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INSTRUCTIONS: Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1) What is happening inside a star while it expands into a red giant? A) It is not fusing any element; it is contracting and heating up. B) It is fusing hydrogen into helium in a shell outside the core. C) It is fusing hydrogen into helium in the core. D) It is fusing helium into carbon in the core. E) It is fusing helium into carbon in a shell outside the core. 2) What is a planetary nebula? A) a disk of gas surrounding a protostar that may form into planets B) the molecular cloud from which protostars form C) what is left of the planets around a star after a low-mass star has ended its life D) the expanding shell of gas that is left when a white dwarf explodes as a supernova E) the expanding shell of gas that is no longer gravitationally held to the remnant of a low-mass star 3) What causes the radio pulses of a pulsar? A) The star undergoes periodic explosions of nuclear fusion that generate radio emission. B) The star's orbiting companion periodically eclipses the radio waves emitted by the main pulsar. C) As the star spins, beams of radio radiation sweep through space. If one of the beams crosses the earth, we observe a pulse. D) The star vibrates. E) A black hole near the star absorbs energy and re-emits it as radio waves. 4) Compared with stars in the disk, orbits of stars in the halo of a galaxy A) are elliptical, with random orientation. B) do not have to be around the galactic center. C) are relatively uniform to each other. D) do not have to pass through the plane of the galaxy. E) are elliptical but orbiting in the same direction. 5) Which of the following types of galaxies are most spherical in shape? A) irregulars B) ellipticals C) lenticulars

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5) D) spirals 6)

6) Why are Cepheid variables important? A) Cepheids are pulsating variable stars, and their pulsation periods are directly related to their true luminosities. Hence, we can use Cepheids as "standard candles" for distance measurements. B) Cepheids are a type of young galaxy that helps us understand how galaxies form. C) Cepheids are supermassive stars that are on the verge of becoming supernovae and therefore allow us to choose candidates to watch if we hope to observe a supernova in the near future. D) Cepheid variables are stars that vary in brightness because they harbor a black hole.

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7) What two quantities did Edwin Hubble plot against each other to discover the expansion of the Universe? A) velocity and temperature B) luminosity and temperature C) luminosity and distance D) velocity and distance E) age and distance 8) What do scientists mean by the critical density of the universe? A) the precise density marking the dividing line between a universe that has enough mass to contract again and a universe that will continue to expand forever B) the minimum density that a universe needs in order to form stars C) the minimum density that a universe needs in order to create hydrogen D) the average density of the space between galaxies E) the minimum density that a universe needs in order to form galaxies 9) What is a quasar? A) a starlike object that actually represents a bright patch of gas in the Milky Way B) another name for very bright stars of spectral type O C) the extremely bright center of a distant galaxy. thought to be powered by a massive black hole D) a very large galaxy thought to be formed by the merger of several smaller galaxies. typically found in the center of a galaxy cluster E) a specialized astronomical instrument for observing distant stars 10) What is meant by "dark energy"? A) any unknown force that opposes gravity B) the agent causing the universal expansion to accelerate C) highly energetic particles that are believed to constitute dark matter D) the energy associated with dark matter through E=mc2 E) the total energy in the Universe after the Big Bang but before the first stars 11) What do we mean by inflation ? A) the sudden release of photons when a particle and antiparticle annihilate each other B) what happened the instant after the Big Bang C) the separation that occurs after two photons collide and create a particle and an antiparticle D) a sudden expansion of the universe after the strong force froze out from the GUT force E) the expansion of the universe that we still observe today 12) Where do the photons in the cosmic background radiation originate? A) the end of the era of nuclei B) the end of the Planck era C) during the era of galaxy formation D) the moment of the Big Bang E) during the era of nucleosynthesis 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 2 .

what is left behind? A) always a black hole B) either a neutron star or a black hole C) always a neutron star D) either a white dwarf or a neutron star E) always a white dwarf 14) What is the thickness of the disk of the Milky Way? A) 100.000 light-years E) 100 light-years 15) Where are most heavy elements made? A) in the Big Bang.000 light-years C) 1.000 light-years B) 1.000.000 light-years D) 10.13) After a massive-star supernova. when the universe first began B) in the interstellar medium C) in stars and supernovae D) none of the above E) all of the above 13) 14) 15) 3 .

Answer Key Testname: AS102SAMPLEFINAL 1) B 2) E 3) C 4) A 5) B 6) A 7) D 8) A 9) C 10) B 11) D 12) A 13) B 14) C 15) C 4 .