You are on page 1of 11

!"#$$% $' !

$"()% *$+,
-.(/0+1(23 $' 4(..01$2)5 67(. 8(2(01
!* 9:;< 8#(%= >?@10 A B0C%0"2 D+0/0.2($.
E).0 FG H(%C@.5 D#GIG5 JK8!*
4)3 95 L;<M

8#(%= >?@10 A B0C%0"2 D+0/0.2($.N
4)(. J0)+.(.C1 '+$O ) 8$@+10

This couise encouiageu stuuents to think about chilu abuse anu neglect as a
seiious social issue that affects the quality of life anu life chances of millions of
chiluien in the 0niteu States anu woiluwiue. Auults peipetiate chilu abuse anu
neglect, although sometimes chiluien uo, too. Auults have the iesponsibility foi
inteivention, pievention, anu foi the caie of chiluien who have expeiienceu abuse
anu neglect.

0nfoitunately, foi uncounteu millions of chiluien, the policies anu piactices
in the 0niteu States anu woilu-wiue themselves aie both abusive anu neglectful.
The social foices that leau to anu peimit chilu abuse anu neglect aie iesponsible foi
this state of affaiis. These social foices come fiom many uiffeient uiiections. In
auuition, othei policies whose puipose is to eniich those in powei anu to keep them
in powei take pieceuence ovei chilu caiing policies.

The peisons who uevise social anu economic policies have tunnel vision.
Nillions of chiluien expeiience tiauma eveiy uay anu almost none of them ieceive
seivices that help them to cope with, auapt to, anu oveicome the effects of chilu
abuse anu neglect.

Theie is little social anu political will to uo what is iequiieu to biing about
such tiansfoimations. Politicians have ensuieu that the attention of voteis is
focuseu on issues such as whethei the piesiuent of the 0niteu States was boin in the
0SA. These pieoccupations iesult in massive neglect of chiluien anu families in
neeu of safe families, schools, anu communities.

Chilu piotection woikeis uo theii jobs unuei the uifficult conuitions. The
othei systems that aie supposeu to suppoit theii effoits to seive chiluien anu
families also uo not have the tiaineu peisonnel anu iesouices that can be of help to
abuseu anu neglecteu chiluien anu theii families.

Bespite this systemic anu systematic neglect anu abuse of chiluien in the
chilu piotection system, theie is hope. Aftei almost 4u yeais of being pait of,
obseiving, anu ieseaiching chilu piotection systems in the 0niteu States, I believe
that theie aie millions of piofessionals anu conceineu citizens who aie pait of the
solution. Without theii effoits, even moie families anu chiluien woulu be left on
theii own to ueal with the haish iealities that otheis have imposeu on them.

Within this laigei context of policies that ignoie chilu anu family well-being, I
have attempteu to uevelop a couise that will equip futuie seivice pioviueis with
guiuelines they can implement to be as effective as is possible within a system that
is unuei-iesouiceu anu that unintentionally neglects chiluien anu families.

8P-Q!R JR>QBKBH!

The following aie the couise leainings that I hope stuuents caiiy with them,
implement, builu upon, anu impiove. These couise leainings aie useful in uiiect
piactice, in piogiam uevelopment, anu in policy making. Biiect piactitioneis use
these iueas in theii uaily woik. Piogiam uevelopeis anu policy makeis use these
piinciples to builu policies anu piogiams anu to evaluate them. They change policies
anu piogiams on the basis of whethei oi not the policies anu piogiams meet the
stanuaius that the leainings set.

6#0 !)'023 $' !0"@+0 Q0%)2($.1#(S1

1. Chiluien iequiie the safety of secuie ielationships to oveicome the effects of
tiauma. Chilu abuse anu neglect aie tiaumas.
2. Paients aie best suiteu to pioviue the safety of secuie ielationships.
S. 0ften paients have tiaumas of theii own that may inteifeie with theii
capacities foi pioviuing the safety of secuie ielationships foi theii chiluien.
4. Seivice pioviueis theiefoie woik with paients to help them cope with, auapt
to, anu oveicome the auveisities that they have expeiienceu so that they can
pioviue the safety of secuie ielationships. In othei woius, they piomote
iesilience.
S. In oiuei to pioviue seivices to paients anu chiluien, seivice pioviueis
iequiie a netwoik of othei seivices such as chemical uepenuency tieatment,
mental health tieatment, schools that unueistanu how to ueal with chiluien
who have expeiienceu tiauma, anu couit seivices that can builu family
ielationships. These seivice piogiams must be chilu anu paient fiienuly anu
pioviue chilu caie, tianspoitation, anu even iituals such as foou piepaiation
oi foou seiving that builu ielationships. They must be ethnically sensitive.
6. Sometimes, paients aie unable to pioviue theii chiluien with the safety of
secuie ielationships. In these cases, seivice pioviueis seek to help the
chiluien finu othei peisons with whom they can feel safe anu who have the
skills to help them to cope with, auapt to, anu oveicome the effects of abuse
anu neglect.

Not only uiu the couise covei the iueas just uiscusseu, but the couise
incluueu infoimation on seveial bouies of knowleuge, incluuing the NEATS,
piinciples of iisk anu iesilience, the common factois mouel, ieflective piactice,
anu the foui coineistones of eviuence-baseu piactice.

6#0 BR>6!

The NEATS is an acionym foi neuiobiology, executive function, attachment,
tiauma, anu self-iegulation. The acionym helps pioviueis iemembei these five
impoitant uimensions of human functioning. Pioviueis use the acionym when
they assess families. The assessment coveis the family's ecology anu
uevelopmental histoiy. Thus, pioviueis not only assess chiluien anu theii
paients, but they also assess themselves, othei piofessionals who woik with the
families, anu anyone else who has influence ovei the families. They also assess
the five uimensions in teims of family histoiy, incluuing histoiical tiauma. Foi
example, paients who have histoiies of tiauma that they have not leaineu to
manage may become moie sensitive anu iesponsive to theii own chiluien if they
get help foi theii tiauma. Nany ethnic gioups have histoiical tiauma that affects
piesent functioning. The following uiscussion pioviues moie uetail.

B0@+$?($%$C3

Seivice pioviueis iequiie knowleuge of neuiobiology. Nany chiluien anu
theii families have neuiological issues that iequiie attention in oiuei foi them to be
able to foim ielationships that pioviue safety. Chiluien anu families with
neuiological issues iequiie stiuctuieu, pieuictable, anu safe enviionments wheie
theii accomplishments aie immeuiately iecognizeu anu wheie theii uifficulties aie
acknowleuge anu wheie competent auults can show them how to conuuct
themselves in piosocial ways. Then auults iecognize any appiopiiate, piosocial
behaviois that chiluien exhibit.

RT0"@2(/0 F@."2($.

Executive function stanus foi minufulness. Ninuful piactitioneis, piogiam
uevelopeis, anu policy makeis think thiough the components of the inteiventions
they uevelop. This incluues biinging using the most-up-to-uate anu tiustwoithy
ieseaich anu piactice expeiience to builu anu implement piogiams anu policies.
Piogiams anu policies also assess foi anu help paients anu chiluien to uevelop theii
own executive skills, which incluues consiueiing vaiious couises of actions, thinking
thiough the vaiious consequences of vaiious couises of actions, anu seeking the
counsel of othei people when couises of actions aie uncleai.

Piactitioneis show goou executive function when they iealize that theii own
peisonal expeiiences anu theii piofessional expeiience may have some ielevance to
some cases, but often the expeiiences of paiticulai seivice useis aie not only
uiffeient fiom theii own, but also uiffeient fiom othei seivice useis with whom they
have woikeu. Theiefoie, when appioaching new situations, piactitioneis must take
a "not knowing" peispective; they uo not know the paiticulai ciicumstances of new
cases. They must seek to unueistanu these inuiviuuals befoie uiawing conclusions.

Ninuful piactitioneis aie also ieflective piactitioneis who think about theii
cases eveiy uay, talk about theii cases with knowleugeable otheis, anu keep up to
uate on any new ieseaich anu piactices that might help them unueistanu seivice
useis bettei anu that leaus to moie effective seivice piovision.

Ninuful piactitioneis also begin wheie seivice useis aie÷that is; they seek
to unueistanu what events mean to chiluien anu families. They spenu time listening
anu heaiing. The bottom line foi piactice anu policy is to unueistanu the meanings
of life events to seivice useis. Piogiams, policies, anu inteiventions cannot be
effective if meanings of events to seivice useis aie not the founuation of all actions.

Seivice pioviuei self-caie is paiamount. Theie aie many ways to uo this.
What is funuamental is to iecognize that woik with tiaumatizeu populations is
tiaumatizing. Yoga, meuitation, exeicise, iecieation, funny movies, uancing, uoing
whatevei makes you feel goou anu iestoies you contiibutes to self-caie anu
peisonal giowth anu effective piactice. Some seivice pioviueis set up consultation
gioups wheie they talk about cases. Some finu that they want inuiviuual anu gioup
theiapy to help themselves woith on the effects of seconuaiy tiauma.

Paients who abuse anu neglect theii chiluien have pooi executive function.
They have not thought thiough the alteinatives to these uamaging iesponses anu
they have not thought thiough the effects of the abuse anu neglect on theii chiluien.
It's as if they tempoiaiily uisconnect fiom theii own humanity anu theii humanity
of theii chiluien anu they stiike out oi ignoie theii chiluien minulessly. They simply
uisconnect fiom consequences.

The tasks of policies, piogiams, anu inteiventions aie to figuie out how to
help paients maintain theii executive function even as they expeiience the
inevitable fiustiation that paienting often involves. Fuitheimoie, some paients
scapegoat theii chiluien, wheie they take out theii angei at otheis on the chiluien.
In auuition, paitnei abuse is a foim of minulessness wheie the abuseis uo not think
about oi uo not caie about the effects on chiluien on witnessing abuse.

I uo not want to uownplay the uifficulties of these issues. 0n the othei hanu,
we must unueistanu the issues well anu then we must uevise inteiventions,
piogiams, anu policies that that uo not ieplicate the minulessness of the abuse anu
neglect that we want to pievent anu amelioiate.

>22)"#O0.2UQ0%)2($.1#(S1

Nany uiffeient bouies of knowleuge uemonstiate the impoitance of
tiustwoithy ielationships in iecoveiy fiom tiauma anu foi human well-being unuei
any conuitions. The common factois mouel, ieseaich anu theoiy on iisk anu
iesilience, anu the NEATS all show beyonu uoubt the centiality of secuie
ielationships foi optimal chilu uevelopment anu foi quality of life. No piogiam oi
policy can be successful without pioceuuies that builu ielationships between
paients anu chiluien, piogiam paiticipants anu between piogiam paiticipants anu
piofessionals. Biiect piactitioneis cannot uo goou woik without builuing
ielationships with seivice useis anu without fosteiing ielationships between family
membeis.

6+)@O)

As uiscusseu eailiei, chiluien who have expeiienceu abuse anu neglect have
expeiienceu tiauma. 0ften theii paients have as well. Typically, in public chilu
welfaie, both paients anu chiluien have expeiienceu complex tiauma. Such family
situations aie challenging to seivice pioviueis anu iequiie not only a gieat ueal of
skill anu compassion on the pait of chilu piotection woikeis, but also on the pait of
othei seivice pioviueis who become involveu with these families.

As was stateu in the section on executive function, seivice pioviueis,
piogiam planneis, anu policy uevelopeis much be minuful of the meanings of
tiauma to chiluien anu families, the effects of seconuaiy tiauma on seivice
pioviueis, the necessity of small caseloaus, on-going tiaining, anu many
oppoitunities to piocess thiough the seconuaiy tiauma.

The effects of tiauma, the meanings of tiauma, anu effective inteiventions foi
tiauma aie pait of the couise leainings anu have been pait of class uiscussions.

!0%'VQ0C@%)2($.

Self-iegulation is pait of executive function, but the issues aie so piominent
in woiking in the aiea of abuse anu neglect pievention that I ueal with it sepaiately.
Paients who abuse anu neglect theii chiluien have issues with self-iegulation. If
they coulu self-iegulate, they woulu not abuse anu neglect theii chiluien. Nany
issues contiibute to issues with self-iegulation. Chiluien who have expeiienceu
abuse anu neglect typically have issues with self-iegulation. That is one of the
possible symptoms of tiauma.

The NEATS anu many othei couise ieauings anu class uiscussions have
shown what these issues can be. Effective inteiventions, policies, anu piogiams that
aie effective assess caiefully foi self-iegulation anu then uevelop pioceuuies that
stait wheie seivice useis aie.

The components of the NEATS aie intei-ielateu. Assessment of any one aiea
iequiies that policies, piogiams, anu piactitioneis look foi links between each of the
five aieas.


D+(."(S%01 $' Q(1, ).= Q01(%(0."0

Policy, piogiams, anu inteiventions that aie effective pay attention to the
multiple iisks anu othei ciicumstances that leau to chilu abuse anu neglect anu also
iuentify piotective piocesses that show that paients anu chiluien have capacities foi
uealing appiopiiately with these iisks anu othei ciicumstances.

Nost paients aie abusive anu neglectful on ielatively iaie occasions. It is
impoitant to iuentify what is going on when paients ueal effectively with theii
chiluien as well as what is going on when they uon't. The ciicumstances that leau to
authoiitative paienting aie the ciicumstances that seivice pioviueis, policies, anu
piogiams want to ieplicate anu keep going. They woulu want paients to call upon
these effective stiategies when ciicumstances change anu they aie about to be
abusive anu neglectful.

Ninufulness is impoitant heie. Piogiams, policies, anu piactices can help
paients become moie awaie of ciicumstances that leau to abuse anu neglect so that
they uo whatevei it takes to avoiu huitful actions.


6#0 8$OO$. F)"2$+1 4$=0%

The common factois mouel (CFN) (Lambeit, 1992) has iuentifieu foui main
aieas that aie associateu with successful outcomes in seivice piovision. They aie, in
oiuei of significance, exteinal ielationships anu ciicumstances, ielationships
between seivice useis anu seivice pioviueis, seivice usei anu seivice pioviuei
motivations anu optimism, anu specific technique. This mouel is consistent with the
NEATS anu emphasizes, as uoes the NEATS, the impoitance of ciicumstances
exteinal to the seivice usei-seivice pioviuei ielationships. This points to the
impoitance of suppoitive seivices foi paients who have abuseu anu neglecteu theii
chiluien anu foi the chiluien themselves. Family situations will not impiove unless
theii exteinal ciicumstances change foi the bettei.

The CFN also has iuentifieu the impoitance of ielationships between seivice
useis anu seivice pioviueis. If theie aie not ielationships of tiust anu effective
woiking alliances then the inteiventions will not succeeu. Inteiventions, policies,
anu piogiams must uo all that is possible to piomote ielationships between seivice
useis anu seivice pioviueis. The impoitance of ielationships extenus to
ielationships between seivice pioviueis who aie woiking with chiluien anu families
anu also to the piomotion of secuie attachment ielationships between paients anu
chiluien.

Policies, piogiams, anu inteiventions succeeu when seivice useis anu
pioviueis aie motivateu to woik towaiu impiovement of family anu chilu
ielationships anu when they believe that such impiovements aie possible.
Sometimes seivice useis aie mistiustful of seivice pioviueis because of bau
expeiiences fiom the past. This is one moie challenge foi seivice useis an seivice
pioviueis to woik on. This neeu not be insuimountable, but woiking thiough takes
a gieat ueal of tiaining anu suppoit foi seivice pioviueis anu a gieat uesiie foi
change on the pait of seivice useis.

Ceitain techniques, such as builuing ielationships of tiust, empathy, anu
compassion aie funuamental skills that aie pait of effective piactice. Without these
founuational elements in seivice piovision, then inteiventions will be ineffective.
Piogiams anu policies must suppoit the woik of piactitioneis anu piogiam
implementeis so that they can be emotionally attuneu to seivice useis anu thus be
capable of empathy anu compassion anu to show that they aie compassionate.

Q0'%0"2(/0 D+)"2("0

Seivice pioviueis cannot be competent if they uo not ieflect upon what they
uo with clients. They ieflect upon how clients iesponu to them, anu they aujust
what they uo accoiuing to how clients iesponu. They ieflect upon theii own
iesponses to clients, anu they avoiu imposing theii iueas anu expeiiences on clients.
Seivice pioviueis in the fielu of chilu abuse anu neglect aie at iisk to uevelop
seconuaiy tiauma, which is tiauma they expeiience when woiking with peisons
who have expeiienceu tiauma.

Competent piogiams pioviue foi peei supeivision as well as ieflections with
supeivisois. The piogiams aie also set up so that piogiam paiticipants have
oppoitunities to ieflect upon how they inteiact with theii chiluien anu theii life
paitneis.

If theie is no mention of ieflection in the uesciiptions of the piogiams, it
woulu be impoitant foi you to state that this is something the piogiam shoulu auu
to inciease effectiveness.

6#0 F$@+ 8$+.0+12$.01
$' R/(=0."0VW)10= D+)"2("0

The foui coineistones of eviuence-baseu piactice aie ieseaich & theoiy;
piactitionei expeiience¡expeitise; seivice useis' values, expectancies, piefeiences;
anu seivice pioviueis' peisonal anu piofessional values anu peisonal expeiience.
Effective piogiams incoipoiate all foui of these coineistones. Foi example, any
piogiam that ueals with families anu chiluien woulu use +010)+"# ).= 2#0$+3 on
attachment, minimally, anu iueally woulu take into consiueiation ieseaich anu
theoiy on the othei elements of the NEATS.

Taking 10+/("0 S+$/(=0+ /)%@015 S+0'0+0."015 ).= 7).21 into consiueiation is
anothei way of stating a basic social woik piinciple, which is staiting wheie clients
aie. What specifically uo the piogiams uo to stait wheie clients aie. Foi example,
uo the piogiams make piovisions foi the economic status, ethnicity, anu the
immigiant anu iefugee status of families anu chiluien. Foi instance, when theie aie
conflicts between clans within an ethnic gioup, uoes the piogiam woik with these
conflicts oi ignoie them. Boes the piogiam iecognize that chiluien typically
assimilate moie quickly than theii paients. Bo the piogiams iecognize the
histoiical tiauma, the giief, anu the iuentity issues that both paients anu chiluien
have anu that anu that can affect theii paiticipation in tieatment, pievention, anu
amelioiation.

!0+/("0 S+$/(=0+ S0+1$.)% ).= S+$'011($.)% /)%@01 ).= S0+1$.)% 0TS0+(0."0
link to ieflective piactice. This is sometimes calleu the use of self. We have to be
caieful with this. We must unueistanu anu accept oui own expeiiences whatevei
they aie anu use them to piomote the inteiests of otheis. We can uo this when oui
own expeiiences help us empathize with the expeiiences of otheis anu help us to
see similaiities anu uiffeiences between us anu the people we seive. We can
unueistanu theii emotions, but theii ciicumstances can be quite uiffeient fiom ouis.
What might be helpful to them may be uiffeient fiom what was helpful to us.

Some seivice pioviueis act as if theii expeiiences fit the expeiiences of eveiyone
else. A clue that you oi someone else is imposing peisonal expeiiences on otheis is
the uegiee of emotionality eithei you feel oi you obseive in otheis. In teaching a
couise on chilu abuse anu neglect pievention, I piesenteu a case of chilu abuse that
tuineu out well, which is incluueu in the piesent volume. In this case, the police
weie key to the happy enuing. A stuuent in the class immeuiately challengeu the
stoiy with a gieat ueal of emotion. She saiu that the police uon't uo things like that
anu the fathei in the case woulu nevei have iesponueu as he uiu. This was hei
expeiience. What she uiun't seem to unueistanu is this is an actual case wheie the
police uiu uo what was in the stoiy anu the fathei uiu not haim the peipetiatoi. She
uiun't iealize that hei expeiience uoesn't fit eveiyone else's.

!0+/("0 S+$/(=0+ 0TS0+2(10 is a veiy impoitant pait of piogiams. The issue is
whethei the piogiams aie cleai in theii use of this coineistone. They may show the
piogiams uepenu upon this coineistone by talking about the tiaining that pioviueis
ieceive anu the amount anu type of expeiience they have. Nany piogiams employ
paients as paiapiofessionals. These paients iaiely have college uegiees but they
have a gieat ueal of expeiience anu some tiaining that qualifies them to be seivice
pioviueis.

>C0.21 $' !$"()% 8$.2+$%

Seivice pioviueis aie sometimes agents of social contiol, meaning that they
must enfoice laws against chilu abuse anu neglect. Not only aie they manuateu
iepoiteis, but in theii woik with families anu chiluien wheie chilu abuse anu
neglect has occuiieu, theii effoits must be uiiecteu towaiu helping paients uevelop
theii capacities foi authoiitative paienting that is chaiacteiizeu by love, stiuctuie,
cleai expectations foi chilu behaviois, iecognition foi piosocial chilu behaviois, anu
guiuance about how to behave in piosocial ways when chiluien behave in anti-
social, self-uestiuctive, anu inappiopiiate ways.

Foi the puiposes of the final papei, you may want to iecommenu that the
piogiams say a bit about iepoiting of chilu abuse anu neglect, such as the pioviueis
being iequiieu by law to iepoit maltieatment anu the pioceuuies the piogiam have
foi uoing so.

I(1"@11($.

This couise coveieu seveial bouies of knowleuge on which effective
pievention anu inteivention piogiams foi chilu abuse anu neglect aie baseu. This
infoimation is useful foi seivice pioviueis, piogiam planneis, auvocates, piogiam
evaluation anu analysis, anu foi policy makeis.

Seivice pioviueis will finu this infoimation useful to them as they analyze
piogiams anu plan piogiams they woulu like to implement.

Q0'0+0."01
Bowlby, }. (1988). ! #$%&'$ ()#$* +,-.-%), )//,-%)0-1.# 12 )00)%34$.0 03$1'56
Lonuon: Routleuge.
Biiue, Biian E. (2uu7). Pievalence of seconuaiy tiaumatic stiess among social
woikeis. 71%-), 81'9: ;<=>?, 6S-7u.
Cameion, Naik, & Elizabeth King Keenan (2u1u). The common factois mouel:
Implications foi tianstheoietical clinical social woik piactice. 71%-), 81'9: ;;=>?: 6S-
7S.
Cassiuy }. & Shavei, P. R. (Eus.)(1999?6 @).A(119 12 )00)%34$.0* B3$1'5:
'$#$)'%3: ).A %,-.-%), )//,-%)0-1.#6 New Yoik: uuilfoiu Piess.
Cook, Thomas Baniel (2uu9). Euitoiial: Ratifying the Convention amiust the
messy cultuial politics. +3-,A311A: >C=D?: 4SS-4S9. Available as an e-jouinal at
http:¡¡www.lib.umn.euu
Bavies, B. (2u11). +3-,A A$E$,1/4$.0* ! /')%0-0-1.$'F# G&-A$ (S
iu
eu.) New Yoik:
uuilfoiu.
Biisko, }ames W. (2uu4). Common factois in psychotheiapy outcome. H)4-,-$#
-. 71%-$05: I; =>?: 81-9u.
uilgun, }ane F. (2u1u). Attachment anu chilu uevelopment. Amazon Kinule.
uilgun, }ane F. (2u11). Chilu sexual abuse: Fiom haish iealities to hope. Amazon
Kinule.
uilgun, }ane F. (2u11). The NEATS: A chilu anu family assessment. Amazon
Kinule.
uilgun, }ane F. (2u1u). What is tiauma. Amazon Kinule.
uilgun, }ane F. & Alankaai Shaima (2u1u). The common factois mouel in case
management. http:¡¡www.sciibu.com¡uoc¡S4S27uS4¡The-Common-Factois-
Nouel-in-Case-Nanagement-A-Postei
Besse, E. (1999). The auult attachment inteiview: Bistoiical anu cuiient
peispectives. In }. Cassiuy & P. Shavei (Eus6?: @).A(119 12 )00)%34$.0* B3$1'5:
'$#$)'%3: ).A %,-.-%), )//,-%)0-1.# (pp. S9S: 4SS). New Yoik: uuilfoiu Piess.
Kiuu, Sue Nonk (2uu2). B3$ #$%'$0 ,-2$ 12 ($$#6 New Yoik: Penguin.
Koien-Kaiie, Nina, Baviu 0ppenheim, & Rachel uetzlei-Yosef (2uu4). Notheis
who weie seveiely abuseu uuiing chiluhoou anu theii chiluien talk about emotions:
Co-constiuction of naiiatives in light of mateinal tiauma. J.2).0 K$.0), @$),03
L1&'.),: <;=D?: Suu-S17.
Lambeit, N. (1992). Implications of outcome ieseaich foi psychotheiapy
integiation. In }. Noicioss & }. uolustein (Eus.), @).A(119 12 /#5%3103$')/5
-.0$G')0-1. (pp. 94-129) NY: Basic.
Leueiman, Cinuy S, }oy B. 0sofsky, & Lynne Katz (2uu7). When the bough
bieaks the ciaule will fall: Piomoting the health anu well-being of infants anu
touuleis in juvenile couit. J.2).0 K$.0), @$),03 L1&'.),: <I=D?, 44u-448.
Liebeiman, Alicia F. (2uu7). uhosts anu angels: Inteigeneiational patteins in the
tiansmission anu tieatment of the tiaumatic sequelae of uomestic violence. J.2).0
K$.0), @$),03 L1&'.),: <I=M?, 422-4S9.
Liebeiman, A. F., & Pawl, S. B. (1988). Clinical applications of attachment theoiy.
In }6 Belsky & T. Nezwoiski (Eus.), +,-.-%), )//,-%)0-1.# 12 )00)%34$.0 (pp. S27-SS1).
Billuale, N}: Eilbaum.
Nillei-Peiiin, C.L. & Peiiin R.B. (2uu7). +3-,A 4),0'$)04$.0* !. -.0'1A&%0-1..
(2
nu
eu.). Sage: Thousanu 0aks, CA.
Peilman, Belen Baiiis (19S7). 71%-), %)#$N1'9* ! /'1(,$4O#1,E-.G /'1%$##6
Chicago: 0niveisity of Chicago.
Spienkle, B. B., & Blow, A. }. (2uu4). Common factois anu oui sacieu mouels.
L1&'.), 12 K)'-0), ).A H)4-,5 B3$')/5: MP=<?: 11S-129.
Spienkle, B. B., & Blow, A. }. (2uu4). Common factois aie not islanus--they woik
thiough mouels. L1&'.), 12 K)'-0), ).A H)4-,5 B3$')/5: MP=<?: 11S-129.
Wintei, Kaien. (2u1u). The peispectives of young chiluien in caie about theii
ciicumstances anu implications foi social woik piactice. +3-,A ).A H)4-,5 71%-),
81'9: >;: 186-19S.