
B B = =
' '
0
y x
B B = =
and on the other side: ,
'
2
y z
v
B E
c
=
' '
0
x z
B B = =
… magnetic fields are a relativistic
consequence of electric fields …
Above the moving particle ,
Electric field of a rapidly moving charged particle
If the speed of the moving reference frame is very large
(approaching c) then the electric field of the particle is altered
significantly in the moving frame.
'
x x
E E =
( )
'
2 2
1
y
y
E
E
v c
=
÷
( )
'
2 2
1
z
z
E
E
v c
=
÷
If B
z
= 0:
y’
x’
z’
Moving frame
v
+
'
E
and increase as
'
y
E
'
z
E
v c ÷
Moving through a region of uniform magnetic field
Now consider a case where
0
x
B =
z
B B = ÷
0
y
B =
rest frame
y
x
z
× × × × ×
× × × × ×
× × × × ×
B
'
E
y’
x’
z’
v
× × × × ×
× × × × ×
× × × × ×
'
B
moving frame
in a rest frame:
In the moving frame:
( )
'
2 2 2 2
0
( )
1 1
z
y
vB
v B
E
v c v c
÷
÷ ÷
= =
÷ ÷
vB =
… if v << c
Moving through a region of uniform magnetic field …2
If we are in the moving frame
and observe a metal bar which is
at rest in this frame … the metal
bar polarizes and a downward
field is produced, until the
net field inside the metal is zero
(there is static equilibrium and
).
'
E
y’
x’
z’
× × × ×
× × × ×
× × × ×
'
B
moving frame
÷ ÷
+
+
+
+
+ +
÷
÷ ÷
÷
'
pol
E
'
pol
E
y
x
z
× × × ×
× × × ×
× × × ×
B
lab frame
÷ ÷
+
+
+
+
+ +
÷
÷ ÷
÷
pol
E
v
In the lab frame the bar is
observed moving at v in the
x-direction, and the bar polarizes
due to the magnetic force qvB
acting on the mobile charges …
At equilibrium
or
pol
qE qvB =
'
pol
E vB =
pol
E vB =
Moving through a region of uniform magnetic field …3
The amount of charge buildup is the same in either reference
frame, but the explanation that observers in the two frames
give for the cause of the charge buildup is different.
Principle of relativity: There may be different mechanisms
for different observers in different reference frames, but all
observers can correctly predict what will happen in their own
frames, using the same relativistically correct physical laws.
Another example: the velocity selector …
Moving through a velocity selector
y
x
z
B
E
v
lab frame
A particle moves with speed v in the
+x direction through a region where
there is an electric field of magnitude E
in the +y direction and a magnetic field
of magnitude B in the +z direction.
If E = vB then the particle passes through with no deflection
because the electric force of magnitude eE is equal and opposite
to the magnetic force of magnitude qvB.
If you move through this region with speed v in the +x direction,
without the charged particle being present, what electric and
magnetic fields would you observe in your (moving) frame?
Moving through a velocity selector …2
( )
'
2 2 2 2 2 2
0
1 1 1
y z
y
E vB
E vB vB vB
E
v c v c v c
÷
÷ ÷
= = = =
÷ ÷ ÷
The only fields that would be observed in the moving frame are:
( )
2 2
2
2 2
'
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1
1 1 1 1
z y
z
v
v v
B E
B E B vB
v c B
c
c c
B
v c v c v c v c
| |
÷
÷ ÷
|
÷
\ .
= = = =
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
A charge at rest is unaffected by the magnetic field… and there is
no electric field… so there is no force on the particle.
A particle at rest in the moving frame moves with constant
velocity in the rest frame, straight through the velocity selector.
… a different explanation for each frame for the same
phenomenon, each of which makes sense in that frame.
Magnetic torque on a magnetic dipole moment
M&I
20.8
Consider a rectangular
current-carrying loop of
wire in a uniform magnetic
field , free to rotate on an
insulating horizontal axle...
... A force acts on
two sides of the loop,
causing it to rotate such that
its magnetic dipole moment
lines up with the
external magnetic field .
B
I
h
w
F IwB =
B
μ
I in
×
I out
F IwB =
B
F IwB =
IA Ihw µ = =
B
Magnetic torque on a magnetic dipole moment ...2
Total torque on the loop =
( )( ) ( )
2 sin 2 sin
2
h
r F F h IwB u u
±
| |
= =
|
\ .
Since
IA Ihw µ = =
write torque = sin B µ u
or = × τ μ B
(for any shaped loop)
B
I
×
I
F IwB =
F IwB =
µ
u
u
u
u
sin F IwB u
±
=
sin F IwB u
±
=
2 h
2 h
u
Potential energy for a magnetic dipole moment
M&I
20.9
When a magnetic dipole moment rotates freely to align with an
applied magnetic field, the aligned magnetic dipole moment must be
associated with a lower potential energy in the magnetic field.
How much work will be done (by us) to move the magnetic dipole
moment out of alignment?
Work done in rotating a rectangular loop from u
i
to u
f
...

2 sin sin
2
f f f
i i i
r
m
r
h
W U Fdr IwB d IwhB d
u u
u u
u u u u
| |
= A = = =
|
\ .
} } }
( )[cos cos ]
m f i
U IwhB u u A = ÷ ÷
write cos
m
U B µ u = ÷ = ÷μ B
Force on a magnetic dipole moment
S N
2
( ) I R µ t =
dF
cos(90 ) dF u ° ÷
u
B
B
B
u
dF
cos(90 ) dF u ° ÷
Bring one end of a bar magnet
near to a current-carrying loop
of radius R … the magnetic
field due to the bar magnet is
diverging at some angle θ and
is therefore not uniform.
Each segment of the ring
experiences a magnetic force
d Id = × F l B
The horizontal components of the force is cos(90 ) sin dF dF u u ° ÷ =
The vertical components of the forces cancel.
net
(2 sin )
sin (2 )sin
B
F IB dl IB R
R
µ u
u t u = = =
}
Force on a magnetic dipole moment …2
S N
by us
F
1
B
μ
2
B
mag
F
x A
Take a situation where a magnetic dipole moment is aligned with the
magnetic field from a bar magnet… the magnetic exerts a force
to the left and we exert a force which is slightly larger than
and we move the magnetic dipole moment from position 1 to 2.
mag
F
mag
F
by us
F
m
U B µ = ÷ = ÷ μ B
Since
… then the work done by us =
( ) ( ) ( )
by us 2 1 2 1 m
F x U B B B B B µ µ µ µ A = A = ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷ A
… which is greater than zero since
2 1
B B <
(in this case)
Force on a magnetic dipole moment …3
by us
m
U B dB
F
x x dx
µ µ
A A
= = ÷ ÷ ÷
A A
… a positive value.
(In general, )
x
dU
F
dx
= ÷
Note that there is no force if the field is uniform 0
dB
dx
| |
=
|
\ .
The magnetic field along the axis of a bar magnet:
0 1
1
3
2
4
B
x
µ µ
t
~
Where is the total magnetic dipole moment of all the
atomic magnetic dipole moments in the magnet
1
µ
The force that this magnet will exert on a magnetic dipole
moment lying along the axis of …
1
µ
2
µ
0 0 1 1 1
mag 2 2 2
3 4
2 2
3
4 4
dB d
F
dx dx x x
µ µ µ µ
µ µ µ
t t
| | | |
= ÷ = ÷ =
| |
\ . \ .
The magnetic torque on a current-loop dipole
What is the direction of the torque on each of the loops below?
B
(a) (b) (c) (d)
The magnetic torque on a current-loop dipole …2
What is the direction of the torque on each of the loops below?
Which way would the magnetic torque tend to rotate the loop?
B
I
B
I × × ×
× × ×
× × ×
× × ×
I
(a) The plane of the
circular loop is
perpendicular to the
page and the magnetic
field is in the plane of
the paper.
(b) The plane of the
circular loop is
perpendicular to the
page and the magnetic
field is in the plane of
the paper.
(c) The plane of the
circular loop and the
magnetic field are
both perpendicular
to the plane of the
paper.
The magnetic torque on a current-loop dipole …3
What is the direction of the torque on each of the loops below?
Which way would the magnetic torque tend to rotate the loop?
I
B
× × ×
× × ×
× × ×
× × ×
I
(d) The circular
loop is in the
plane of the paper
and the magnetic
field is into the
paper.
(e) The circular
loop and the
magnetic field
are both in the
plane of the
paper.
(f) The plane of the
circular loop is
perpendicular to the
paper and the
magnetic field is in
the plane of the paper.
I
The electric generator
M&I
20.10
Mechanically rotate a loop of
dimensions w and h at a constant
angular speed (in
radians per second) inside a uniform
magnetic field.
The tangential speed of the left or
right wire is , since the
wire is a distance h/2 from the axle.
B
h
w
d dt e u =
( )
2 v h e =
u
B
v
B
v
The magnetic forces drive a
conventional current clockwise in the
loop …
Magnetic force on each current carrier:
sin F qvB u =
The electric generator …2
For the right wire, the magnetic force is uniform throughout
the wire, so the motional emf (non-Coulomb work per unit
charge) is given by
( )
sin
sin
qvB w
vBw
q
u
u =
The left wire contributes the same emf, so the total emf around
the loop is:
( )
2 sin 2 2 sin ( )sin sin vBw h Bw t B hw t BA t u e e e e e e ( = = =
¸ ¸
Connect the rotating loop
to an external circuit using
two commutators.
Then the current,
sin BA t
I
R
e e
=
I
I
I
I
R
The electric generator …3
emf sin NBA t e e = For our generator of N loops:
Which produces an “alternating current” in the external circuit…
this is the basis of nearly all commercial electricity generation…
In South Africa, frequency of AC is 50 Hz and “root mean square”
voltage is 220V.
t
NBA e
emf
An external force is required at both ends of
the loop, perpendicular to the loop, to balance the
perpendicular component of the magnetic
force of the loop.
The electric generator …4
What power needed to rotate the loop?
ext
sin F IwB u =
sin F IwB u
±
=
B
I
×
I
F IwB =
u
u
sin F IwB u
±
=
sin F IwB u
±
=
2 h
ext
F
ext
F
The electric generator …5
( )
2 sin
2
h
W IwB u u A = A
If we rotate the loop through a small angle , we move each
end a small distance and do a small amount of work
( )
2 h u A
u A
Divide by and take the limit as t A 0 t A ÷
( ) ( ) ( )
2 sin sin sin
2
dW h d
IwB I Bwh I BA
dt dt
u
u e u e u = = =
sin BA t
I
R
e e
=
and since
2
Power = ( )
dW
I RI RI
dt
= =