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CAPITAL PUNISHMENT: HISTORY

TASK 1. Match the following headings with the sections of the text below: Effectiveness // History // Moral as ect !"# Capital punishment is a legal infliction of the death penalty; in modern law, corporal punishment in its most severe form. The usual alternative to the death penalty is long-term or life imprisonment. The earliest historical records contain evidence of capital punishment. It was mentioned in the Code of Hammurabi. The Bible prescribed death as the penalty for more than ! different crimes, ranging from murder to fornication. The "raconian Code of ancient #reece imposed capital punishment for every offence. In $ngland, during the reign of %illiam the Con&ueror, the death penalty was not used, although the results of interrogation and torture were often fatal. By the end of the '(th century, $nglish law recogni)ed si* ma+or crimes, treason, murder, larceny, burglary, rape, and arson. By '-!!, more than .!! capital crimes were recogni)ed, and as a result, '!!! or more persons were sentenced to death each year /although most sentences were commuted by royal pardon0. In early 1merican colonies the death penalty was commonly authori)ed for a wide variety of crimes. Blac2s, whether slave or free, were threatened with death for many crimes that were punished less severely when committed by whites. $fforts to abolish the death penalty did not gather momentum until the end of the '-th century. In $urope, a short treatise, On Crimes and Punishments, by the Italian +urist Cesare Beccaria, inspired influential thin2ers such as the 3rench philosopher 4oltaire to oppose torture, flogging, and the death penalty. The abolition of capital punishment in $ngland in 5ovember '67( was welcomed by most people with humane and progressive ideas. To them it seemed a departure from feudalism, from the cruel pre-Christian spirit of revenge, an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth. 8any of these people thin2 differently now. 9ince the abolition of capital punishment crime : and especially murder : has been on increase throughout Britain. Today, therefore, public opinion in Britain has changed. ;eople who before, also in ;arliament, stated that capital punishment was not a deterrent to murder : for there have always been murders in all countries with or without the law of e*ecution : now feel that 2illing the assassin is the lesser of two evils. Capital punishment, they thin2, may not be the ideal answer, but it is better than nothing, especially when, as in $ngland, a sentence of life imprisonment only lasts eight or nine years. !$# The fundamental &uestions raised by the death penalty are whether it is an effective deterrent to violent crime, and whether it is more effective than the alternative of long-term imprisonment. "$3$5"$<9 of the death penalty insist that because ta2ing an offender=s life is a more severe punishment than any prison term, it must be the better deterrent. 9>;;?<T$<9 also argue that no ade&uate deterrent in life imprisonment is effective for those already serving a life term who commit murder while being in prison, and for revolutionaries, terrorists, traitors, and spies. In the >.9. those who argue against the death penalty as a deterrent to crime cite the following, /'0 1d+acent states, in which one has the death penalty and the other does not, show no significant differences in the murder rate; /.0 states that use the death penalty seem to have a higher number of homicides than states that do not use it; / 0 states that abolish and then reintroduce the death penalty do not seem to show any significant change in the murder rate; /@0 no change in the rate of homicides in a given city or state seems to occur following an e*pository e*ecution. In the early '6A!s, some published reports showed that each e*ecution in the >.9. deterred eight or more homicides, but subse&uent research has discredited this finding. The current prevailing view among criminologists is that no conclusive evidence e*ists to show that the death penalty is a more effective deterrent to violent crime than long-term imprisonment.

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"$3$5"$<9 of the death penalty. as long as the effectiveness of the death penalty as a deterrent to violent crimes has not been proved. Answer the following #uestions: '.. poor and friendless defendants. however. a disproportionate number of non-whites are sentenced to death and e*ecuted. PRF JT[I 75)95*. The chief ob+ection to capital punishment has been that it is always used unfairly. . even though .5(%5/ -).-*253B aHIORQT\ UTGQY JL\ RTUFMF OFJT VOINR^VQKUFE : 0/%+A// -' 731. ?. or class bias in its use. FRWXRY NOFU E RSOYHI (. these 2inds of discrimination are not a sufficient reason for abolishing the death penalty.-. :5*17&. in at least three ma+or ways. +ust as the individual may 2ill in self-defence.658-'%/%%5/ 2@. is somewhat doubtful. VF[KGQIQQFI RSOIHQFI GTULSPIQKI A. FRHIQT NHIORQFZ UTGQK 7. racist. "$3$5"$<9 of capital punishment have also claimed that society has the right to 2ill in defence of its members. Is imprisonment effective for revolutionaries and terroristse %hye 7. %hy was capital punishment imposed so fre&uently in ancient societiese %hy were blac2s punished more severely than whites in early 1merican coloniese %hen did $uropean thin2ers begin considering the alternatives to death penaltye How have the attitudes towards capital punishment changed in Britain since the abolition of death penalty in '67(e (. because none of the laws of capital punishment causes se*ist.! percent of all homicides in recent years have been committed by women. both statements imply that the murderer deserves to die. EFGHIGJKI ./*216)/%-/04 %&=&'1/0>0 *0/.. %hat factors may hamper the fair administration of +ustice in capital casese . those with ine*perienced or court-appointed attorney. The analogy to self-defence.../0%5/ '&=)@(/%-/ \EL\IRN\ WINNHXNLIQQXH QTUTGTQKIH JL\ RTU QTGXETIHX` cKJIFLFMKPINUK`d VOINR^VQKUFE. Third.*23/%%&< -'0/%& WXLT K FNRTIRN\ EF HQFMK` NROTQT` 6. BDet the punishment fit the crimeC is its secular counterpart. NH\MPKRY VOKMFEFO ''. however. women are rarely sentenced to death and e*ecuted.?5$5T9 have replied that the death penalty can be the result of a mista2e in practice and that it is impossible to administer fairly./ 0 The classic moral arguments in favor of the death penalty have been biblical and call for retribution.5.2%5? =&'%+@./*23&4 -'%&*-)53&%-/ K JT[I 657859. TASK . . B%hosoever sheds man=s blood. a^bINRE^IR HQIQKI. VFUTGTRILYQT\ UTGQY -. by man shall his blood be shedC has usually been interpreted as a divine warrant for putting the murderer to death. 3irst. @. VXRUT '!. are most li2ely to be sentenced to death and e*ecuted. '5)./%-/ -01. _ NOIJQKI EIUT PILFEIUT HFMLK UTGQKRY GT . JFLMFNOFPQFI RSOIHQFI GTULSPIQKI . TASK (. . Translate the following %assage into "nglish %a'ing s%ecial attention to the words in bold t'%e: ]T VOFR\[IQKK EIUFE NHIORQT\ UTGQY %&'%&(&)&*+ '& NTHXI OTGQXI EKJX VOINR^VLIQKZ. have insisted that. How have 1mericans treated the problem of death penaltye A. 6. RILINQXI QTUTGTQK\ TASK &. VOKMFETOKETRY U NHIORK 6./7&2/)/?4 A6-5%534 2/. 9econd. !ind in the text the "nglish e#ui$alents for the following words and ex%ressions related to %unishment: '. JFVOFN @.

h. to admit smth.. not acce t fi*ed punishments for crimes. defender pro supporter to accept smth.S. ELet tGe KnisGJent fit tGe criJeBI : %e can who steal should be deprived of their property. to consent to smth. @ QIt is JKcG Jore rKFent to acRKit tLo ersons4 tGoKMG actKally MKilty4 tGan to ass sentence of conFeJnation on one tGat is virtKoKs anF innocentBQ 2oltaire (.Those . only sliMGtly tGe leasKre of sKccess in criJeBI /.) to su%%ort the following o%%osite %oints of $iew: COR ADAINST '. to agree tofwith smth. Continue the table below with the following words and ex%ressions describing %olar $iews. %e are civili)ed now : letis give it up and be humanegh. ETGe ain of tGe enalty sGoKlF oKtLeiMG . to re+ect smth. SB EAn evil FeeF is not reFeeJeF Ny an evil FeeF of retaliationBI C. to confirm smth. ELet tGe KnisGJent fit tGe criJeBI . EOGosoever sGeFs JanPs NlooF4 Ny Jan sGall A. to disagree with smth. con ob+ection to smth. those who 2ill should be deprived of their own Circumstances should be ta2en into account. It is . livesgh. Gis NlooF Ne sGeFBI . The first few are done for 'ou COR proponent to argue in favour of smth. E An eye for an eye anF a tootG for a tootGHI : %e should aFJit this Biblical principle. . +hat is 'our %ersonal understanding of the following famous statements. E An eye for an eye anF a tootG for a tootGHI '. .This is a cruel pre-Christian spirit of revenge. to deny smth. . to ob+ect to smth.TASK ). to contradict to smth.. ADAINST opponent to argue against smth. to oppose smth. eternalgh. TASK *. 0entham @. Ma-e a list of exam%les from histor' to illustrate these statements.se the words and ex%ressions from Tas. ETGe riJary Kr ose of tGe KnisGJent (.King A. LGicG society inflicts is to reFress tGe FisorFer caKseF Ny tGe offenceBI Po%e /ohn Paul 11 7.

from brutal se*-maniacs. %e have done away with the absurdly harsh laws of the nineteenth century and this is only right. and the high costs of briefs 3 are all borne by the ta*payer. Stud' the following facts and arguments: Cinancial Costs The death penalty is not now. public defenders. It will never do. Ditigation costs 3 including the time of +udges. to go around referring to criminals as violent thugs. But surely enough is enough. %e all 2now that =life sentence= does not mean what it says. It=s always fashionable to pose as the defender of the under-dog. 1ccording to his misguided defenders. it ma2es you wonder why we aren=t all criminals. remain unaffected.erhaps all criminals should be re&uired to carry cards which read. treatment wherever he goes. It=s no wonder he is a privileged person who e*pects and receives 4I. It made the violent robber thin2 twice before pulling the trigger. Handle with CareC. on the proceeds of his crime. and court reporters. 1bove all. they couldn=t. TASK 1. He is glorified on the screen. The hardened criminal is cuddled and cosseted by the sociologists on the one hand and adored as a hero by the masses on the other. %hen you listen to this 2ind of tal2. these days. 5ewspapers which specialise in crime-reporting en+oy enormous circulations and the publishers of trashy cops and robbers stories or Bmurder mysteriesC have never had it so good. InevitaNility of Error @ . a more economical alternative to life imprisonment. it ma2es you wonder whether you are reading about some glorious resistance movement. jou see. %hen you read about the achievements of the great train robbers. prosecutors. The violent criminal has become a 2ind of hero-figure in our time. "id the defenders of crime. young children. because all the victims were dead. The professional 2iller who wouldn=t thin2 twice about using his cosh or crowbar to batter some harmless old lady to death in order to rob her of her meagre life-savings must never be given a dose of his own medicine. 1 murder trial normally ta2es much longer when the death penalty is at issue than when it is not. . Capital punishment used to be a ma+or deterrent. one wonders. society is to blame. the most desperate villain is free to return to society where he will live very comfortably. It prevented unarmed policemen from being mowed down while pursuing their duty by 2illers armed with automatic weapons. consult the victims before they suspended capital punishmente Hardly. it protected the most vulnerable members of society. jou must refer to them politely as Bsocial misfitsC. He is in need of Bhospital treatmentC. in their desire for fair-play. It is horrifying to thin2 that the criminal can literally get away with murder.eople are always willing to hold liberal views at the e*pence of others. nor has it ever been. so long as you. The most senseless piece of criminal legislation in Britain and a number of other countries has been the suspension of capital punishment. B3ragile. than2 you. he is pursued by the press and paid vast sums of money for his BmemoirsC. 1 wic2ed society breeds evil : or so the argument goes.CAPITAL PUNISHMENT: COR ANT ADAINST . 1fter ten years or so of =good conduct=. "x%lain the meaning of the following words and ex%ressions: a cold-blooded criminal a desperate villain a hardened criminal =a social misfit= a violent thug to batter to breed evil to cosset to cuddle to deter criminals to do away with to get away with murder to mow down to pull the trigger TASK . It gave the cold-blooded poisoner something to ponder about while he was sha2ing up or serving his arsenic coc2tail. personally. or he will go on committing offences until he is caught again.

. and incompetent defense counsel.&*53>. a UT[JXH MFJFH nRF NRTQFEKRN\ ENI WFLII FPIEKJQXH. 4ead the text below and write down the main ideas in 4ussian %a'ing s%ecial attention to the words and ex%ressions gi$en in bold t'%e. UarNarity The latest mode of inflicting the death penalty. a sentient witness of his or her own asphy*iation./710>A)/%%5/ .&%/%-/ %&.=52-=53.. is lethal in+ection. VF UOTZQIZ HIOI EOIHIQQF.2%>/ 6. *)5/3 %&*/)/%-< LKWF .-'0. oVXR ENI` NROTQ VFUTGXETIR. 75=&'&2/)+*23. .KLK 65)-2-(/*=595 %&*-)-<B aHIORQ^S UTGQY PTNRF KNVFLYG^SR UTU NOIJNREF 65)-2-(/*=-. .)&7%5=.&*6. only a year before the 9upreme Court affirmed the constitutionality of capital punishment. WIG UFRFOFZ QIEFGHF[QF FNRTQFEKRY . HI[J^QTOFJQFI VOTEF GTVOIbTIR [INRFUKI. protracted death. there is ksubstantial and uncontroverted evidence . 75=&'&2/)+*23. 6. and 2idnapping for ransom are among the graver felonies that continue to be committed because some individuals thin2 they are too clever to get caught. PRF II VOKHIQIQKI NVFNFWQF *%-8&2+ 1.5. qQFMFEIUFEFZ FVXR VOKHIQIQK\ EXNmIZ HIOX QTUTGTQK\ K %&1(%>/ -**)/753&%-< F EGTKHFNE\GK NHIORQFZ UTGQK K ^OFEQ\ VOINR^VQFNRK %/ 7&)1Y/7-2/)+%>. erroneous testimony of an alleged eyewitness..nit to render the text into "nglish: lOKmLF EOIH\ 520/%-2+ *0/. trying to cope with it by threatening terrorists with death penalty is futile. V=5%50-(/*=1@ =5. oJQTUF KHIIR LK MFN^JTONREF VOTEF LKmTRY PILFEIUT [KGQKe aHIORQT\ UTGQY p nRF 6.5*2. T NHIORQXI VOKMFEFOX EXQFN\RN\ K VOKEFJ\RN\ E KNVFLQIQKI 6. 1s the >.53%5/ 1Y-?*235 PILFEIUT MFN^JTONREFH.-./7*2&3-2/)<0 %/-01. There is no way of 2nowing that it is really painless. It is easy to overstate the humaneness and efficacy of this method. _ O\JI NROTQ *0/.53/%+ 6.olitical terrorism is usually committed in the name of an ideology that honors its martyrs. Translate them into "nglish.&37>3&< *0/. LKUEKJKOFETRY 65)-2-(/*=-? 2/. oJQTUF %/2 %-=&=-.9. _ QIUFRFOX` NROTQT` NHIORQT\ UTGQY NPKRTIRN\ HIOFZ.&3 (/)53/=&. these two innocent men probably would not be alive today.se the $ocabular' from the .&%-/0 5*%53%>./6./**-?.> VOKHIQ\SRN\ E FNQFEQFH U 6.. PRF NHIORQT\ UTGQY NVFNFWQT nrrIURKEQF GTbKRKRY ( . 0/%+A-%*23.-9535. $ven a slight error in dosage or administration can leave a prisoner conscious but paraly)ed while dying. X6. drive-by shootings... that e*ecution by lethal in+ection poses a serious ris2 of cruel.. TASK &.5-'35)+%5.. a nine-year legal battle was re&uired before the governor would grant them a pardon. QIM^HTQQXI KLK ^QK[TSbKI PILFEIUT QTUTGTQK\. Their convictions were the result of coerced confessions.. two 1frican-1merican men in 3lorida were released from prison after twelve years awaiting e*ecution for the murder of two white men. first used in Te*as in '6-./*23&. air piracy. . enacted into law by nearly two do)en 1merican states. aTHF N^bINREFETQKI nRFZ HIOX QTUTGTQK\ \EL\IRN\ 656. KLK V2%-(/*=-. 7)< Y)&9& 5Y.In '6A(. Though a white man eventually admitted his guilt.k CKtility #angland 2illings./*216%5*2. Had their e*ecution not been stayed while the constitutional status of the death penalty was argued in the courts.16W-@ KLK KNUFOIQKRY N^VO^[INU^S QIEIOQFNRY. PRF NHIORQT\ UTGQY VOKEFJKR U F[INRFPIQKS E FWbINREI. PRF FQT QIFW`FJKHT.2%1@ =&'%+.2%1@ =&'%+. PTbI ENIMF MFEFO\R. Court of 1ppeals observed.

-*<8%>/ .7/(%>/ *17+.sing the information and $ocabular' from the .2%595 6. 7 .2%5? =&'%.N VFHFbYS =3&)-Z-W-.nit. JO^MKH p VFRFH^ PRF K` N^J\R 0<9=5*/.53&%%>.& 3 -*65)%/%-/. CREATIVE WRITING . ROIRYKH VFHFMTSR K` VFLKRKPINUKI NE\GK KLK VFLF[IQKI E FWbINREI. A%%oint the 7Chair8 of the debate who will gi$e the floor to the s%ea-ers of both teams. oJQTUF N^bINRE^IR FVOIJILIQQXZ VOFsIQR N^JIWQX` FmKWFU.-9535.se the acti$e $ocabular' from the .-).FWbINREF FR VOINR^VQFNRK KLK NVFNFWNREFETRY VOTEFN^JKS. VFNLIJNREK\ UFRFOX` FNFWIQQF ROTMKPQX VOK 6. ]IUFRFOXH ^JTIRN\ -'Y/8&2+ *0/. '&.-3/7/%-*0/.nit write an essa' on one of the following statements: • • • • • • Rela[ation of GarsG laLs Gas never leF to increase in criJeB TGose in favoKr of ca ital KnisGJent are JotivateF only Ny Fesire for revenMe anF retaliationB HanMinM4 electric cGairs4 MarrotinM4 etcB4 are NarNaric ractices4 KnLortGy of GKJan NeinMsB SKs ension of ca ital KnisGJent is enliMGteneF anF civiliseFB Ca ital KnisGJent creates4 it Foes not solve4 roNleJsB CriJe can only Ne Frastically reFKceF Ny tGe eliJination of social in\KsticesB DEBATE TGere is no rooJ for ca ital KnisGJent in a civili]eF societyB 5i$ide into grou%s 6 %ro and con 6 and conduct a debate on the necessit' of ca%ital %unishment.-2%-=53. .6. ]K FJQT NKNRIHT ^MFLFEQFZ SNRKsKK QI JFUTGTLT NEFS NVFNFWQFNRY VFNLIJFETRILYQF K NVOTEIJLKEF OImTRY. URF JFL[IQ [KRY K URF p ^HIOIRY.