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# Chapter 1 Vector Control

1.1 Introduction
The vector oriented contol also known as Field oriented control for induction motor was first introduced by Blaschke in early 1970s. The main objective of this control is to independently control the torque and the flux as in separetly excied DC machines. This is done by choosing d-q rotating frame synchromously with the rotor flux space vector. Once the orientation is correctly achieved, the torque is controlled by the torque producing current which is the qcomponent of the stator current space vector. At the same time, the flux is controlled by the flux producing current, which is the d-component of the stator current space vector. The idea behind vector control is to control the AC induction motor in the similar way for DC motor control. For a permanent magnet excitation DC motor control can be achieved by controlling its armature current. Since the torque results from the interaction of two perpendicular magnetic fields, which are the stator field generated by the PM excitation and the armature field, created by the armature current. Once the flux of stator field is kept constant, the torque can be controlled by armature current. In the vector control method, the motor model considered is valid for transient conditions. The idea of the vector control can be understood from the reference frame theory. The reference frame theory is one whose real axis coincides with the rotor flux vector. This frame is not static and does not have a constant speed during transients. The great advantage of this non inertial frame is that for stator currents, this method allows independent flux and torque controls as in seperately excited DC machine. Separately excited dc motor drives are simple in control because they independently control flux, which, when maintained constant, contributes to an independent control of torque. This is made possible with separate control of field and armature currents, which, in turn control the field flux and the torque independently. Moreover the dc motor control requires only the control of the field or armature current magnitudes, providing simplicity not possible with an ac machine. In contrast, the induction motor drive requires a coordinated control of stator
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current magnitudes, frequencies and phase magnitude making it a complex control. As with the dc motor drives, independent control of flux and the torque is possible in ac drives. The stator current phasor can be resolved along the rotor flux linkages and the component along the rotor flux linkages is the field producing current, but this requires the position of the rotor flux linkages at every instant. If this is available then the control of the ac machines is very similar to that of the dc drives. The requirement of phase, frequency and magnitude control of the currents and hence the flux phasor is made possible by inverter control. The control is achieved in field coordinates and hence it is often called the field-oriented control or the vector control, because it relates to the phasor control of the flux linkages.

1.2 Principle Of Vector Control
The vector control of induction machine is explained by assuming that the position of the rotor flux linkages phasor λr is known. The phasor diagram of the vector control is as shown in figure 1.1.
r

is at

f

from thee stationary reference, and

f

is referred to as field angle. The

three-stator currents can be transformed into reference frames by using the [ where [ ] =[

axised currents in the synchronous

transformation. ]*[ ] (1.1)

] is given as

[

] = 2/3 [

]

(1.2)

[

]

2/3 [

][

]

(1.3)

from which the stator current phasor √ and the stator phase angle is given by

is derived as (1.4)

2

Till now it was 3 . The perpendicular component is hence the torque-producing component λr ∝ Te ∝ λr The components and are only dc components in steady state.6) ∝ (1. The that are obtained by projecting the stator current phasor on the current phasor magnitude remains the same regardless of the reference frame chosen as is clear from Figure 1.1. resolving the stator current phasor along λr reveals that the component is the field-producing component as shown in Figure . Therefore.5) where and are the and the and axes currents in the synchronous reference frame and axes respectively. Thus (1. Orientation of λr amounts to consider the synchronous reference frame and hence the flux and the torque-producing components of currents are dc quantities. Fig 1.1 Phasor diagram of vector controller [12] The stator current produces the rotor flux λr and the torque Te The component of current producing the rotor flux is in phase with λr.7) 1. and this makes them to be used as control variables.(1.1. because the relative speed with respect to that of the rotor field is zero.

(1.3 Derivation Of Indirect Vector Control For Induction Motor The dynamic equations of the induction motor in the synchronous reference frame for the rotor taking flux as state variable is given as. This alignment reduces the number of variables to deal. such as voltages and currents.13) (1. (1.11) where (1. In terms of the speeds and time. but it has to be obtained at every instant.assumed that the rotor flux position is actually available. Using this field angle is called the indirect vector control.8) where θr is the rotor position and θsl is the slip angle.14) The resultant rotor flux linkage. This field angle can be written as. λr also known as the rotor flux linkages phasor and is assumed to be on the direct axis to achieve field orientation. The rotor flux position can also be obtained by using rotor position measurement and partial estimation with only machine parameters.9) Vector control schemes thus depend upon how the instantaneous rotor flux position is obtained and are classified as direct and the indirect vector control schemes. 4 . 1.12) (1. the field angle can be written as ∫ ∫ (1.10) (1.

13 to 1.22 resembles the field equation in a separately excited dc machine whose time constant is usually in the order of seconds.19 the following equation can be obtained (1. (1.17) Substituting Equations 1.22) From Equation (1.16 in Equations 1.23) where (1.24) Equation 1.20) (1.18) (1.18 and 1.25) .14 the rotor currents are derived as (1. the torque expression can be obtained as ( 5 ) ( ) (1. Substituting the rotor currents. (1.10 and 1.16) (1.21) From equations 1.19) Thus from Equations 1.15) (1.11 causes the new rotor equations to be.13 and 1.The alignment of the d-axis with rotor flux phasor yields (1.18).

The rotor position is used in the conversion from reference frame. which is of the order of few milliseconds. If the rotor flux linkage is maintained constant then the torque is simply proportional to the torque-producing component of the stator current as in the case of the separately excited dc motor.25 it can be observed that torque is proportional to the product of the rotor flux linkages and the stator q-axis current. which is proportional to the product of the field flux linkages and the armature current.26) 1. The control reference frame is fixed to the rotor flux position which is defined by the rotor mechanical angle .From Equation 1. The stator current phasor is the sum of the „d‟ and the „q‟ axes stator currents in any reference frame given as √ and the „ ‟ axes to phase current relationship is obtained from Equation 5. (1. This resembles the air gap torque expression of the dc motor. Equations 1. 6 . Similar to the dc machine time constant.22 and 1.4 Implementation Of Indirect Vector Control The bloch diagram shows the indirect vector control of an induction motor. the time constant of the torque current is also of the same order.25 complete the transformation of the induction machine into an equivalent separately excited dc motor from control point of view.4.

Fig 1. The motor torque is controlled by the quadrature axis component of the stator current rotor flux is controlled by the direct axis compnent . The motor speed is regulated by a 7 . The stator currents are regulated by hysteresis cureent contoller which genertaes gate pulses for switching devices in the inverter.2 Block diagram of vector control The induction motor is fed by the current controled voltage source inverter. The .

228 ohm Rotor leakage Impedence= 0.control loop which produces the torque control signal are converted into phase current references . The output voltage of inverter is fed back to motor to from a closed loop. Specification of motor can be given as Line Voltage = 440 volts Power = 50 hp Stator Resistance= . The and current references for current regultors. Reference speed is set to the desired speed which we intend to run our motor.5 Vector control model Fig 1. The motor parametrs such as stator current and rotor speed is taken as input. 1.087 ohm Stator leakage Impedence=0.8 mH Magnetising Impedence= 34.7 mH 8 . As we can see in the vector contol block the output is the gate pulses which is fed to the inverter.3 Vector control model This is the complete model for vector contol of induction motor drive.8 mH Rotor resisatnce= 0.

4 Subsystems of vector control model 9 .Inertia= 0.01 N-m/sec Frequency =50 Hz Pulses generated by vector controlled is modelled as per given figure which is the model inside subsystem named “Vector Control” Fig 1.662 Kg/m2 Niumber of poles= 4 Friction Coefficent =0.

27) (1. From the equation the formula to calculate ( ( ( ( ) ) and ( ( transformation can be given as: )) )) (1.1.6 Expalnation of various subsytems Fig 1.5 ABC to dq transformation This block transforms the three pahse stator current into two phase using as discribed earlier.28) 10 .

31) 11 .29) So after laplace transform rotor flux can be calculated as (1.30) ( ) Fig 1.Fig 1.6 Rotor Flux calculation From the equation and it follows that ( ) ( ) (1.7 Theta calculation Rotor angle calculation can be done from the equation ∫ (1.

7 and the references direct axis stator current is calculated as: (1.8 Torque Estimation The PI controller is used to estimate the reference torque by taking rotor speed and refeence speed as input.e 0. is the mechanical speed converted to electrical speed by multiplying with the Fig 1.9 calculation References flux remains constant to make motor operate within its rated speed.32) 12 . The saturation block is used to limit the value of torque to a safe level.Where factor . Fig 1. To take motor above the rated speed a flux weaking is required. In our project our scope is limited upto rated speed only and hence it is taken as constant rated motor flux i.

11 transformation The estimated reference direct and quadrature axis stator current is transformed into three phase stator current by the inverse of [ ] = transformation which can be given as : *[ ] (1.33) Fig 1.34) 13 .10 calculation From the equation it follows that the quadrature references value can be given as : ( ) (1.Fig 1.

38) Fig 1.36) ( ( ) ) ( ( ) ) (1.37) (1.Where. ( [ ( ) ) ( ( ) ) ] (1.35) So we can find the value for the stator current in three phase according to this transformation and it comes out to be (1.12 PWM implementation 14 .

If rated line voltage of motor then the DC voltage is given by the formula √ In our model the is fixed to 415 volts. so the is taken as approx 750 volt. The second waveform is for reference speed fixed to 170 rad/sec. The DC voltage to be fed to inverter is decided by the voltage rating of motor. From all these waveforms we see that the motor speed is controlled according to the desired speed given by user. The first waveform is when the reference speed is fixed to 200 rad/sec.39) is the Below are waveforms for different desired speed.References current and motor actual current is compared in a hysteresis band to generate a gate pulse. (1.13 Speed waveform when reference speed set to 200 rad/sec 15 . As the band is made smaller in size the resulatant wave approaches the sine pattern. Fig 1. The gate pulse switches the device in inverter and the output voltage is fed back to the motor to make a closed loop.

14 Speed waveform when reference speed set to 170 rad/sec 16 .Fig 1.

The longer the pulse is closed compared to the opened periods. The fundamental voltage can be increased up to a square wave mode where a modulation index of unity is reached. There is no single PWM method that is the best suited for all applications and with advances in solid-state power electronic devices and microprocessors. so that the average power dissipation is very low compared to the power being delivered. PWM amplifiers are more efficient and less bulky than linear power amplifiers. converters. linear amplifiers that deliver energy continuously rather than through pulses have lower maximum power ratings than PWM amplifiers.1 Introduction With advances in solid-state power electronic devices and microprocessors. The intersections between the reference voltage waveform and the carrier waveform give the opening and closing times of the switches. The SVPWM technique can increase the fundamental component by up to 27. PWM is commonly used in applications like motor speed control. Pulsewidth modulation (PWM) is a technique where the duty ratio of a pulsating waveform is controlled by another input waveform. audio amplifiers. which normally occurs when a power source is limited by a resistive element. The change of state between closing (ON) and opening (OFF) is rapid. Space vector PWM (SVPWM) is also one of these techniques. 17 . it is used to reduce the total power delivered to a load without losses. SVPWM is accomplished by rotating a reference vector around the state diagram. A circle can be inscribed inside the state map and corresponds to sinusoidal operation.Chapter 2 Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation 2. various pulse-width modulation (PWM) techniques have been developed for industrial applications. In the SVPWM technique. the duty cycles are computed. For example. various pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) techniques have been developed for industrial applications.39% that of SPWM. Changing the duty ratio of the switches changes the speed of the motor. the higher the power supplied to the load is. In addition. which is composed of six basic non-zero vectors forming a hexagon. PWM is used to adjust the voltage applied to the motor. etc.

Find the time intervals Ta and Tb and T0 based on Ts.2. Calculate the angle θ and reference voltage vector V components. Find the sector in which V ref lies. and the adjacent space vectors of V k and V k+1 based on the sector angle θ.2 Implementation Procedure of a Two-Level Space Vector PWM Fig 2. 3. 2. The procedure for implementing a two-level space vector PWM is as follows: 1. and the angle θ. 4.1.1 Flow diagram of SVPWM implementation A simplified flow diagram for the implementation of the SVPWM algorithm is shown in the Fig 2. Determine the modulation times for the different switching states. ref based on the input voltage 18 .

α and β In the Space Vector PWM. we have (2.1Angle and Reference Voltage Vector Voltage vector V0 V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V7 a 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 b 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 c 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 Vα 0 Vβ 0 0 √ √ Vector 0 V0 ᵒ V60ᵒ V120ᵒ V180ᵒ V240ᵒ V300ᵒ 0 0 √ √ 0 Table 2. Three sinusoidal and balanced voltages are given by the relations: (2.3) For any three-phase system with three wires and equal load impedances.1 Voltage Vectors. Switching Vector. The Space Vector PWM uses the combinations of switching states to approximate the reference vector V voltage vector V ref ref .4) 19 .1 corresponds to a different voltage space vector.2. Each output voltage combination in Table 2. A reference that rotates with angular speed ω in the plane represents three sinusoidal waveforms with angular frequency ω in the coordinate system. the three-phase output voltage vector is represented by a reference vector that rotates at an angular speed of ω = 2πf.2.1) ( ( ) ) (2.2) (2.

2. The active vectors are 60o apart and describe a hexagon boundary.6) (2.2 Sector Determination: It is necessary to know in which sector the reference output lies in order to determine the switching time and sequence. V 6. V 5.2 Sector Determination 20 . the angle of the reference vector can be used to determine the sector as per Table 2. The magnitude of each active vector is . in the clockwise direction with a negative phase sequence.5) Table 2. then it rotates in the counter clockwise direction. V 3. V 4.The space vector with magnitude Vref rotates in a circular direction at an angular velocity of ω where the direction of rotation depends on the phase sequence of the voltages. Depending on the reference voltages Vα and Vβ . V7 The magnitude of the reference vector is: | V re f | = √(V2α + V2β) The phase angle is evaluated from θ= Where θ ∈ [0. The three-phase voltages could be described as. Otherwise. in a two-dimensional plane. V 2. If it has a positive phase sequence. and . V 1.2π] 2. The locus of the circle projected by the space reference vector Vref depends on V 0.2. Sector 1 2 3 4 5 6 Degrees 0 < θ ≤ 60ᵒ 60 < θ ≤ 120ᵒ 120 < θ ≤ 180ᵒ 180 < θ ≤ 240ᵒ 240< θ ≤ 300ᵒ 300 < θ ≤ 360ᵒ (2. The phase voltages correspond to eight switching states: six non-zero vectors and two zero vectors at the origin.

8) (2.7) for k =1.2.12) ∫ (2. Zero voltages are applied during the null state times: ∫ Now. During this time. Tb.11) Thus.3 Time Durations Ta.10) can be carried out for only half of the pulse-width modulation period . The reference space vector rotates and moves through different sectors of the complex plane as time increases. the reference vector Vref is sampled at a fixed input sampling frequency fs. 6 Therefore.2. the sector is determined and the modulation vector Vref is mapped onto two adjacent vectors. 3. 2.9) Due to symmetry in the patterns in the six sectors. T0 The duty cycle computation is done for each triangular sector formed by two state vectors. the integration ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ (2. ∫ ∫ ∫ (2. 4. the product of the reference voltage vector V ref and Ts/2 equals the sum of the voltage multiplied by the time interval of the chosen space vectors. The reference voltage vector V ref can be expressed as function of Vk and Vk+1 as 21 . the non-zero vectors for V k and V k+1 become * * + + (2. The magnitude of each switching state vector is and the magnitude of a vector to the √ midpoint of the hexagon line from one vertex to another is . 5. The non-zero vectors can be represented by (2. In each PWM cycle.

then T0 is greater than zero. then Ta will be equal to zero.14) Where Ta and Tb denote the required on-time of the active-state vectors Vk and V k+1 during each sample period and k is the sector number denoting the reference location. The switching time is arranged according to the first half of the switching period while the other half is a reflection forming a symmetrical pattern. If Vref lies exactly in the middle between two vectors.13) V ref = Vα + j Vβ (2. If Vref coincides with V2.(2. T0 and T7 are the times of the null state vectors. Assuming that the reference voltage and the voltage vectors Vk and Vk+1 are constant during each pulse-width modulation period Ts and splitting the reference voltage Vref into its real and imaginary components (Vα and Vβ) gives the following result: [ ] ( * ⁄ ⁄ + * ⁄ ⁄ +) Or [ ] * ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ +[ ] (2. The calculated times Ta and Tb are applied to the switches to produce space vector PWM switching patterns based on each sector. for example between V1 and V2 with an angle of . it means that Tb will be greater than Ta. If V ref is closer to V2 than V1. If the reference keeps making a circular trajectory inside the hexagon.15) These equations require computations involving trigonometric functions. Ta and Tb can be calculated as: 22 . the output voltage will be a sinusoidal waveform in the under-modulation region. Ta for V1 will be equal to Tb for V2.

[ ] √ * ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ +[ ] (2. Fig 2.3 Modelling of SVPWM Fig 2.3 Reference Vector calculation 23 .2 Subsystem of SVPWM This is complete model for SVPWM in an open loop.16) 2.

18) Fig 2.Three phase voltage is converted to ( ( ) √ coordinate by applying following formula: ) (2.17) (2.19) 24 .4 Sector identification The value of is calculated by the equations 1.16 and the is given by (2.

Fig 2. . 25 . .5 Calculation of .

and less harmonic distortion. However. The SVPWM is used for controlling the switching of the machine side converter. Advantages of this method include a higher modulation index. The performance is superior to that obtained with thyristor D.C drives and these motors are also becoming a more economical approach to variable speed.Conclusion It has been shown vector control techniques can be applied successfully to standard squirrel cage induction motors. The verification of the proposed control is performed by simulation results at the different speed. the SVPWM technique is complex in implementation. lower switching losses. 26 .

no. on Control System and Instrumentation. “Space Vector Pulse WidthModulation of Three-Level Inverter Extending Operation Into Overmodulation Region”. 4.J. John G. Boise State University. Nov. [11] B. 02. F. October 2011. A. [4] Dong-Choon Lee.1247-1257. “Vector Control for Induction Machine on the Application of Optimal Control Theory. A.S. on Power Electronics.42. May 2012.. [3] Mannan.Jacobina. “Indirect-Field Oriented Control For High Performance Induction Motor Drives Using Space Vector Modulation With Consideration Of Core Loss”. ACEEE Int. “A Simple Indirect Field Oriented Control of Induction Machines witout Speed Measurement” IEEE Trans 2000 pp. analysis and control. pp. 2.D.B. Tech.References [1] Sarifah Hasmuni. “Modern power electronics and ac drives”. [9] Subrata K.N. Takeshi Tsuchiya and Ikuo Takeda. [8] P.” Prentice Hall Company. Power Electronics Specialist Conference 2003. Vol. [5] Toshiaki Murata.Lima & L. [7] Phuong Hue Tran “Matlab/Simulink Implementation And Analysis Of Three Pulse -WidthModulation (PWM) Techniques”. Seung-Ki Sul and Min-Ho Park.18091813. vol. pp 1449-1454. [6] C. Mondal. April 1995. March 2003. vol. “The Development of Simulink Model of Vector Control of Induction Machine”. [12] R.R.Salvadori. Gupta.Bione Fo. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology. no. 577-584. Joao O. J. Tech.Kishore Babu. 283-290.” IEEE Trans on Industry Application. Tamura. vol 3. Bose. pp.IEEE Trans. no. Bimal K. IEEE Trans.Tripura. 1990. Rajesh S. No. Rep. [2] Gilberto C. “Electric motor drives: Modeling.” IEEE Trans on Industrial Electronics. 2002. Murata. Malasiya . vol. Prentice Hall. no. 37.M. 1994. 18. New Jersey. Krishan. Surjuse.Riberio.T. R. Tsuchiya. Pinto. Cleland “Fuzzy Logic Based On-Line Efficiency Optimization Control Of Indirect Vector Controlled Induction Motor Drive ”. IEEE Trans. Bose. [10] Rajesh Kumar. Fakulti kejuruteraan elektrik kolej. P.A.T. Sousa.S..M.5. “Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Schemes for Two-Level Voltage Source Inverter”. p p. J. Rep. on Industrial Electronics.A.2. Y. “A Vector Controlled Induction Motor Drive With Neural Network Based Space Vector Pulse Width Modulator”. 03. Valentin Oleschuk. vol.K Bose. 30.Tagore. Bimal K. 2001 27 . 2005. “High Performance Current Regulator for a Field-Oriented Controlled Induction Motor Drive. Y.