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INTRODUCTION – The Tool Kit 1 collective phenomena, that is, aspects of people's lives that are not unique to them

, ones that the share !ith at least some others" ##this $oes not $istin%uish it from ps cholo% && ' ( Our approach to social theor an$ e)planation is realist" Realists hol$ that there is a real !orl$ e)istin% in$epen$entl of *oth our rect ph sical e)perience of it an$ !hat !e can sa a*out it" +art I The concept of the In$ivi$ual C,-+T.R l /hat $o In$ivi$uals .)plain0 11 metho$olo%ical in$ivi$ualists, !*o *elieve in methodological individualism 23I4, sa that in$ivi$uals are the onl 5in$ of realit !ith the necessar an$ suffi$ent causal po!ers capa*le of %eneratin% social phenomena" 16 Individuals as embodied objects Our *o$ies set all sorts of pro*lems for human societies to $eal !ith Il$ set limits to ho! the can *e solve$" 17 Individuals as (non-rational and rational) subjects 18 /hen !e are tr in% to )plain !hat happene$, it !ill al!a s *e !orth consi$erin% !hether outcomes !ere influence$ * the $ecisions an$ actions of some 5e sponsi*le in$i i$uals" In the non9rational camp, :reu$'s famous ps choanal tic theor e)plains the action of in$ivi$uals * reference o a universal process of personalit formation in !hich *iolo%ical instincts for se)ual %ratification motivate *ehaviour" Desire is hel$ to *e so stron% that its self9$estructive implications must *e $iscipline$ * mechanisms of repression an$ civilisation" ;ocial or$ers are thus e)plaine$ as emer%in% to fulfil the function of or%anisin% an$ chanelllin% se)uall motivate$ *ehaviour into pro$uctive rather than $estructive activities" 1< Rational choice theory It is a sophisticate$ up$atin% of a lon%stan$in% tra$ition !hich has trie$ to $erive moral rules for action from 5no!le$%e a*out !hat ma5es people happ " 1=

Rational choice theor > e)plain events, outcomes an$ patterns in conte)ts !here the en$s *ein% sou%ht, an$ the '%ames' *ein%9 pla e$ to %et them, are %iven an$ can *e ta5en for %rante$" The focus is on the calculatin% an$ not on the creation of the situation in !hich it is *ein% $one" RCT is a promisin% approach !hen the pro*lem to *e e)plaine$ is $lifferential outcomes for in$ivi$uals participatin% in the limite$ interction of en$9see5in% '%ames'" These are all situations !here the en$s are prett clear, !hat counts as success is relativel eas to $etermine an$ the relevant varia*les !hich actors nee$ information a*out can *e $efine$" I (1 altruism as rational choice Rational choice anal sis sho!s that in the lon% run it is more pro$uctive to *e 'nice', cooperate, compromise an$ accept less than optimum outcomes" ?ein% altruistic is in fact self9intereste$" ?ein% nice an$ cultivatin%@ trust!orthiness lo!ers ris5 an$ increases certaint a*out the future" Rational self9see5in% involves pursuin% one's interests partl * investin% in the !illin%ness of others to cooperate in the future" (( The upshot is that !e all have an interest in investin% in the formation an$ maintenance of collectivities such as partnerships, teams, net!or5s, unions, families, or%anisations an$ so on" RCT formula for social life is as follo!sA 1 cooperation is the ori%inal cBn$ition ( $efection is punishe$ * refusin% to continue cooperation 1 the first offer of cooperation from the $efector is accepte$ an$ cooperation resumes" (1 Rational choice theorists sometimes su%%est !e consi$er an action !hich achieves a $esire$ en$ as 'rational', an$ retrospectivel anal se it as thou%h ever th In% !hich le$ to that outcome !as rationall chosen" ?ut this 5in$ of move is har$l satisfactor " It ille%itimatel protects4cr9 from refutation, I !hilst simultaneousl avoi$in% the necessar *ut $ifficult tas5 of tr in% to un$erstan$ the spontaneous, ha*itual or emotionall fuelle$ ieasonsmat ma *e contri*utin% to ho! people act" (6 The formal tools of rational calculation have to *e supplemente$ * Cu$%ement on their applica*ilit an$ !hat their results si%nif " it $oes not offer a rational e)pla9 lation for the choice of ultimate Bn$s themselves, !hlCh therefore remain m sterious" 1

!hat in$ivi$ual actors pro$uce, intentionall or unin9 tentionall , *ecomes autonomous an$ has some causal force in its o!n ri%ht, con$itionin% the future action of in$ivi$ual" It is these pro$ucts of action that are referre$ to culture and social structure C,-+T.R ( Testin% the e)planator value of in$ivi$uals (8 testin% for the sufficiency If #RCT& it is sho!n to *e insufficient to provi$e a complete e)planation, even for phenomena to !hich it is *est suite$, !e can *e fairl confi$ent that it !ill *e insufficient else!here "" in this chapter intestin% application of the test of RCT poverty in *lac5 U;-A #m summar & pooor people $epen$ ver much on each other, so the $o not !ant their people to have up!ar$ mo*ilit 2*etter Co*, marria%e4 to avoi$ loosin% that soli$arit " +eople !ho tr to %o up!ar$s ma ris5 loosin% the ver necessar soli$arit the mi%ht nee$ a%ain if their up!ar$ *et fails #ar%ument more or less li5e this, *ut chec5" (" !h can't people !ho %o up!ar$ *e e)pecte$ to help the others0 /hat a*out emi%ration0 & 17 opportunity structure" This sets up !hat is possi*le at !hat cost RCT $oes not e)plain ho! these opportunit structures are set up" I +art II The Concept of Nature 22e)ternal an$ internal to humans44 1111 continuar a reler este resumo 6D Freud $epicte$ the !hole e$ifice of civilisation as a $evice to control human se)ual $rives" metho$olo%icB i.$"E"vi$ualist sa! 5e causal po!ers locate$ !ithin lllFIGl$uals" These 5e po!ers !ere 'alrea$ there' prior to an inter9 action these in$ivi$uals ha$ !ith one another" 3 3ar) an$ .n%els 21=864 ar%ue$, for e)ample, that humans are char9c lCterise$ * collective pro$uctive activit an$, !hile other species are Aonfine$ to their ecolo%ical niches, their nature is to !or5, *oth consciousl an$ collectivel , to transform the non9 human !orl$ into thin%s the can use" 3ar), K" an$ .n%els, :" 1=86, The Ferman I$eolo% 2Hon$onA Ha!rence I /ishart4 lone in$iv9 l$uals cannot pro$uce !hat the nee$ to survive" ,o 61 J""eor%eBrBrt 3ea$ 21=164 I

fa) /e*er" 2 6L 4D here !e have a sort of 'motor' for historical chan%eM echnolo% is constantl *ein% 'up%ra$e$'. an$ that e)plains !h here is also chan%e in the institutions an$ culture associate$ !ith 4articular technolo%ies" Fi 41 .-+T. an$ *oth have ha$ to rec5on !ith action" <( ln$ivi$uaB. are al!a s pla in% their part" Hi5e!ise.'te$in ho! collectivities pro$uce in$ivi$uals a*le to relate to one another" RelBtin% to others is a comple) !or5 i m*olisation an$ ima%ination" 1 The approach su%%ests ho! the ra! material of human or%anisms 2*a*ies for short4 are transforme$ into sociall competent people. can me$iate the impact of the environment * "usin% Eech9 nolo% " ?u1 chnoloB is a sort of half!a house *eBeen 'nature' an$ 'culture'M it is culture re$uceB to 5no!le$%e involve$ in technical pro*lem9solvin% !hich humans naturall ull$erta5e" <1 C. acquirin% the necessar lan%ua%e s5ills to s m*oli9 call represent themselves an$ othersBin% social roles an$ respon$in% to others' e)pectations" ?e .ocial cooperation $eman$s this sort of ima%inative anticipation" 6( Aooperation can involve the threat or use of force" NaCor insi%ht of the political an$ economic thou%ht of *oth Bar) an$ #a) /e*er" C naCor insi%ht of the political an$ economic thou%ht of *oth 3ar) an$ .R 7 /hat Does Culture .ite. in various social positions. namel the capacit Ao communicate an$ interact" This approach to human nature tries to esta*lish the *asic lin%uistic an$ ima%inative requirements of interac9 non an$ !hat the process is * !hich in$ivi$uals acquire these s5ills" Itls intere.)pNain0 mthropolB% 2particularl in' -meriB4 has concentrate$ attention on culture !hilst sociolo% has focuse$ 'on social structure. are li5el to4 respon$ to one's *ehaviour" .or%B. the natural environm"""ent is al!a s at least con$itionin% social interaction" Ii <1 .EEE"" one another. virtues an$ unique l $ifferences frO0.@ for cooperation itself. innate $isposi9 tions.er*ert 3ea$ 21=164 I attempt to e)plain the prerequi. min$s.l 71 !hat counts as pro%ress is al!a s 1 relative to some %oal" If !hat 7( lEAEEllans.asic for cooperation is the a*ilit l to ima%Ine ho! others. E)cept in catacl %nic ituations. !ith their *o$ies.BKBa$ 21=164 I Feor%e .

col$ reason of lo%ic *ut also the hot infl'ifence of emotion" Tl variations *et!een interpretations can *e evi$ence of he e)istence of cultures" .ver culture ma5es those !ho su*scrine to it share certain sociall im ortant characteristics" <6 " :i%ure 7"( /hat ena*les humans to me$iate the forces of the natural environment0 .meaning ho! people interpret the !orl$ interpretation iBolves the use of particular framBs of reference an$ ma5in% u$%ements involves usin% valueBBeaninP $oes 0ot Cust involve the.

<7 *-sic to culture is that it is transmitte$ non9 *iolo%icall an$ has to *e learne$" <8 .

if ou !ant to communicate usin% an lan%ua%e the !a in !hich culture Aonstrains action flo!s from ho! the material an$ s m*olic element of cultural practices fit to%etherA voca*ular an$ %rammar.AAAulture is ma$e up of the accumulatB lessons 4f past e)perience. repre9 ' Rentations. pro$uce$ over on% perio$s of time * lar%e nuB*ers of in$ivi$uals. formulations. acquire a lar%e Beasure of autonom " That is. i$entit an$ values. * contrast. hese forIIfulae have internal comple)ities !hich can ma5e life $iffi9 Ault" L1 the $eeper reaches of culture There seems to *e a set of *asic con$itions !hich have to *e met if fou!ant to throPG a part " . Realist .o hus. i$eas an$ ima%es. later. so . empha9 sisin% the stren%th of the mechanisms !here* in$ivi$uals are hoo5e$ lp to it. * 'Girtue of *ein% %iven cultural form. parties an$ $rin5 . 3" 1==7. tr to use them" These thin%s have o*Cective B emerging properties LD preferre$ !a of $oin% such thin%s simplif life !ith their rea$ 9ma$e formulae *ut. metho$s. at the same9time. maps an$ proCection. offers humans *oth histor an$ an open future" . the acquire properties of their o!n !hich are not the properties of the people !ho first 9pro$uce$ fhem or. it is temptin% to tr to e)plain !h people *ehave in patterne$ <= me$ia. the *ir$ must move to an rea !here mu$ is availa*le or fail to nest" Culture.ac5in% culture. in or$er to e)plain its constrainin% force" These mechanisms Aen$ to re$uce the creative an$ $iscretionar po!ers of in$ivi$uals so hat the are ima%ine$ to rela culture rather than appl it" On this *asis. patternin% their activit into sociall pro$uctive forms" 9Io!ever. most of them no/ $ea$ 2-rcher.imilarlr. this sort of theor ten$s to treat culture as a %iven. pots an$ cla . pro$uce$ over clltures are collective pro$ucts.ocial Theor 2Cam*ri$%eA CU+4 <L Aulture cannot *e ta5en as a fi)e$ force !hich ma5es us $o thin%s" It is not that sort of mechanism" -lcott +arsons an$ Houis -lthusser have hel$ that so$al 4r%anisation itself is onl possi*le *ecause in$ivi$uals are socialise$ to *e committe$ to a culture" This shapes their aspirations. one !a of characterisin% 'culture' is to sa that it consists of 'rocesses an$ mechanisms !hich ena*le the past to *e carrie$ into he present an$ future" Th6 << es are C=1EEcBve Qlo$ucts. 1==7A <(914" -rcher.

priest. ideas an$ beliefs. lea$er. Traditions are forme$ !hen cultural practices an$ i$eas come to have themselves as their point of reference an$ lea$s to the formulation of rules an$ criteria of conformit " These " Define !hat $oin% it correctl amounts to an$ !hat sorts of innov9 ation are accepta*le" 1 L1 the most s stematic 5in$ of cultural self9reflection is the process of rationalisation" Rationalisation is !hat happens !hen people tr to ma5e their i$eas more consistent. accurate. relevant an$ comprehensive" Rationalisation is essentiall o*Cective an$ unen$in%. e)pert or teacher sa s'4" . usuall to the $isma of tra$itionalists" 22lin5 to m notion of rational humanism ) cultural relativism L6 rhere are t!o maCor alternatives to rationalisation as !a s of $eci$in% a*out the accepta*ilit of i$eas favoure$ * supporters of tra$itionsM these are tests of collective i$entit 2'this is !hat !e *elieve'4 an$ tests of authorit 2'this is !hat the parent.L( 'G'hen !e turn from consi$erin% cultural practices an$ objects to ' the ' other maCor slice of culture. therefore it ten$s to push at the limits set * tra$itions.

L< .

!ere classe$ as *lac5" /hereas in the Cari**ean an$ the . ho!ever.4 ma5es clear. Ahat human histor as a !hole has *een $riven * a lo%ical neces9 sar sequence of i$eas" :irst he claime$ that i$eas $rive the $evelop9 ment of i$eas. :rench9hel$ for a time. persons of mi)e$ 'race'. also ha$ a $istinct mulatto cate%or "4 . misce%enation *et!een !hite .as 3ar%aret -rcher 21==. the i$ea of $emocrac is claime$ that it is i$eas 2such as $emocrac 4 !hich ena*le chan%e in the !a people live 2the actual $evelopment of $emocracies4" In this !a .o!ever. North -merican +rotestants ha$ to choose *et!een seein% non9!hites " -s equal to themselves 2rule$ out if the !ere to *e enslave$4.-+T.o! can !e e)plain this pattern0 One possi*ilit is to loo5 at $ifferences in the reli%ious i$eas 2part of the culture4 of the colonists" The Hatin -mericans !ere Catholic an$ committe$ to the *elief that the !orl$ !as or$ere$ hierarchicall " This allo!e$ them to reco%nise $e%rees of $ifference in people the !ishe$ to assert !ere inferior to themselves" In particular the coul$ claim that others !ere inferior to themselves !ithout havin% to assert that the !ere su*9human" In North -merica.uropean colonisers an$ their -frican slaves resulte$ in a mi)e$9'race' population" .n%lish colonies. in the North -merican . so sophisticate$ i$eas are onl thin5a*le if prece$e$ * earlier. most famousl * the Ferman philosopherM Hegel 21=784. filtere$ * the creative ela*oration of " -ctors respon$in% to their e)perience an$ circumstances" 3ar) 21=8<A C 1O4 capture$ this situation * su%%estin% that althou%h men ma5e histor .panish an$ +ortu%uese colonies of Hatin ENmerica.R 8 " TestinJ the . the Cari**ean an$ North -merica.14 amon% others4 to e)plain the e)istence of social or$er in societ " 222cultural e)planation444 i$eas !hich people mi%ht consciousl hol$ coul$ contri*ute to e)plainin% one specific phenomenon 2an$ mi%ht *e hou%ht sufficient4 "" =D e)ampleA Hatin -merica. or as lot humans at all" There . North -merica in the e)istence of mi)e$ race e)plaine$ * catholicis vs protestantism Hatin -merica. the $ominant reli%ion !as +rotestantism. those of mi)e$ 'race' !ere allocate$ a separate cate%or or cate%ories of their o!n" 2Ne! Orleans. the Cari**ean G.)pNanator Galue of Culture culturalismA attempts to %ive culture an ulti9 mate status !hen e)plainin% social phenomena" It It has even *een ar%ue$. the $o not $o so un$er con$itions of their o!n choosin% an$ the cannot eva$e the influence of the past" " LL C. unsophisticate$ ones" :or e)ample. culture is sai$ to *e responsi*le for historical $evelopment" Culture 2usuall t pifie$ * reli%ion an$ 'utimate values' is sai$ 2* Talcott +arsons 21=. the mo$e in !hich the past impacts on the S present is that of influence. !hich stresse$ the equalit of all human *ein%s" To *e consistent. re%ar$less of the relative proportion of *lac5 an$ !hite in their ancestr .

1=<7. 1=<D. !hich ma5es a virtue of removin% am*i%uit " Dou%las's anal sis points to the possi*ilit that i$eas ma %enerate eEher i$eas. for !hom it ha$ no connotations of *estialit " The The e)tra sinfulness of mi)e$9'race' se) in the +rotestant case ma have le$ to the cate%orisation of all those of mi)e$ 'race' as *lac5 – effectivel $en in% their mi)e$9' race' status an$ thus that sinful se)ual relations ha$ ta5en place 2Tannen9 E ?aUffi. !hich po!erfull pattern the !or5in%s of preference.lea$s CI" To hol$in% i$ea ?4. not Cust in terms of linear causation 2hol$in% i$ea .)ample =1 I Se!ish $ietar la!s an$ the prohi*ition of por5 Dou%las. !hat is permitte$ to *e eaten or !hat one is allo!e$ to !ear" ?ut these are %enerate$ * a cultural 'metho$' Aa realist mi%ht call this a 5in$ of causal mechanism4 of !hich partic9 ipants ma *e una!are. ima%ina9 T tion an$ reasonin%" .at is involve$ in 'usin%'. para$i%ms. 'appl in%'.1=68M Di%%s. 1==84" =7 U This e)ample sho!s that culture is multila ere$ or stratifie$M on the surface !e fin$ propositions !hich mem*ers of a Eculture can articulate a*out. 1=<DM De%ler. 'interpretin%' an$ 'creatin%'" UB@+art "" IG "" A"9' "" . *ut still human. sa . ha*its.!as no possi*ilit of seein% them as some $e%ree of lesser.ome commentators su%%est this !as one of the reasons !h misce%enation !as felt to *e so much more of a sin * the North -merican +rotes9 tants than * the Catholic Hatin -mericans.arris. *iases. al the nevertheless $epen$s on the a%enc of human actors for its impact" . 1=71M . 1=<14" 222*ut if +rotestants $i$ not accept an essential hierarch amon%st humans. $ispositions an$ %enerative prin9 ciplcs. ho! coul$ the accept the inferiorit of *lac5s 0444 =( Culture at full po!erE /hat can unconscious > i$eas e)plain0 222!h onl unconscious i$eas0 This is the level of metho$s. as Catholics coul$" . *ut also in the sense that un$erl in% structures of *elief or cultural metho$s can %enerate a potential multiplicit of rface forms" The rules 'Do not eat por5' or 'Do not !ear clothes N@ Aontainin% more than one 5in$ of material' are *ut particular I instances of a more fun$amental rule 'ReCect an thin% ou cannot classif " 1D6 the pro*lem of "e)plainin% the cultural elements themselves" culture ma involve comple) an$ $eep %enerative mechanisms. *ein%s.

.The Concept of -ction 1D< This chapter $iscusses !h action is a central concept in social theor an$ . outcomes !hich !ill lecome its le%ac to the future" /hat are the processes at !or5 in the moment9* 9moment a$vance into the future0 Clearl . *sor*in% the le%ac of the past. then !e have to *e intereste$ in the unique con$uct of each action situation an$ !hat ma5es such con$uct possi*le" 222*ut the chan%e ori%inates onl at this micro level 0 'micro9histories' of interaction in specific situationsA 1D= !here action is. *ut contri*utes to !hether or not those con$itions continue 2are repro$uce$4 or are chan%e$ 2are transforme$4" .JU.ocial realit fee$s *ac5 into itself.NT action 3e$iaton of con$ition * creative in$ivi$uals an$ collective actors V :UTUR. Repro$uce or transform con$itions of future action . to use Foffman's 21=8=4 phrase fi%ure <"( 9 The historical process +-. cases of novelt !hich mi%ht lea$ to transformation of patterns an$ $iscontinuities. that is. patternin% an$ continuities.. Insten$e$ an$ uninten$e$ CON. *ut %enerall uninten$e$. or the opposite.NC. !h the !a action is relate$ to culture an$ structure is sai$ to *e its fun$amental pro*lem" It is not reall possi*le to $o social e)planation !ithout usin% all three 1DL !hat people $o in the present not onl me$iates the impact of pre9e)istin% con$itions. an$ at the same time %eneratin% the ometimes inten$e$. !hat %oes on in the present of action is ver important" If !e !ant to e)plain cases of repetition lea$in% to social re%ularities.. O: action Cultural an$ structural le%ac an$ natural environment V +R..T CONDITION.

it can *elon% to a %roup havin% in commonl certain structural an$ or cultural traits -nthon iddens 21=L64. mem*ers of classes learn a*out !hat it is practical to e)pect.u*Cects have the a*ilit to initiate action !hich ma 2*ut onl ma 4 have consequences for o*Cects" The capacit for action ma $epen$on the formation of or%aniWe$ collectivities !hich can $eci$e !hat the !ant " 111 Not all action is social" > sa remove a puncture$ * cicle t re -ll action is relevant to social e)planation ?utA 3a) /e*erA action is social !hen it involves the actor in relatin% to others an$ ta5in% them into account in $eci$in% to $o so" Interaction *et!een actors can""ta5e place !herever there are Ineans of communication an$ nee$ not *e face to face" 11( action is *etter thou%ht of as %oveme$ * the 'logic of practice' – ?our$ieu's phrase 21==D4 captures the sense that to *e practical !e cannot *ase our action on $eli*erate rational anticipation" 111 routiniWation dispositionA a %eneralisa*le ten$enc to place a particular sort of interpretation on circumstances. has su%%este$ that there are lon%9term historical'" +rocesses in !hich $ispositions are forme$ for collectivities such as classes" :or e)ample. !hich ma5es it actiona*le" 116 ?our$ieu 21==D4. amon% others. *ut the $o not nee$ to *e a*le to %ive reasons for !hat the are $oin%" . !hat is achieva*le an$ !hat the can ta5e for %rante$ or presume" ?or$ieu calls their 'habitus' " ./e spea5 of action !here con$uct is $irecte$ * the intentions of a voluntar a%ent" I :or there to *e action there have to *e actors !ho have motives an$ purposes" It is this a*ilit to ma5e choices a*out con$uct !hich qualifies actors to to *e consi$ere$ as 'su*Cects' an$ not Cust 'o*Cects'" . /itt%enstein4 is that the consciousness of people is first m2i foremost a 'practical consciousness' rather than a theoreticall .uch $ispositions are thus clearl the pro$uct of cultural an$ structural con$itionin%" 222is the ha*itus onl collective0 ?ein% a ten$enc . influence$ * the philosopher. in response to their e)perience of su*or$ination or $omination.reflective an$ rationall $eli*eratin% one" +eople 5no! !hat to $o an$ ho! to carr on.

even if onl to contra$ict them 22therefore e#perimentalismA no cultural reference at all . accepts that there are man $etails an$ values !hich $o not nee$ to *e ma$e e)plicit an$ can refer to a *ac5%roun$of '!hat ever *o$ 5no!s'" 11< the free$om os CaWW $epen$s on havin% some relationship !ith tra$itions.itiOn. Farfin5el 21=8<4 an$ the ethnomethodologists have trie$ to specif the techniques of interpretation an$ action hat people use in the face of uncertaint a*out !hat is %oin% on" 222so this is microsociology – in spaceM in time444 Irrespective of the specific content of one's $ipO. native informants tal5 O to the anthropolo%ist in the !a the spea5 to small chil$ren !hoflee$ to have the o*vious e)plaine$ to them ' althou%h chil$ren " Can.The 5no!le$%e involve$ in most action provi$es a tacit. mutuall un$erstoo$ *asis for interac9 tion. of course. actors must also rel on the universal tchniques of 'common sense'" This is the practical form of rationalit !hich allo!s for va%ueness an$ mista5es. *ein% sufficientl fle)i*le a*out one's %oals an$ !hat one allo!s as accepta*le means" :ollo!in% !chut"'s lea$. as ?our$ieu 21=L8A llX4 puts it. e)cept in emer%encies or !hen respon$in% to visitin% social scientists such as anthropolo%ical fiel$ !or5ers" Then. !hich $oes not nee$ to *e e)presse$. !hich $erives from mem*ersl1ip of cultuftl an$ structural cpllectivities. tolerates $ela s." -s5 questions !hich a$ults fin$ une)pecte$ an$ I initiall har$ to ans!er" Improvise" This involves respon$in% creativel to the opportunities presente$ * ever9 chan%in% situations.

last lineA imme$iac an$ pressure of time 1(1 .

)plain0 . information. Co*s. cre$it. is a technique to ma5e performance pre$icta*le an$ reliaa*le.tructure con$itions Culture constrains an$ ena*les -ction 11= $efinitions of social structureA − a4 relations *et!een positions − *4 $istri*utions of po!er an$ resources − c4 5ins of social po!er an$ the or%aniWation of pratices a) relations bet%een positions . $epersonalise$ rules 11< C. creatin% routines * formulatin% !hat is e)pecte$ of actors as precisel as possi*le in o*Cective.tructure . each one of !hich is $efine$ an$ constitute$ * the relations it has !ith other positions" It is these relations *et!een positions !hich have e)planator po!er" .set of interrelate$ social positions. housin%.-+T. le%al ri%hts. political representation an$ so on" c) 'inds of social po%er and the organi"ation of pratices .ocial . as /e*er ma$e clear. e$ucation. ever chil$ has a position in a *irth or$er that affects their relations !ith their *rothers an$ sisters !cale effects 22that. transport.R = /hat Does .$ureaucracy. $ifferent relations *et!een their positions 22thin5A the qualities of *ric5s can for the sa5e of ar%ument *e i%nore$ 2or the can *e assume$ to *e all the same44 there are man 5in$s of social structure !hose con$itionin% po!ers interact in comple) !a s to constitute environments for action 16D it is helpful to thin5 of the concept of social structure as referrin% to all the forms of conse&uential social arrangements that constrain us" !erial ordering necessaril affects access to resources :or e)ample. health.ocial . effects of siWe 44 b) distributions of po%er and resources positions 22e% $erive$ from consequential arran%ements 44 impl resources A mone .)ampleA mass of *ric5s ran$oml on the %roun$ versus *ric5s arran%e$ to form a !all 9 same *ric5s.

collective practices %enerate social structures. formal So* $efinitions 2. sets of interactin% role positions !hich ma5e up the or%aniWation of each practice ()) bureaucr*+. an$ is a central tenet of realist social theor " 17D *ction ta5es in an environment of alrea$ e)istin% institutions an$ practices" These have their relative autonomous properties !hich con$ition action" !ocial reproduction and transformation . /e*er an$ ?our$ieu. votin% for left9 !in% parties an$ so on" That interests are collectivel forme$ ?Q positions in social structures.tho$ pla in% on the internal motivation. votin% Conservative an$ so on. I ?ureaucratic or%anisation com*ines various techniques of internal Aontrol. appointin% people on the *asis If their e)pertise 2to ensure that people are competent to perform their ales4.structural contradiction e)ists !here an arran%ement or !a of $oin% somethin% actuall inhi*its or stops that somethin% *ein% $one 22*ut their e)ample is $ifferentA contra$ictions %enerate$ * people's simultaneous location in more than one structure people !hose roles are in the mi$$le of hierarchies mean that the nee$ to satisf $eman$s from a*ove an$ *elo! 22often contra$ictor 44 structural contradictions of capitalism !or5er's roles as pro$ucers an$ consumersA !a%es must not *e too lo! to allo! them to perform consumption that is profita*le to capitalists capitalists have interest in the !elfare state 2so that !or5ers are ta5en care4 *ut not !ant to pa ta)es for it 16= T picall . re%ular *ut nat continuous monitorin% of their !or5. that is. ?ureaucratic or%anhation com*ines variO4llB tCCN1I'I.O that there is no $ou*t a*out !hat is e)pecte$4 ari$ a career structure re!ar$in% e)ceptional performance 2encoura%in% internal competition an$ inhi*itin% !or5place alliances4" ?ureaucrac is an or%aniWational 3. that these interests ma contra$ict ne another an$ cross9pressure %roups an$ in$ivi$uals an$ that as a result there is a measure of in$eterminac in the in the !a people respon$ to their structural positions is a fun$amental insi%ht of 3ar). !hile the $isa$vanta%e$ ten$ to attempt chan%e the e)istin%state of thin%s * supportin% pro%ressive movementsn le%islation. the a$vanta%e$ see5 to conserve their privile%es * supportin% the status quo. self9 nterest an$ capacit for self9$irection of emplo ees" . such as pa in% salaries 2to stop !or5ers usin% the or%aB9 sation's resources for their o!n en$s4.

-merican Sournal of . to avoi$ the costs of chan%e 22an$ the un5no!n44 171 techniques for transmittin% positional a$vanta%e an$ . super9 N visin% marria%e. 1=<L4 Franovetter. these po!ers !ere relativel temporar an$ coul$ not *e store$ an$ transmitte$ to others. sa . re%ularisin% inheritance ri%hts.people ten$ to stic5 !ith !hat !or5s !ell. their chil$ren" There !as no !a of $evelopin% a surplus an$ %ettin% po!er a*ove the threshol$ require$ to ma5e it inherita*le" 176 emerging properties 1 .!iss *an5 accounts" e)lainin% the lon%9term persistence of a $istri*utional an$ an$ institutional or$erA must loo5 at the sociall repro$uctive metho$s . L1A 16(D961 171 the capacit to accumulate sufficient resources to ma5e them inter9%enerationall transmitta*le is often a precon$ition for reconfi%urin% the lon%9term *alance of po!er" -lhou%h the ori%inal hunter9%atherer societies must have *een le$ * $ominant in$ivi$uals on the *asis of their ph sical an$ intellectual po!ers. into the futureA T picall . particularl * the po!erful strate%ies an$ mechanisms use$ * those intereste$ in re$ucin% their $isa$vanta%es" 22*ut also the uninten$e$ consequences of the practice * actors !ho $o not have a clear purpose in this re%ar$44 it is %enerall more $ifficult to sustain a lar%e or%anisation of in$ivi$uall !ea5 people than a small or%anisation of in$ivi$uall po!erful ones" 17( The importance of risin% a*ove a threshol$ *f po!er sufficient to permit the emer%ence of a ne! confi%uration of a$vanta%e an$ $isa$9 vanta%e 2for 'threshol$ mo$els'. 'Threshol$ mo$els of collective *ehaviour'. investin% a*roa$. securin% ta) e)emptions. influencin% political culture an$ so on" The tr to re$uce the $esire N of those *elo! them to oppose them an$ the ta5e out insurance policies a%ainst some future time !hen their privile%es ma *e successfull attac5e$ – $ictators often open . the po!erful tr to control the future * securin%" He%al protections for propert . hence.maCor feature of social realit is that it consists of interrelate social positions" ( These or%anisations of positions have their o!n properties" . social structures. cultivat9 in% reputations as social *enefactors. see Franovetter. encoura%in% $eference.ociolo% . 3" 1=<L.

1 rhese must *e $istin%uishe$ from the properties of the particular in$ivi$uals !ho occup them" 6 these properties inclu$e mechanisms !hich $istri*ute po!er to actors an$ ma5e for $ura*le po!er structures" 22so social structure is mostl a*out po!er – constrains an$ possi*ilit 44 .

#p0anatory 1alue of !ocial !tructure .R (/ Testin& the .+H*-T.

conte)t9$epen$ent. compare$ to a%rarian sotceties. a *asic 'hi%h' cultural technique. ma *e m steri"ous Ittraction evo5e$ * the entirel personal properties of one in$ivi$ual an$ another" ?ut the fact that the vast maCorit of us are smAten * . *ecause mechanisms for accumulatin% an$ transmittin% social a$vanta%es across time are comparativel !ea5" 3ationalism Cultural implications of mo$ernit One of the most influential approaches to this question.178 Dur5heim 21=7(4 $emonstrate$ the si%nificance of social structun * $iscussin% the limits of in$ivi$ualist an$ environmentalist e)planations of an apparentl utterl in$ivi$ual act – suici$e" 22this is !hat coul$ *e calle$ e)planation * social fact – * the social circumstances share$ * suici$ers of each t pe romantic love" /e ma li5e to thin5 that love stri5es *ecause of some unpre$icta*le. mal tical approach to all pro*lems encoura%e$ * literac M attac5in% i%norance. requires us to mo$if this vie!" 17= 2odernisation ra$icall chan%e$ the fiel$ of action for people con$itione$ an$ positione$ * thousan$s of ears of e)perience of a%rarian societ . . permittin% s m*olic representation an$ anal tical $istancin% from realit . n$ivi$uals in similar positions in class or 'racial' hierarchies. oral. !hose interaction !as noutiall restricte$. $ominate$ primaril * mili9 tar an$ reli%ious intimi$ation" The ha$ access to literac . interacte$ !ithin a small area an$ !ere.rnest Fellner's Nations and Nationalism 21=L14 an$ Nationalism 21==<4 . i$entif in% !ith their o!n local. relativel open social structures. in societies of this t pe. *ut use$ it primaril for intra9elite communication" 3o$ernisin% po!er techniques meant a$optin% the %eneralisin%. !here the !ere or%anise$ into a multitu$e of small communities. inconsistenc an$ inefficienc " 18D 3o$ernit encoura%es e%alitarianism *ecause mo$ernisation an$ n$ustrialism constantl chan%e the $ivision of la*our in the search for improvement" 22ver much anti 3ar)istA it is mo$erniWation that allo!s for the accumulation of capital44 181 3o$ern societies have. 'lo!' cultures" 3ost pmple. relativel immo9 *ile" The local $ivision of la*our an$ status hierarch !as seen as natural an$ unchan%ea*le" The fe! mem*ers of rulin% elites. an$ there are opportunities for the $isa$ vanta%e$ to improve their lot * the same means" . !ith the same ethnic i$entities as ourselves.e ar%ues that inequalities %enerate$ * informal stratification mechanisms of in$ustrial social structures are tolera*le for the relativel $isa$vanta%e$ to the e)tent hat the a$vanta%e$ are felt to have earne$ their re!ar$s * their o!n in$ivi$ual talent an$ effort. spatiall an$ sociall .

then nationalism !ill flourish" YThe root of nationalism is not i$eolo% *ut concrete $ail e)perience"@ 21==8A 1(14 18( To *e left a. that nationalist sentiments an$ the politics of ma5in% culture an$ state coinci$e are universal an$ natural.?ut Bhere the a$van9 ta%e$ an$ the $isa$vanta%e$ are culturall $istin%uishe$.o the stor nationalists tell a*out themselves. as Fellner calls it. one has t!o optionsM either learn the e$ucational esta*lishment's lan%ua%e an$ assimilate the $ominant form of hi%h culture. !as I avoi$a*le onl if the population an$ potential territor !as suffic9 N ientl lar%e to resource a sustaina*le in$epen$ent state" Fel Fellner 21=L1A 669.l a culture !ithout a state or 'political roof'.4 su%%ests that. so that one's o!n lan%ua%e can *e that of an e$ucation s stem" ' . at *est. an$ tl oersistent $isa$vanta%in% of ethnic %roups un$er%oin% mo$erniWation U supports the suspicion that the are *ein% e)clu$e$ from the %ame on cultural %roun$s. is reCecte$" . or ta5e the nationalist route to tr to create a state. onl N a*out 1D per cent of the !orl$'s culturesTlan%ua%es are supporte$ * al nationalist movement an$ far fe!er actuall achieve statehoo$" If e)clusion from the chance of mo*ilit 2*ecause one's culture is not reco%nise$ as a me$ium of hi%h culture * the state's e$ucation s stem4 is unaccepta*le.

Interactin% social structures – macroscopic an$ microscopic macro an$ micro 1<D 1<1 .

persons are su*Cects. intentionalit . on this vie! social realit is not completel o*Cective *ut also partl su*Cective.o!ever. alliances.creatin% stron% ten$encies in *ehaviour an$ the perception of interests" ?ut these ten$encies are onl are onl statistical frequencies !hich measure !hat lar%e num*ers of people $o !hen put in a certain structural position" 22so social structure is an influence on a people's possi*ilities of *ehaviour an$ *ehaviour $epen$in% on the structural position of the person44 althou%h social structures an$ cultures locate actors' an$ $efine the pro*lems the @must $eal !ith. Cultural an$ social structural con$itionin% I is not onlv constrainin%. mone . roles. havin% self9 consciousness.material component of social realit as capa*le of action. cultural 2in *et!een $ifferent strucutres. po!er. ever one is *orn into a pre constitute$ social !orl$ that the $i$ not create" The cultures an$ social structures !hich !e inherit . ho! the $o so varies enormousl !ith their $etermination . 1=L6M -rcher. free !ill. constrainin% force over actors" . ima%ination an$ unique personalities" -s in$ivi$uals an$ as mem*ers of collective or%anisations. *ut also enabling 2Fi$$ens. cultures4 or *et!een structure an$ culture – here it is their choice to %o on one or another $irection44 1<6 the e)ample of ?" !omen sho!s that tt social structural change is a process of re$istri*utin% po!er sufficientl to cross the threshol$ of sustaina*ilit 22it can *e more %eneral than that A reachin% an irreversi*le point etc 44 1LD91L1 historical time is $ifferent from the biographical time of the lives of in$ivi$uals The fun$amental mechanism %eneratin% variet an$ chan%e of social forms If !eA 9 $efine the human . i$ealism. roles. statuses. ra! materials. $esires. meanin% s stems. as actors 9 $efine the cultural an$ social structural components as suppl in% 2aloll% !ith nature4 the resources upon !hich. values. veste$ interests an$ so on" This sort of inheritance %ives social realit its o*Cective. $ispositions.22referin% to the e)amples of the the stu$ of nationalism * Fellner an$ of ?an%la$eshi !oman in Da5ha an$ Hon$onA Fellner an$ Ka*eer $escri*e the positionin% forces of social structure as $istri*utin% po!ers an$ lia*ilities an$ . 5no!le$%e. occupations. techniques. *ecau'se human *ein%s are not onl o*Cects cau%ht in the coils of a $eterminin% process the can $o nothin% a*out" Rather. such as lan%ua%e. (DDD4 . s5ill. coura%e an$ a*ilit to stri5e compromises" 22agency44 22a%enc can *e particularl relevant !hen people face $ilemmas structural. 1==7M +ar5er.h action $epen$s 9 $eftne action action pro$ucin% culture an$ social structure 2an$ me$iatin% the impact of nature4 " !e have the *asis for such a process" The human an$ non9human components ma5in% up social realit interact over time" -s !e sai$ earlier. that is.

the o*Cectivist position of structuralism 2culture. ela*oratin% an$ chan%in% the con$itions of future action" Fenerall . all contri*utin% to eventual outcomes !hich none of them $etermine * themselves" Thus. *ut that pro$uction cannot *e entirel e)plaine$ as the outcome of actors' intentions" 1L1 the claim that social realit is no more than human *ein%s.imilarl . en%a%in% in su*Cectivel meanin%ful voluntar action is the *asis of a su*Cectivist an$ voluntarist variant of individualism 2culture an$ social structure $rop a!a 4" The re$uction of social realit to *ein% no more than the i$eas Yan$ s m*ols pf culture is more or less idealist culturalism 2in$ivi$ual actors an$ social structure $rop a!a 4" . Realist Social Theory: The Morphogenetic Approach 2Cam*ri$%eA CU+4 +ar5er. $eterminin% the usefulness of their resources an$. *ecause there is no unme$iate$ access to realit . onl !hat can *e o*serve$ can *e sai$ to e)ist" Their e)planations involve $escri*in% re%ular patterns of sequences an$ coinci$ences !hich have statistical relia*ilit an$ provi$e the *asis for confi$ent pre$ictions a*out future o*servations" . in the process. innovatin%. re$uction is involve$ in the claim that social realit consists onl of social structures. intentional action is a necessar part of the process of social pro$uction. actors !ill tr to use their resources to perpetuate re!ar$in% situations an$ era$icate frustratin% ones. su*Cective meanin% an$ in$ivi$ual actors $rop a!a 4" 22!e also nee$ to consi$er the role of Y%ran$ in$ivi$uals@ the action of !hom has lar%er consequences – e% polititians 9 *ut even these $epen$ on social structure 2 an$ ma pla !ith culture 4 to have influence 1L6 /hat is the appropriate sort of e)planation for social science0 Realism versus empiricism an$ idealism Realism realit . *ut none alone is sufficient empiricism an$ i$ealism :or them. S". action !ill entail conflict an$ attempts to stren%then positions * all in% !ith others !ho share common aims" 1L( issue of po%er 4nintended conseuences are effects of the com*ination of contin%enc .Fi$$ens. the lo%ic of particular *eliefs an$ practices an$ the fact that there are man interests in conflict. e)perience an$ lan%ua%e are all necessar for 5! . -" 1=L6. %iven inequalit an$ $ifferences of values an$ interests. 3". (DDD." 1==7. an$. the me$iatin% elements of either e)perience or lan%ua%e assume over!helmin% importance" Thus empiricists tr to *uil$ e)planations * confinin% themselves to !hat can *e $irectl e)perience$ an$ relia*l $escri*e$" :or them. as su*Cects. Structuration 2?uc5in%hamA Open Universit +ress4 *ction ((%hich ma *e mostl collective 44 involves actors interpretin% action situations. The Constitution of Society 2Cam*ri$%eA +olit 4 -rcher.

lan%ua%e4 an$ empiricism %ives up on realit 2collapsin% truth into e)perience4" The $irectl contra$ict one another an$ *oth stan$ oppose$ to realism" 2(11 I$ealism I$ealism. an$ from the lan%ua%e of theor an$ the contri*ution of rationalit on the other" Idealists emphasise the $epen$ence of 5no!l lea%e on the use of lan%ua%e . ar%uin% that there is no %oin% outsi$e the confines of its lo%ic" :or them. sen$o o outro n]vel a infraestrutura 2ou *ase econ^mica44 .o if i$eas people use 2as oppose$ to i$eas scientists or other people pro$ucin% 5! a*ou the social !orl$4 are consi$ere$ an$ if the have effects. i$ealism %ives up on o*Cectivit 2collapsin% truth into. e)istin% in$epen$entl of !hat is thou%ht.)planation is relativise$ an$ an hope of accountin% for the !a the I !orl$ actuall is. is %iven up" The test of e)planator a$equac is merel consistenc !ith a conceptual scheme" Thus. the technical $ivision of la*our. is re%ar$e$ as inaccessi*le" I$ealism is the opposite of empiricism" I$ealism in social theor hol$s that social phe9 namena are e)plaine$ * reference ta su*Cective meanin%s. this can *e ultimatel a realist position !ith emphasis on culture instea$ of social structure44 4 1L< .ocial phenomena are emer%ent outcomes of processes !hich ta5e time to occur" 22!hat a*out the $ifferent la ers of realit . !hich are $escri*e$ as its superstructure" 44 22em +TA superestrutura \ um $os n]veis $a estrutura social.ver thin% !e have sai$ so far a*out the ontolo% or nature of social realit implies that the *asic form of e)planation in the social sciences must *e historical" . the i$eas !hich actors hol$ an$ refer to to or%anise their action an$ social arran%e9 ments" I$ealist social theor ten$s to place all the e)planator !ei%ht on cul9 ture an$ s stems of meanin%" . that is.The empiricist's test of e)planator a$equac is $escriptive an$ pre$ictive relia*ilit " :rom a realist point of vie!. the fact that 5no!le$%e $epen$s on the use of lin%uistic concepts means that it must *e entirel %overne$ * those concepts" There is no !a out – the reCect the empiricist's tactic * $en in% that there is an lin%uisticall unme$i9T ate$ e)perience of the !orl$ !hich coul$ provi$e an o*Cective *asis for $escription" . empiricists $isconnect e)perience' from the realit !hich %enerates it on the one han$. one e)plainin% the other. an$ propert relations Z into !hich people enter to pro$uce the necessities an$ amenities of life" These relations $etermine societ [s other relationships an$ i$eas. hol$s that 5nO/le$% $epen$s on the lo%ical an$ meanin%ful relations *et!een i$eas" The !orl$. even if not necessaril 3ar)'s *ase an$ superstructure 22!i5ipA the *ase comprehen$s the forces an$ relations of pro$uction Z emplo er9emplo ee !or5 con$itions. as an epistemolo%ical position.

social scientific e)planation can provi$e onl the consolation of un$erstan$in%" This ma free us from *ein% $ominate$ * the reactive emotions !hich the pro*lem %enerate$ in the first place.#planation requires revealin%9 the mechanisms !hich pro$uce the phenomena to *e e)plaine$" This is not $epen$ent on *ein% a*le to ma5e relia*le pre$ictions" 1L= 22+ractical uses of social science even !hen it is not practical44 Un$erstan$in% $oes not %uarantee that an thin% can *e $on a*out the pro*lem" . o*CAtive.ocial science.. the o*Cectivit of action con$itions an$ the po!ers of actors" On this *asis.)amples 1=D inter%enerational relations 1=1 3ana%in% conflict *et!een traveller % psies an$ settle$ societ 1=7 +ost9!ar slum clearance an$ the $estruction of via*le communities . it cannot *e the case that all $iscourses are N equall valua*le as instruments for un$erstan$in% o*Cective social realities" Thus !e must also reCect relativism .cientists $o not call it into *ein% an$ cannot Cust sa an thin% the li5e a*out – su*Cectivism is reCecte$" 22that is. !hich means that the refer *ac5!ar$sm time to the process of the emer%ence of the thin% *ein% e)plaine$" . the *elief that there are no e)ternal. e)planations are 'retro$ictive'.)planations sho! ho! the various causal forces interact over a perio$ of time" This is quite $ifferent from the vie! that all !e nee$ to e)plain somethin% is to 5no! ho! to pre$ict its occurrence" To9 *e a*le to pre$ict relia*l $oes not requBre one to 5no! !hat is pro$ucin% the' 5in$ of event *ein% pre$icte$" 1L8 Realism's test of an a$equate e)planation is much tou%her than merel the a*ilit to pre$ict 2as empiricists $eman$4 or offer an interpretation in terms of me conceptual scheme 2as i$ealists $eman$4" 1oluntarist e)planationA actors are not free to $o Cust as the li5e an$ $o pro$uce onl !hat the inten$" U . empirical an$ practical" . i$ealism is reCecte$. as it is the test of realit that must choose *et!een them44 This sort of 22realist44 social science is e)planator . reco%nise an o*Cective !orl$ e)istin% in$epen$entl of the scientist" . freein% up ener%ies for more pro$uctive activit " Or it can prevent us from investin% in tr in% to chan%e somethin% !here the chances of success are slim" . historical time. li5e an science.ometimes !hat !e learn from the e)planation that the forces shapin% action are so stron% that it is virtuall impos si*le to alter their impact" In such cases. in$epen$ent stan$ar$s in terms of !hich the $ifferent concepts can *e Cu$%e$ a%ainst each other" 22even if the can sho! up as equall lo%ic.o !e have three fun$amental components. *ecause it is not onl lan%ua%e an$ the mental structures of the su*Cects pro$ucin% 5! that ma5es up 5! 44 1L< e)planation is not %overne$ solel * the internal lo%ic of a particular conceptual I $iscourse" Fiven this.

separatin% !or5ers from o!nership of the means of pro$uction 2* movin% .lea$in% contri*utor to the realist ten$enc in contemporar social theor " . constrainin% an$ ena*lin% in$ivi$ual actors as mem*ers of their a%e sets in their use of the Internet 2is use relate$ to the $istri*ution of relevant interests an$ resources04" Flossar *ction is *ehaviour informe$ * the actor's intentions" ?ecause actors can initiate an$ $irect their o!n *ehaviour relative to their intentions.er 'morpho%enetic' approach to social anal sis. $eepl en%raine$ 22B unconscious44.u*Cectivit an$ o*Cectivit are $istin%uisha*le. meanin% the historicall emer%ent. !ho attac5e$ the tra$itional primac !hich 3ar)ism %ives to eco nomic relations. Houis 1=1L91==D .structuralist 3ar)ist !ith stron% functionalist ten$encies. its contin%encies an$ spheres of $iscretion. *alance$ an$ inter9 $epen$ent contri*utors to the historical process 2'morpho%enesis'4 of social life" *utocatalytic processes . that is. intentionall an$Tor unintentionall " Collectivities an$ non9human animals can *e a%ents" *lthusser. %ivin% equal !ei%ht to political an$ i$eolo%ical relations" *rcher5 2argaret !" 1=619 . %ives priorit to $escri*in% ho! the cultural an$ social structural con$itions of action are transforme$ * action over time" +ast action an$ actors 2pro$ucin% o*Cective con$itions for action in the present4 must *e $istin%uishe$ from pIesent action an$ actors" . the !a la*our an$ $ecision9ma5in% is or%anise$. !here amon% the outcomes of s stems are con$itions for the transfor9 ma. !hich opposes le 'structuration' approach of -nthon Fi$$ens. the are subjects not Cust o*Cects" *gency is the capacit to ma5e a $ifference to outcomes.technical term referrin% to a 5in$ of fee$*ac5 process.1=L e)ample of settin% up a research to e)plain $ata on internet use * $ifferent a%e %roups 1" The relations *et!een the properties of in$ivi$uals an$ human U nature an$ use of somethin% li5e the Internet 2!h shoul$ ph sical a%e ma5e a $ifference04" (" The properties of the Internet as a cultural artefact !hich $efines the sorts of capacit that users have to have to use it 2are these capaci9 ties relate$ to a%e04" 1" The properties of actuall usin% the Internet. %eneral orientation or $isposition !hich %ui$es the practice of mem*ers of $ifferent social strata" +apitalism 2ar# emphasise$ the relations of pro$on. the action involve$ 2$o these impin%e $iffer9 entl on a%e sets04" 6" The properties of the social structurin% of a%e sets.an of the s stem itselfM 22fee$*ac5 loops044 ?our$ieu. !hich mi%ht $istri*ute relevant interests an$ resources. +ierre 1=1D9(DD( 'habitus'.

!hich ma5e a $ifference to the !a the relate to themselves an$ others" +onstraint and enablement iddens' structuration theor popularise$ these terms" 6anguage consists of comple) si%ns !hich perform the s m*olic function of stan$in% for meanin%s I other than themselves" This capacit is fun$amental to the human ima%ina9 tion an$ a*ilit to anticipate e)perience * thin5in% a*out representations of N it. a source of enormous po!er. !hich is $enie$ to non9humans" +ulture is the humanl invente$ realm of pro$ucin% artefacts an$ meanin%ful interpretations of e)per9 ience an$ their s m*olic representation" 22is there an thin% in this0 /hat is meanin%044 7ialectics Dialectical thou%ht construes the !orl$ as consistin% of natural 5in$s of e)istants. ena*lin% humans to tap the e)perience of pastE Fenerations. /e*er +ollectivity 22or group44 . all in a continuous process of '*ecomin%' as the move to!ar$s realisin% their potential" The mo$el is *ristotle's i$eas a*out human *ein%s realiWin% their potential $urin% their lives .collectivit is a population !ith some share$ char9 acteristics" .thnomethodology 2a term invente$ * arfin'el4 emphasises the $epen$ance of meanin% on concrete conte)ts of interaction" U 3eanin% is essential provisional an$ constantl reinterprete$ 22much a%ainst the sta*ilit an$ influence of culture. then044 +eople use 'ethnometho$s' to maintain a continuous sense that the inha*it an intelli%i*le an$ actiona*le realit " 2eaning is 'practical accomplishment' $epen$ent on actors' interpretive s5ill an$ share$ "9 *ac5%roun$ un$erstan$in%s of !hat the practical $eman$s of t pes of situ9 ation are" .them off the lan$ into to!ns4 an$ ma5in% them $epen$ent on earnin% !a%es from capitalist emplo ers !ho o!ne$ the lar%el in$ustrial means of pro$uction" +lasses $iffer accor$in% to their relative material a$vanta%es an$ the opporlunitles an$ metho$s open to them to maintain or improve their access to resources" +lassical social theoryA Dur5heim. to achieve hi%her an$ levels of !is$om an$ virtue" 2ar# 2*uil$in% on .e%el4 is pro*a*l -ristotle's most important representative in mo$em limes. such as lan%ua%e or structural position. anal sin% the con$itions for the historical realisation of the potentialit D1 the human species to *ecome self9$eterminin%.social collectivit is a population !ith share$ characteristics. 3ar). or full su*Cective *ein%s" 7ispositions are partl %enerate$ throu%h participation in historicall pro$uce$ cultures !hich transmit !a s of relatin% to life on the *asis of specific historical e)perience" .

career paths. *ut the ma *e entirel informal. . particularl of intentions. the lcial scientist must achieve an un$erstan$in% of !hat actors are $oin% in the ctors' o!n terms. hierarchies. an$ 'system integration' to relations *et!een the non9human components of social s stems" macrosociology an$ microsociology . are compose$ of ln$ivi$uals" 22not onl persons. sa . volcanoes or *ic cles. once in e)istence. usin% appropriate cultural rules. then44 -n institution is an or%anise$ !a of $oin% certain thin%s. . the effects of somethin% 2for e)ample an e$ucation s stem4 can fee$*ac5 to ensure its continue$ e)istence 2for e)ample those !ho have *enefite$ from it support it4" ?ut functional e)planations cannot e)plain ho! that somethin% comes into e)istence in the first place" :unctionalism has $ifficult e)plainin% historicall pro$uce$ phenomena" +arsons' a*stract functionalist s s terns theor implies that the functional nee$s of social s stems pro$uce the institutions an$ practices require$ to meet those nee$s" offman. ma5in% them relativel relia*le" Institutions ma *e $efine$ formall * constitutional rules. as a necessar step to!ar$s e)plainin% !hat the are $oin%" Functionalism :unctional e)planations e)plain !h an social phenomenon is the !a it is. the " 3tcome of a process of institutionalisation.tu$ of lar%e9scale an$ lon%9lastin% social phenomena vs"stu$ of small9scale an$ relativel short9live$ ones" . in$ivi$ualism 'In$ivi$ual' is a lo%ical term referrin% to one of a class of entities" -ll such classes.rvin% 1=((ZL( Foffman is the most important contri*utor to the school of s m*olic interactionism an$ theorist of !hat he calle$ the 'interac9 tion or$er'" The latter consists of universal principles %overnin% the process ofN interpersonal interaction. farms. !here* preferre$ !a s of $oin% thin%s' are pro%ressivel reinforce$.ocial theorists no! focus on ho! these 'levels' interrelate. especiall !here the persons are ph sicall present an$ 'face !or5' is possi*le" Foffman e)plores !hat is require$ for successful I interaction to occur" . morall compromisin% infor9 I mation an$ so on" Individuals. persons.. to *e the !a it is" This requires an account of the interaction of all the causes contri*utin% to pro$ucin% the thin% *ein% e)plaine$" .e sho!s face9to9face interaction is the *asis of trust *ecause it ma5es it $ifficult to hi$e insincerit .#planation and understanding /e e)plain somethin% * sho!in% !h it ha$. cultural o*Cects. necessaril .cience aims for )planation" In a %eneral sense. usuall those of the ori%inator an$ the interpreter" ?ecause timan action is informe$ * s m*olic e)pressions. such as the conventions of %oo$ manners Integration refers to the mo$es of relation *et!een $ifferentiate$ elements of structures" 'social integration' refers to the qualities of relation *et!een interactin% in$ivi$uals an$ %roups. Co* $escriptions an$ so on. so that the can *e un$erstoo$ relative to Aome point of vie!. te)ts an$ uses of lan%ua%e. un$erstan$in% is enhance$ * e)planations" Eio!ever. * sho!in% !hat its functions or effects are" In some cases. 'un$erstan$in%' is also use$ in a more restricte$ !a to refer to the nterpretation of s m*olic e)pressions. cats.

in !hich people ela*orate$ on the le%acies of past %enerations. is the historical process of $isplac9 in% premo$emit !here life is live$ accor$in% to e)amples horn the past an$ the !is$om of the ol$. !hich some see as universal anc !hich some see as universal an$ inevita*le. usuall involvin% spea5in% a common lan%ua%e an$ sometimes sharin% important cultural commitments such as reli%ion" 3ationalism is the $octrine that each culture shoul$ *e self9%overnin% an$ have its o!n state" -arsons. 3ea$ sho!s ho! sU*Cective in$ivi$uals are emer%ent pro$ucts of o*Cective social processes" 2odernity is the %eneral con$ition of social life !here chan%e an$ improvement is activel sou%ht" 3o$ernisation. !e must '*ecome o*Cects to ourselves'. ne! culture an$ ne! nature" .such that it *ecomes possi*le to rec o%nise that in some situations small9scale interaction 2for e)ample *et!een po!erful hea$s of . learn to ta5e an o*Cective perspective on themselves an$ ima%ine ho! the are un$erstoo$ * others" . !ere the pro$uct of a lon%. an$ that macroscopic phenomena 2such as lan%ua%e an$ la!4 are important con$itions of of small sscale an$ momentar phenomena" 2ar# insiste$ that human e)istence human !as an historical one . pro$ucin% ne! !a s of or%aniWin% themselves .e su%%este$ that to *e self9$efinin% su*iect !ith personal i$entities.tate4 can have mitior consequences for lon%9 lastin% phenomena . an$ tra$itional cultural authorities" It usuall involves a confrontation !ith tra$itional forms of reli%ion" 3o$ernism refers to a cultural attitu$e of preferrin% the mo$ern in an sphere of activit " 3ation-!tate an$ nationalism The nation9state is a t pe of political m%an9 isation !here the state monopolises the use of force an$ la!9ma5in% !ithin a territor in !hich the population is ima%ine$ to su*scri*e to a common cul9 tural i$entit . possessin% %enuine su*Cectivit . * acquirin% lan%ua%e in a conte)t of socii relations. natural an$ o*Cective process of social interaction" .e sho!e$ ho! ne!*orn *a*ies start out as o*Cects *ut. Talcott 1=D(9<= hi%hl comple) a*stract theor of the !a social s stems function in !hich action virtuall $isappears" . iddens' structuration theor !as $esi%ne$ to replace 3ar)ist an$ +arsonian 'functionalism'" -ersonal identity an$ social identity +ersonal i$entit is the !a in !hich persons un$erstan$ the meanin% of their o!n positions in the !orl$" It involves a constantl $evelopin% tfiectin% a*out theiI 9past an$ their intentions for their future" . there* achievin% relative autonom from our social i$entities as $efine$ * others" /e thus have *oth personal i$entities an$ social i$entities" Hi5e Dur5heim.leven Theses on :euer*ach 3ea$ invente$ a $ialectical theor of human social $evelopment !hich sho!e$ ho! mature an$ self9controlle$ per9 Nons.

hol$s that the or%aniWation of lan%ua%e an$ the structural properties of cultural practices an$ te)ts are most important" . statuses an$ social t pes" -ostmodemism is the cultural refiection on the situation of postmo$etnit . associate$ !ith H\v 9. !h not044 There are three interrelate$ *ases of social po%erM cultural 2the capacit to $efine the meanin% an$ value ot situations4.persons' social i$entit is the !a the are $efine$ * others for the purpose of social interaction" These $efinitions are primaril positNonal. * as5in% !hat !oul$ have to *e the case to pro$uce !hat !e e)per ience" Theoretical reasonin% an$ empirical evi$ence interact in the 5no!le$%e process" natural 'inds. nature. action an$ social structure Natural 5in$s are realities $eeme$ to have. realism hol$s that o*Cective realities e)ist in$epen$entl of the e)periences the offer us an$ !hat !e can sa a*out them" ?ecause e)perience onl %ive us surface evi$ence of the !or5in%s of realit .trauss.o.. as an epistemolo% . culture. it is necessar to theorise !hat realit consists of" . !hether !e li5e it or not" Realism -s an ontolo% . referrin% to roles. economic 2the capacit to control the pro$uction an$ $istri*ution of material resources4 an$ political 2the capacit to $etermine $ecision ma5in% an$ have availa*le effective use of ph sical force4" !ocial status attaches to persons an$ collectivities on the *asis ot some principle of evaluation * others" /e*er uses the the phrase 'social esteem' !tratification The process %eneratin% inequalities of various 5in$s" . realism hol$s that 5no!le$%e $epen$s on theoretical $Iscover of the properties of realit . !hich ten$s to favour a*an$onin% mo$ernit .social structure is an or%anisation of social positions !ith sequences for social interaction" :rench structuralism. irre$uci*l $istinct properties an$ mechanisms e)ercisin% causal po!ers" Reference group theor $evelope$ * 3erton to e)ploit the insi%ht that people's attitu$es to their social e)perience var $epen$in% on !ho the !hom the compare themselves !ith" !ocial roles are positions entailin% prescriptive e)pectations an$ rules $efinin% ho! incum*ents shoul$ *ehave" These i$eals are *ac5e$ * sanctions 22an$ re!ar$s. in favour of relativism" Reason is concerne$ !ith $eftnin% !hat has to *e accepte$ a*out the !orl$ an$ our situations an$ our situations. such as in$ivi$uals in$ivi$uals. mo$ernism an$ associate$ uni9 versalism. * virtue of their *asic natures.

!tructuratlon theor iddens a$opte$ the term Ustructuration' to refer to th process of structurall con$itione$ action fee$in% *ac5 to pro$uce those those structural con$itions" .ee . cultural $ifferences or historical conte)t" 22lin5 !ith m humanism 44 4tilitarianism The school of moral an$ political philosoph !hich ar%ue$ that empirical information a*out !hat ma$e the maCorit of in$ivi$uals happ shoul$ *e use$ to test the moral Custifia*ilit of acts" faile$ ac5no!le$%e that sometimes !hat ma5es most people happ 2sa . structures have onl have a 'virtual' e)istence" This position is oppose$ * realist social theor . in 3ea$'s !or$s '*e an o*Cect to itself'" !ymbolic interactionism . !as one of '$ualit '" That is. U !hether or not the are use$ * actors" .subject is a *ein% !hich can. that is. persecutin% minorities4 ma *e evil" 8ittgenstein. action an$ culture. !hich are vali$ for ever one.school of sociolo% concentratin% on the imme$iac of interpersonal interaction an$ the ne%otiation of meanin%" It cele*rates the creativit of actors in the on%oin% !or5 of performin% their roles an$ social i$entities" It contri*utes to microsociolo% . the !ere not anal ticall separa*le *ecause struc9'I' tures onl e)iste$ !hen the !ere 'instantiate$'. inespective of the personal feelin%s.e ar%ue$ that the relation *et!een 'structure an$ action'. !ho ar%ues that structures have a real e)istence an$ causal force.ocial theoretical focus is on in$ivi$uals. particularl * -rcher.is favoure$ e)ample is lan%ua%e" /hen not *ein% use$. use$ * actors" . at the e)pense of social structure" 2. 3ea$4 4niversalism This hol$s that it is possi*le to i$entif truths in our 5no!le$%e of the !orl$ an$ moral principles an$ virtues to %ui$e our social con$uct an$ a$mintration of Custice. *ut has $ifficult lin5in% this to social phenomena an$ processes !hich en$ure for lon% perio$s of time" Its s. creative actors col9 lectivel interpretin% their unique situations have to Cu$%e the relevance of rules" This insi%ht is the *asis for ethnometho$olo% an$ is important for Fi$9 I $ens' 'structuration' theor " . Hu$!i% 1LL=91=71 ar%ue$ that the onl !a lan%ua%e' coul$ *e ma$e to refer to the !orl$ !as for a communit of people to $efine the rules %overnin% ho! to use !or$s correctl an$ to correct one another's mista5es an$ teach chil$ren the rules" 3eanin% *ecomes $epen$ent on pu*lic social interaction" Rules $o not appl themselves" Instea$.thnometho$olo% i Farfin5eli Foffman.