You are on page 1of 55

Tank Types
• Coned Roof • Internal/Covered Floaters • External/Open Top Floaters

Cone Roof Tanks

Cone Roof Tanks
Normally contain high flash-point liquids

Cone Roof Tanks

Cone roof tanks have a vapor space between the liquid level and the roof.

.

Cone Roof Tanks At the time of ignition if the vapor space between the liquid surface is in the flammable range. a vapor air explosion will occur. .

Cone Roof Tanks Cone roof tanks are equipped with a pressure/vacuum relief device to adjust the internal pressure so that it is nearly equal to the external atmospheric pressure .

Pressure/Vacuum Vent .

Pressure/Vacuum Vent As liquid enters the internal space. the pressure created by the compressing vapor is vented to the atmosphere or directed to a vapor recovery system. .

. the pressure/vacuum vent allows air to enter the tank. preventing damage that may be caused by the negative pressure.Pressure/Vacuum Vent When the product in the tank is discharged.

Pressure/Vacuum Vent .

Roof To Shell Seam The roof to shell weld on cone roof tanks are only welded on one side. .

.Roof To Shell Seam This weak seam provides a point of failure during the case of a vapor air explosion. It prevents tank failure at the base of the tank.

Roof To Shell Seam Weak Seam .

.

Roof To Shell Seam .

Incidents Involving Coned Roof Tanks • • • • • Pressure/Vacuum vent fires Fish mouthed fires Full surface fires Manifold fires Dike fires .

Open Top Floaters .

.

Open Top Floaters .

.Open Top Floaters The floating roof eliminates the vapor space above the liquid.

.

.

Open Top Floaters Open top. are designed with a stiffening ring (commonly known as a wind girder) to add support due to the absence of a roof. . or external floaters.

Wind Girder .

.Roof Seals • Provide spacing to allow for the roof to travel up and down on the product without touching the tank wall. • Provide a barrier between the fuel surface and the atmosphere.

Roof Seals .

.

Roof Seals .

.

Incidents Involving Open Top Floaters • • • • Seal fires Full surface fires Dike fires Manifold fires .

Internal Floating Roof Tanks Same basic design as the open top floater but it also utilizes a fixed roof. .

Internal Floating Roof Tanks .

Internal Floating Roof Tanks .

.Internal Floating Roof Tanks Internal floating roof tanks can be identified and distinguished from the cone roof tank and the open top floater by the characteristic “eyebrow” vents at the top of the tank shell.

Internal Floating Roof Tanks Eyebrow Vent .

Incidents Involving Internal Floaters • • • • • Vent fires Fish mouthed fires Full surface fires Dike fires Manifold fires .

Causes Of Ignition • • • • • • Lightening strikes Hot work on live tanks Flare stack fall-out Over heat or failure of mixers Over-fill with remote ignition sources Floating roof contact with tank shell .

• Wind girders with handrails. • System maintenance . • Independent high level alarms. to facilitate inspection of seal areas. • Linear heat detection in the rimseal. and foam application to the seal area. • Fire retardant rimseal materials.Reducing The Risk Of Ignition • Secondary seals for high vapor pressure products.

Milford Haven. Tank overfill. Newark. Romeoville.$ 35. Fuel pump failure.100. Exposed oil on the roof. . Overfill .32.$11.$8.000. USA.Costs Associated With Tank Fires • Denver International Airport Tank Farm.J.$42.000 • Tank Farm. . .000.000 • Marine Terminal. U. USA. Illinois. .000 • Tank Farm.000.000 .000.000 • Refinery Tank Farm.K. Naples Italy. N. USA Lightning strike.