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However, since the ac beta is typically much greater than 1, we use the following approximation for the current analysis: (8-4) The input impedance is determined by the following ratio:

The voltage gain for the common-emitter configuration will now be determined for the configuration of Figure 8-7. For the defined direction of and polarity of , the formula is:

Figure 8-7 Determining the voltage gain for the common-emitter transistor amplifier

The minus sing simply reflects the fact that the direction of voltage with the opposite polarity. We can continue:

in Figure 8-7 would establish a

And So that And (8-5)

The resulting minus sing for the voltage gain reveals that the output and input voltages are 180° out of phase. Words and Expressions model n. modelo schematic a. esquemático formative a. formativo hybrid a. híbrido specification n. especificación drawback n. inconveniente flaw n. falla troublesome n. molesto predetermine a. predeterminar

For the network of Figure 8-8 without (unbypassed). d. c. Complete the following sentences according to the passage above. n. determine: by Figure 8-8 a. of (2) The model for BJT transistor has been introduced above with a short description of why it is good approximation to the actual of a BJT transistor. n. (4) As we have known before that the base and collector currents are the following equation: . n. (1) What we should make clear first is that one must do a complete a system before considering the ac response. n. and be carried through properly. . n. in place.proficiency investigation dramatic undertaking swing bypass subscript impedance Activities vt. competencia investigación dramático empresa columpio derivación subíndice impedancia 1. 3. (3) As you the modifications of the network to define the ac equivalent. 2. Repeat the analysis of the problem above with . b. n. a. it is important that the parameters of interest such as .

and provides a feedback path from output to input circuits in the equivalent model. All the capacitors that appear in Figure 8-9 are stray or parasitic capacitors between the various junctions of the device. and the last is the actual resistance within the active base region. The second includes the resistance from the external terminal to the active region of the transistor. Their capacitive effects only come into play at high frequencies. stray picofarad bulk megohm New Words n. base bulk resistance and base spreading resistance. At low and medium frequencies their resistance is very large and they can be considered to be open circuits. rμ Cμ Uπ rπ Cπ gmUπ Figure 8-9 Hybrid π model for a transistor The capacitor is usually just a few to a few tens of picofarads. and represent the resistancesbetween the indicated terminals of the device when the device is in the active region. The resistance includes three levels base contact. For lower frequencies approximations to the model can be made with the result that the model introduced earlier will result. The resistances . Its value is placed in the megohm range. The resistance is a very large resistance. whose typically lies between 5kΩ and 40kΩ.Further Reading Hybrid π Model for a BJT transistor The hybrid π model includes parameters that do not appear in other simple models primarily to provide a more accurate model for high-frequency effects. The resistance is simply equal to as introduced for the common-emitter model. The output resistance is the output resistance normally appearing across an applied load. The first is due to the actual connection to the base. masa n. errante n. typically larger than . megaohmio . picofaradio n. The hybrid π model appears in Figure 8-9 with all the parameters necessary for a full-frequency analysis. is typically a few to a few tens of ohms.

which was implemented with vacuum-tube circuits. you will be able to     Define analog Define digital Explain the differences between digital and analog quantities Define binary and its bit Lead-in 1. Read the following passage with the questions below to think about it. Look at the picture and discuss about it. military systems. communication systems. some of which contain millions of transistors. Even though it took up an entire room. ENIAC didn’t have the computing power that your hand-held calculator does. frequency and duty cycle of a digital waveform? Time to Read It The concept of a digital computer can be traced back to Charles Babbage.Unit 9 Digital Concepts After reading this unit and completing the exercises. Today. Who developed a crude mechanical computation device in the 1830s. For many years. Digital technology has progressed from vacuum-tube circuits to discrete transistors to complex integrated circuits. The term “digital” is derived from the way computers perform operations. Modern digital electronics began in 1946 with an electronic digital computer called ENIAC. applications of digital electronics were confined to computer systems. not electronic. navigation and guidance system. radar. Such applications as television. The first functioning digital computer was built in 1944 at Harvard University. by counting digits. digital technology is applied in a wide range of areas. . (1) How to explain the advantages of digital over analog? (2) How to determine the amplitude. digital techniques. Then write down the relevant terms and expressions in the space below. but it was electromechanical. period. Dual-in-line package 2.

say. During a given day. analog electronics will always be the foundation. For everyone who is ready to study electronics. For example. as indicated in Figure 9-2. the air temperature changes over a continuous range of values. continuous curve similar to the curve in Figure 9-1. the temperature does not go from. Rather than using the graph to display the temperature on a continuous basis.Digital and Analog Quantities Electronic circuits can be divided into two broad categories. you will have a smooth. Figure 9-1 Graph of an analog quantity (temperature versus time) . and digital quantity has set of discrete values. 70°F to 71°F instantaneously. It is important to realize that Figure 9-2 itself is not the digital representation of the analog quantity. it takes on all the infinite values in between. and analog electronics involves quantities with continuous values. Digital electronics involves quantities with discrete values. Most things that can be measured quantitatively appear in nature in analog forms. representing each sampled value by a digital code. Now you have sampled values representing the temperature at discrete points every hour over a 24-hours period. If you use the graph to display the temperature on a typical summer day. and then it is time to get closer to digital circuits. digital and analog. You have effectively converted an analog quantity to a form that can now be digitalized. An analog quantity has continuous values. . suppose you just take a temperature reading every hour.

For another. Figure 9-3 shows that a single positive-going pulse is generated when the voltage (or current) goes from its normally LOW level to its HIGH level and then back to its LOW level. are called bits. For one thing. These two states are represented by two different voltage levels: HIGH and LOW. In digital systems. digital data has a great advantage when storage is necessary. Also. combinations of two states. Binary Digits. HIGH may be any voltage between a specific minimum value and specified maximum level. Logic Levels and Digital Waveforms Digital electronics involves circuits and systems in which there are only two possible states. Groups of bits (combinations of 1s and 0s). and anything else required in a given applications. are used to represent numbers. In a practical digital circuit. A digital waveform is made up of a series of pulses. In digital circuits. Likewise. two different voltage levels are used to represent the two bits. letters. are used to represent numbers. Digital Waveforms Digital waveforms consist of voltage levels that are changing back and forth between the HIGH and LOW levels or states. This is called positive logic. A less common system in which 1 is represented by LOW and 0 is represented by HIGH is called negative logic.Figure 9-2 Sampled-value representation (quantization) of the analog quantity in figure 9-1 The Digital Advantage Digital has certain advantages over analog in electronics applications. symbols. The binary digit 1 is represented by the higher voltage. Logic Levels The voltages used to represent binary digits 1 and 0 are called logic levels. instructions. and its two digits 0 and 1. which is a contraction of the words “binary digits”. The two-state number is called binary. The two states can also be represented by current levels. 1 and 0. alphabetic characters. There may be no overlap between the accepted HIGH levels and the accepted LOW levels. open and closed switches. noise (unwanted voltage fluctuations) does not affect digital data as much as it affects analog signals. The negative-going pulse in Figure 9-4 is generated when the voltage goes from its normally HIGH level to its LOW level and back to its HIGH level. music. . Binary Digits The two digits in the binary system. Ideally. called codes. which is referred to as HIGH and the binary digit 0 is represented by the lower voltage level. however. symbols. can be stored more compactly and reproduced with greater accuracy and clarity than in analog form. called codes. one voltage level represents HIGH and the other represents LOW. LOW may be any voltage between a specified minimum and a specified maximum. and other types of information. or lamps turned on and off. digital data can be processed and transmitted more efficiently and reliably than analog data. when converted to digital form. which as LOW. For example.

as indicated in Figure 9-5. called period (T). The bottom 10% and the top 10% of the pulse are not included in the rise and fall times because of the nonlinearities in the waveform in these areas. the leading edge is a rising edge. The pulse width ( ) is a measure of the duration of the pulse and is often defined as the time interval between the 50% points on the rising and falling edges. The frequency ( ) is the rate at which it repeats itself and it is measured in hertz (Hz). The time required for the pulse to go from its LOW level to its HIGH is called the rise time ( ). of . it is common to measure the rise time from 10% to 90% of the pulse amplitude (height from baseline) and to measure the fall time from 90% to 10% of the pulse amplitude. Figure 9-3 Positive-going pulse Figure 9-4 Negative-going pulse Figure 9-5 Nonideal pulse characteristics In practice. and the time required for the transition from the HIGH level to the LOW level is called the fall time ( ). and can be classified as either periodic or nonperiodic. as indicated in Figure 9-5. In practice. although for most digital work you can assume ideal pulses. these transitions never occur instantaneously. A periodic pulse waveform is one that repeats itself at a fixed interval. sometimes called pulse trains. For a positive-going pulse. Figure 9-5 shows a nonideal pulse.As indicated in Figure 9-3 and Figure 9-4. and the trailing edge is falling edge. the pulse has two edges: a leading edge that occurs first at the time and a trailing edge that occurs last at the time . A nonperiodic pulse waveform. The pulses in Figure 9-3 and Figure 9-4 are ideal because the rising and falling edges are assumed to change in zero time (instantaneously). Most waveforms encountered in digital systems are composed of series of pulses.

versus . In this case is measured from one leading edge to the next. instantáneamente graph n. instrumentación discrete a. crudo digit n. categoría foundation n. The relationship between frequency and period is expressed as follows: (9-1) An important characteristic of a periodic digital waveform is its duty cycle. dígito instrumentation n. Determine the following: (a) period (b) frequency (c) duty cycle . equals 10 ms. The measurements are in milliseconds. gráfico versus prep. analógico category n. discreto analog a.course. The frequency ( ) of a pulse (digital) waveform is the reciprocal of the period. continuo instantaneously ad. does not repeat itself at fixed intervals and may be composed of pulses with randomly different pulse widths and/or with randomly different time intervals between the pulses. Figure 9-6 A periodic digital waveform Solution (a) The period is measured from the edge of one pulse to the corresponding edge of the next pulse. ( ) (9-2) Example 9-1 A portion of a periodic digital waveform is shown in Figure 9-6. The duty Cycle refers to the ratio of the pulse width ( ) to the period ( ) and can be expressed as a percentage. fundación continuous a. (b) (c) ( ) ( ) Words and Expressions crude a. as indicated.

vt.quantization digitize transmit boldface compactly reproduce clarity fluctuation alphabetic contraction overlap positive-going pulse Negative-going Trail Nonlinearity Baseline Amplitude Train Classify periodic n. cuantización digitalizar transmitir negrita compacta reproducir claridad fluctuación alfabético contracción superposición curso positivo pulso curso negativo rastro no linealidad base amplitud tren clasificar periódico . vt. n. a. vt. n. n. n. n. vt. a. n. a. n. a. n. ad. n. vt. n.