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INTRODUCTION

Various sources

of

Islamic

law are

used

by Islamic

jurisprudence to elucidate the Sharia, the body of Islamic law. The primary sources, accepted universally by all Muslims, are the Qur'an and Sunnah. The Qur'an is the holy scripture of Islam, believed by Muslims to be the direct and unaltered word of llah. The Sunnah consists of the reli!ious actions and "uotations of the Islamic #rophet Muhammad and narrated throu!h his $ompanions and Imams% &as per the beliefs of the school of and hle%Shia'. In the ei!hth century, a difference in le!al approach arose amon!st Islamic thin(ers in two prevailin! schools of le!al thou!ht. The traditionalists &ahl al% hadith' relied solely on the Quran and the sunna &traditions' of the #rophet as the only valid sources for jurisprudence, such as the prevailin! thou!ht emanatin! from Medina. The non%traditional approach &ahl al%ra'y' relied on the free use of reasonin! and opinion in the absence of reliable ahadith, which was heralded in Ira". The reason for the difference in techni"ue is that in Medina, there was an abundance of reliable ahadith that scholars could depend on for formin! le!islation, since the #rophet lived the last ten years of his life durin! a period of le!islation in the youn! Muslim community. In Ira", the sources that were available were not as reliable as in Medina and so the jurists had to turn to analo!y because of their circumstances. Therefore, a hadith may have been accepted by Mali( &from Medina' and not by bu )anifa &from Ira"' who had challen!e that jurists had to to use analo!y in the absence of reliable hadith. hle%Sunnah

reconcile was which of the #rophet*s actions and decisions were reli!iously bindin! and which were merely a function of personal discretion of the
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#rophet, In !eneral, ahl al%hadith eventually lent le!islative si!nificance to much of the #rophet*s decisions, whereas other schools tended to distin!uish between the various roles that the #rophet played in his life.

Muhammad ibn Idris al%Shafi'i &d. -+.' was concerned about the variety of doctrine and sou!ht to limit the sources of law and establish a common methodolo!y for all schools of Islamic law./ )is efforts resulted in the systemi0ation of usul al%fi"h, the followin! four sources of Islamic law1

• +. The Quran2 • 3. The Sunna or )adith &tradition of the #rophet' 2 • /. Qiyas or analo!ies2 • 4. Ijma or unanimous a!reement +. Throu!hout history these sources were used in descendin! order by Muslim jurists in determinin! the le!ality of an issue. If the le!ality was not based on an e5plicit command in the Quran, then the jurists turned to loo( for e5plicit commands in the hadith, and so on. 6nfortunately, as we shall discover, not all aspects of the methodolo!y were unanimously a!reed upon2 the Quran could be interpreted differently, some traditions of the #rophet were "uestioned for their authenticity and to what e5tent they were reli!iously imperative, the use of analo!ies was !reatly debated and there was little unanimous a!reement amon! scholars in Islamic history about ine5plicit issues.

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7elieved to be the direct word of 8od as revealed to Muhammad throu!h an!el 8abriel in Mecca and Medina. usury. philosophical. unbridled poly!amy. whereas those revealed in Medina are concerned with socio%economic laws. li"uor. :ethical / . It also improved the status of women by proclaimin! women's e"uality to men and providin! women with decreed ri!hts in the areas of marria!e. The Qur'an was written and preserved durin! the life of Muhammad. The verses of the Qur'an are cate!ori0ed into three fields1 :science of speculative theolo!y:. !amblin!. social. 8od revealed the Quran in rabic throu!h the n!el 8abriel to #rophet Muhammad over a period of 3/ years. s the Muslim community !rew and its needs became more comple5. Muslim jurists a!ree that the Qur'an in its entirety is not a le!al code &used in the modern sense'2 rather its purpose is to lay down a way of life which re!ulates man's relationship with others and 8od. the Quran addressed those issues and tried to replace old tribal customs with more just reforms. The verses revealed in Mecca deal with philosophical and theolo!ical issues. political and economic basis on which a society should be constructed. 9or ten years in Mecca and +/ years in Medina the Quran tau!ht the oneness of 8od and !uided believers to the path of morality and justice.Quran The Qur'an is the first and most important source of Islamic law. divorce and inheritance. and compiled soon after his death. the scripture specifies the moral. the Quran outlawed prevalent customs such as idolatry. promiscuity. 9or e5ample. etc.

foundations of Islamic law.principles: and :rules of human conduct:.: 4 7ecause many of the directives in the Quran are so broad. The third cate!ory is directly concerned with Islamic le!al matters which contains about five hundred verses or one thirteenth of it. The tas( of interpretin! the Qur'an has led to various opinions and jud!ments. 4 .: . The interpretations of the verses by Muhammad's companions for Sunnis and Imams for Shias are considered the most authentic. modern scholars. are derived from verses from the Quran. :The bul( of Quranic matter consists mainly of broad. the authenticity of the Quran has never been "uestioned by any Muslim scholar or institution. since they (new why. the 'ou!ht' of the Islamic reli!ious ethic. !eneral moral directives as to what the aims and aspirations of Muslims should be. but also includes the foundin! schools of thou!ht and even the companions of the #rophet.:< =evertheless. interpretation ta(es on such a si!nificant role. that :there is hardly to be found any nd that doesn't just refer to command with an a!reed interpretation. where and on what occasion each verse was revealed. The shari'a. There have been so many different interpretations of the Quran. claims widely read and revered Islamic thin(er bul 'ala Maududi. who :did not all a!ree in every detail in re!ard to $ommands and #rohibitions.

?urin! his lifetime. !ave rise to confusion over Muhammad's conduct. >ustification for usin! the Sunnah as a source of law can be found in the Qur'an. the sunnah also includes the words. Thus the )adith were established.Sunnah The Sunnah is the ne5t important source. or sunnah. deeds and ac(nowled!ments of the twelve Imams and 9atimah. Muhammad made it clear that his traditions &alon! with the Qur'an' should be followed after his death. Much of the sunnah is recorded in the )adith. of Muhammad and his companions to discover what to imitate and what to avoid. and ac(nowled!ments of statements and activities. and is commonly defined as :the traditions and customs of Muhammad: or :the words. )owever. ccordin! to Shi'ite jurists. he did as( his followers to disseminate his sayin!s orally. the Qur'an contains many rules for the behavior e5pected of Muslims but there are no specific Qur'anic rules on many reli!ious and practical matters. any doubtful record could be confirmed as true or false by simply as(in! him. who are believed to be infallible. so they may not confuse it with the Qur'an. his acts. Muhammad had instructed his followers not to write down his acts. Initially. Muslims believe that they can loo( at the way of life. the science of )adith & rabic1 @6lum al%hadith' is established. )is death. his tacit consent. Muhammad's dau!hter. It includes the everyday sayin!s and utterances of Muhammad. however. It is a method of te5tual criticism developed by early Muslim scholars in . The Qur'an commands Muslims to follow Muhammad. ?ue to problems of authenticity. The overwhelmin! majority of Muslims consider the sunnah to be essential supplements to and clarifications of the Qur'an. actions and silent assertions of him:. s lon! as he was alive. In Islamic jurisprudence. .

If so. Bhether an alle!ed tradition is !enuine. ii. obeys 8odD &41-E' CBhatever the #rophet !ives accept it and whatever he forbids abstain from itD &. The second "uestion is a "uestion of law. the routes throu!h which the report was transmitted.1F' < . The obli!atory nature of the traditions is based on many Quranic verses amo! which are the followin!1% CAbey 8od. and the individual narrators involved in its transmission... This is achieved by analy0in! the te5t of the report. the scale of the report's transmission. and the internal test% the scrutiny of matan &subject matter of the traditions'. The collectors of the tradition understood of the distin!uishin! the !enuine from the spurious traditions by employin! the e5ternal test% the e5amination of isnad &chain of narrator'. n e5amination of the evidentiary test used by the !reat compilers of the tradition will undoubtedly show how hi!hly developed were the method of criticism was used. and obey #rophetD &41. various )adith classifications developed. Bith re!ard to validity of sunnah two "uestions arises 1 i.' C)e who obeys the #rophet. whether it is obli!atory. An the basis of these criteria. the only object which was to e5amine the credibility and authenticity of the traditions.determinin! the veracity of reports attributed to Muhammad. The first "uestion is purely a "uestion of fact and should be considered accordin! to the evidence adduced in its support.

:science of people:'.: 6sin! this criteria. which are widely (nown. 7ased upon these criteria. lso determined is whether the individual was actually able to transmit the report.C nd whatever he &Mohammed' utters. it is not of his own whim and fancy 2 it is not else but a divine revelation revealed onto himD &. but bac(ed up with few ori!inal references. Isolated or Sin!le &wahid'. which is deduced from their contemporaneity and !eo!raphical pro5imity with the other transmitters in the chain. and bac(ed up by numerous references. and their reference's reference all the way bac( to Muhammad. H5amples of bio!raphical dictionaries include Ibn )ajar al% s"alani's :TahdhIb al%TahdhIb: or al%?hahabi's :Tadh(irat al%huffG0. which are bac(ed up by too few and often discontinuous references F . lit. Thus bio!raphical analysis &@ilm al% rijGl. Bidespread &mashhur'. which are very widely (nown. Thus the reporters had to cite their reference. it had to be chec(ed by followin! the chain of transmission &isnad'. ll the references in the chain had to have a reputation for honesty and possessin! a !ood retentive memory./1/%4' To establish the authenticity of a particular )adith or report. )adith are classified into three cate!ories1 6ndubitable &mutawatir'. which contains details about the transmitter are scrutini0ed. the reliability &thi"Gt' of the transmitter is assessed. This includes analy0in! their date and place of birth2 familial connections2 teachers and students2 reli!iosity2 moral behaviour2 literary output2 their travels2 as well as their date of death.

)adith are re!arded by traditional Islamic schools of jurisprudence as important tools for understandin! theQur'an and in matters of jurisprudence. vesti!e' usually refers to traditions about the companions and successors. as opposed to the Qur'an. athar &trace. In Islamic terminolo!y. The two main denominations of Islam. thou!h sometimes connotes - . information' often refers to reports about Muhammad. or verbal noun. s tahdith is the infinitive. rather it is a noun. Shi@ism and Sunnism. The rabic plural is aḥādīth. Ather associated words possess similar meanin!s includin!1 khabar &news. $lassical hadith specialist Ibn )ajar al% s"alani says that the intended meanin! of hadith in reli!ious tradition is somethin! attributed to Muhammad. have different sets of )adith collections . the term hadith refers to reports of statements or actions of Muhammad. but sometimes refers to traditions about his companions and their successors from the followin! !eneration2 conversely. therefore. or of his tacit approval of somethin! said or done in his presence. of the ori!inal verb form2 hadith is.th centuries. These wor(s are referred to in matters of Islamic law and history to this day. Definition In rabic the word hadith means that which is new from amon!st thin!s or a piece of information conveyed either in a small "uantity or lar!e. Hadith also refers to the speech of a person.Hadith These wor(s are narrations concernin! the words and deeds of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. )adith were evaluated and !athered into lar!e collections mostly durin! the rei!n of 6mar ibn bdul 0i0 durin! the -th and . not the infinitive.

n e5ample of a )adith Qudsi is the hadith of Muhammad said1 :Bhen 8od decreed the $reation )e pled!ed )imself by writin! in )is boo( which is laid down with )im1 My mercy prevails over My wrath. The word sunnah &custom' is also used in reference to a normative custom of Muhammad or the early Muslim community. Shi@ism and Sunnism. the )adith Qudsi differ from the Qur'an in that the former were revealed in a dream or throu!h revelation and are :expressed in Muhammad's words:. Sacred hadith Hadith Qudsi' &or Sacred Hadith' are a sub%cate!ory of hadith. have different sets of )adith collections. The word occurs fre"uently in the Qur'an &3/ times to be precise' and in all cases it carries the meanin! of a narrative or communication. The two main denominations of Islam.traditions about Muhammad. communication or news consistin! of the factual account of an event. )adith means a narrative. . Jiterally. . Muslims re!ard the Hadith Qudsi as the words of 8od & rabic1 llah'.: bu )urairah who said that are referred to in matters of Islamic law and history to this day. ccordin! to as%Sayyid ash%Sharif al%>urjani. whereas the latter are the : direct words of God:. which are sayin!s of Muhammad. repeated by Muhammad and recorded on the condition of an isnad.

:I heard a companion say. and the chain of narrators &the isnad'. Then the !eneration followin! them received it. The sanad. Sunan al %irmidhi and Sunan ibn Ma&ah. The first people to hear hadith were the companions who preserved it and then conveyed it to those after them. 'I heard the #rophet. Sahih Muslim. includes1 Sahih al !ukhari. literally 'support'. Shi'a Muslims do not use the si5 major )adith collections +E . until mentionin! the ori!inator of the matn alon! with the matn itself.. each mentionin! the one from whom they heard the hadith.: The 9ollower would then say. Jater scholars may have debated the authenticity of particular hadith but the authority of the canon as a whole was not "uestioned. This canon. Sahih al%7u(hari and Sahih Muslim are considered the most reliable of these collections. :I heard someone say. thus conveyin! it to those after them and so on. called the si5 major )adith collections. Sunan "bu #awood.Components of a hadith The two major aspects of a hadith are the te5t of the report &the matn'. In Shia hadith you will often find sermons attributed to li in The 9our 7oo(s or in the =ahj al%7ala!ha.. is so named due to the reliance of the hadith specialists upon it in determinin! the authenticity or wea(ness of a hadith. 'I heard a $ompanion say. "l Sunan al Su$hra. " and so on.': The one after him would then say. The isnad consists of a chronolo!ical list of the narrators. :I heard the #rophet say such and such. which documents the route by which the report has been transmitted. So a companion would say. Shia and Sunni hadith differences The Sunni canon of hadith too( its final form more than 3/E years after the death of Muhammad &</3 ?'. which contains the actual narrative. 'I heard the #rophet.

Hadith as a source of LAW In the early days of Islam followin! the demise of the #rophet. Man la (ahduruhu al )a*ih by Muhammad ibn 7abuyaand "l %ahdhib and "l +stibsar both by Shay(h Muhammad Tusi. whom Shia reject. the #rophet. stories relatin! to the life and activities of the #rophet dominated all other (inds of narratives. so the word be!an to be used almost e5clusively to a narrative from. They are1 'itab al 'afi byMuhammad ibn Ka'"ub al%Lulayni al%Ma0i &/3. are preferred. ?ifferences in hadith collections have contributed to differences in worship practices and shari'a law and have hardened the dividin! line between the two traditions. or a sayin! of. )adith in this sense is the vehicle or the carrier of Sunnah.followed by the Sunni. 6suli Twelver Shi'a scholars do not believe that everythin! in the four major boo(s is authentic. instead. Studies. are seen as unreliable by the Shia2 narrations sourced to li and the family of Muhammad. their primary hadith collections are written by three authors who are (nown as the 'Three Muhammads'. =arrators who too( the side of bu 7a(r and 6mar rather than li. in the disputes over leadership that followed the death of Muhammad. Sunni scholars put trust in narrators. Sunnah thus preferred not only to the )adith of the #rophet but also to the established practice of the ++ . Sunni and Shia hadith collections differ because scholars from the two traditions differ as to the reliability of the narrators and transmitters. such as isha. and to their supporters. pp. althou!h Sunnah is a wider concept and used to be so especially before its literal meanin! !ave way to its juristic usa!e. +%/ O )adith differs from Sunnah in the sense that )adith is a narration of the conduct of the #rophet whereasSunnah is the e5ample or the law that is deduced from it. 6nli(e (hbari Twelver Shi'a. )'. N 0ami.

the direct word of llah &SBT'. )adith which is usually applied also for Sunnah. and the other is the Sunnah or the teachin!s of the #rophet &S B'. The meanin!ful of the Quran is in !eneral in nature.community. The primary source of Islamic law is ?ivine Mevelation. It has been !iven to human(ind by the #rophet Muhammad &S B' in 3 (inds. The Quran and the Sunnah are complimentary. or about his implied approval of somethin! stated or done in his presence. 9ard means somethin! is obli!atory and it must be done2 to ne!lect it without any e5cuse is a sin. hadith consists of two aspects1 the te5t of the report &matn' containin! the actual narrative2 and the chain of narrators &isnad. +3 . the term hadith refers to report about the statements or actions of Muhammad. The Sunnah !ets it specified and particular. In Islamic nomenclature. The Sunnah e5plains the instruction manual of the Quran. the Sunnah is second to fard. Jin!ually the word hadith means that which is fresh from amon!st thin!s or some informations communicated either in a micro amount or lar!e. Sunnah comin! direct from the #rophet in the form of )adith throu!h a reliable chain of narrators is a source of law. ccordin! to Islamic jurists. which documents the route by which the report has been transmitted. or sanad'. is oral custom relatin! to the words and deeds of the Muslim prophet Muhammad saw. the two became synonymous. The Quranic injunction is sometimes implicit and the Sunnah !ets in e5plicit by providin! necessary components and items. Ane is the Quran. 7ut once the literal meanin!s of )adith and Sunnah !ave way to their technical usa!es and were both e5clusively used in reference to the conduct of the #rophet. The Sunnah is divided into confirmed &Sunnah mua((adah' and optional &Sunnah !hair mua((adah'. The #rophet &S B' always acted accordin! to the instructions of llah &SBT'.

)adith Qudsi forms a partial e5ception2 these &few' hadith are said to recount divine revelations !iven to Muhammad but not included in the Qur'an. da'īf &wea('. To deal with the topic it is necessary to (now the position of the #rophet in Islam. but sometimes these are used for different meanin!s. or a wea( report stren!thened due to numerous other corroboratin! reports2 and munkar &i!nored' which is a report that is rejected due to the presence of a solitary and !enerally unreliable transmitter. but in Muhaditheen's terminolo!y )adith means sayin!s of the #rophet. or mawdū' &fabricated'. authentic'. Ather classifications used also include1 hasan &!ood'. Muslims who accept hadith believe that trusted hadith are in most cases the words of Muhammad and not the word of 8od. because the indispensibility of )adith depends upon the position of the #rophet. Meports that pass throu!h many reliable transmitters at each point in the isnad up until their collection and transcription are (nown as mutawGtir. +/ . Sunnah or )adith is the second source from which the teachin!s of Islam are drawn. 7oth sahIh and hasan reports are considered acceptable for usa!e in Islamic le!al discourse.)adith are !enerally cate!ori0ed as sahīh &sound. )owever. the words &as opposed to the substance' are believed to be Muhammad's own. )adith and Sunnah are used interchan!eably. $lassifications of hadith may also be based upon the scale of transmission. Muslims also use the hadith to interpret parts of the Qur'an when verses are not clear or even when verses are clear to achieve an in%depth understandin!. his action or practice of his silent approval of the action or practice. )adith literally means a sayin! conveyed to man. which refers to an otherwise sahIh report sufferin! from minor deficiency. and not divine.

=o doubt he had to convey the ?ivine Messa!e but it was also his duty to act upon it and to e5plain it to the people. by thy Jord.O +4 llah ye have a !ood e5ample for him who llah much. The duty of the #rophet was only to convey the messa!e and nothin! more was re"uired from him. every Muslim is bound to have the !ood e5ample of the #rophet as an ideal in life. The learned men of the Muslim Millat are of the unanimous view that only the third point is the correct assessment of the #rophet's position in Islam. =o one remains Muslim if he does not accept the #rophet's decisions and jud!ements1 :7ut no. /.:N n%=isa1 <. 3. )is sayin!s. they can have no real faith until they ma(e thee jud!e in all disputes between them and find in their souls no resistance a!ainst thy decisions but accept them with the fullest conviction. 9or instance the Qur'an says1 : nd verily in the messen!er of loo(eth unto /+O ccordin! to this verse. )is actions and e5planations are a source of !uidance forever. In another verse he has been made a ')a(am' for the Muslims by llah lmi!hty. )e had not only to convey the messa!e but also to act upon it and to e5plain it. actions.naly0in! the problem we can visuali0e three possibilities1 +. practices and e5planations are a source of li!ht for every Muslim in every a!e. 7ut all that was for the specified period and after his death Qur'an is sufficient to !uide humanity. The Qur'an contains do0ens of reminders of the important position of the #rophet.: N l% h0ab llah and the last day and remembereth .

:N n%=ahl1 44O :9or he commands them what is just and forbids them what isevil2 he allows them as lawful what is !ood and pure andprohibits them from what is bad and +. he is a law%!iver and jud!e. sanctifyin! them in scripture andwisdom while. in order that )e may jud!e between them.: N l%)ashr1 FO Qur'an is very clear in e5pressin! its view on the position of the #rophet. before that.O and :Bhatever the Messen!er !iveth you ta(e it and whatever he forbiddeth abstain from it. is no other than this1 They say1 we hear llah.: N n%=isa . : llah did confer a !reat favour on the believers when )e sentamon! them an apostle from amon! themselves rehearsin! untothem the si!ns of manifest error..Bhile e5plainin! the "ualities of Muslims the Qur'an says1 :The answer of the believers. llah and )is apostle. and he is a ruler. I am "uotin! a few verses of the )oly 7oo( just to !ive a hint of this topic. when summoned to and we obey.+O In many places the Qur'an has !iven its verdict on this issue.: N n%=ur1 . )e is Mu@allim wa Murabbee he is Shaari@ one who e5plains the 7oo(. The Qur'an says1 :Abey llah and obey the Messen!er. ccordin! to the Qur'an the #rophet has four capacities and he must be obeyed in every capacity. In all these capacities he is an ideal e5ample for the Muslims.: N l%Imran1 +<4O : nd Be have sent down unto thee the Messa!e that thou mayest e5plain clearly to men what is sent for them. they had been in .

I am reminded of another important verse of the Qur'an. if you believe in llah and the last day.impure. +< . which is actually a verdict a!ainst those who do not believe in )adith as an authentic source of law1 :If any one contends with the #rophet even after !uidance hasbeen plainly conveyed to him. and follows a path other than that becomin! to men of faith.: N l% raf1 +. he is indeed on a clearly wron! path.: N n%=isa1 . Ane can jud!e the importance of the #rophet from these verses.: N l% disobeys h0ab1 /<O In all these verses. Be shall leave him in the path he has chosen and land him in )ell. )e releases them from their heavy burdens and from the yo(es that are upon them..O :It is not fittin! for a believer. and those char!ed with authority amon! you. who is to be obeyed at every cost.: N n%=isa1 ++EO The Qur'an while pressin! the Muslims to obey the #rophet. the Qur'an has e5plained various aspects of the #rophets personality. )adith is nothin! but a reflection of the personality of the #rophet.FO :A you who believeP Abey llah and obey the apostle. !oes a step further when it announces that the #rophethood of Muhammad &peace be upon him' is above all the limitations of time and space. what an evil refu!e. If ye differ in anythin! amonst yourselves refer it to llah and )is postle. )e is the last #rophet and is a Messen!er of llah for the whole of humanity for all time to come. man or woman when a matterhas been decided by llah and )is apostle to have any optionabout their decision. If any one llah and )is apostle.

The details were !enerously supplied by the #rophet himself. and they were repeatedly revealed in both Mecca and Madina. Leep up prayers &a"imoo as%salaah the Qur'anic injunction and it was the +F . The Sunnah or )adith of the )oly #rophet was not. no details were supplied. either by showin! in his practice how an injunction shall be carried out.ny student of the Qur'an will see that the )oly 7oo( !enerally deals with the broad principles or essentials of reli!ion. as is !enerally supposed. for it was very much needed in his lifetime. !oin! into details in very rare cases. The two most important reli!ious institutions of Islam are prayer and 0a(at2 yet when the injunction relatin! to prayer and 0a(at were delivered. or by !ivin! an e5planation in words. a thin! of which the need may have been felt only after his death.

but too( the opportunity of puttin! his teachin!s into practice in all the important affairs of life.: #ayment of 0a(ah is a!ain an injunction fre"uently repeated in the Qur'an yet it was the #rophet &peace be upon him' who !ave the rules and re!ulations for its payment and collection. To "uote ?r. maintainin! internal peace and order. )e lived for twenty three years after his appointment as the Messen!er of llah. jud!in! and decidin! the liti!ations of his subjects. punishin! the criminals and le!islatin! in all wal(s of life. but one thin! must be stated clearly that there were cases when the #rophet.#rophet himself who by his own actions !ave details of the prayer and said1 &Salloo (amaa ra'aytamoonee usaallee' :#ray as you see me prayin!. I "uote only one of the many e5amples1 that of Mu@a0 ibn >abal who said to the #rophet that he would decide accordin! to the Sunnah if he did not find the solution of a problem in the 7oo(. made a personal effort to formulate opinion throu!h his own wisdom. which he scrupulously practiced himself. The 6lama have discussed the "uestion of )adith in detail as a :wahyun (hafee: and prophetic wisdom. )e married and left a model of +- . hundreds of points had to be e5plained by the #rophet &peace be upon him' by his e5ample in action and in words. Hither it was corrected by revelation or it was approved. I do not want to !o into the details. )e founded a state. not havin! received a revelation. which he administered as the supreme head. The importance of the Sunnah even as a second source of Islam was a settled issue for the $ompanions of the #rophet. )amidullah1 :The importance of )adith is increased for the Muslim by the fact that the #rophet Muhammad &peace be upon him' not only tau!ht. headin! armies for e5ternal defense. These are but two e5ample2 but since Islam covers the entire sphere of human activities. )e endowed his community with a reli!ion.

practice ctually )adith is so important that without it one cannot fully understand the )oly 7oo( and Islam or be able to apply it to one's life and +. who embraced Islam stood in need of both the Qur'an and the Sunnah. but a detailed interpretation and application of his teachin!s. .family life.: &Introduction to Islam pa!e 3/' The man. )is practice was not mere private conduct. nother important fact is that he did not declare himself to be above the ordinary law which he imposed on others. therefore.

: &Mahman. a vivid panorama. )adith became the vehicle not only of le!al norms abut of reli!ious beliefs and principles as well. however.e. many scholars believe that ahadith were not compiled in authoritative collections until the middle of the ninth century.': &Mernissi. his responses to Muslims* "uestions or re"uests. 4. they loo(ed to the hadith for #rophetic !uidance. a means of searchin! out what was or not acceptable in areas where the Quran had not left specific rulin!s. as well as his silent or tacit approval of acts he had (nowled!e of. There is. i. !eared as it was to behavioral norms.' >ust as durin! his life. one also finds side by side subjects as different as 'how to perform one's ablutions. an ijtihad which had its source in individual opinion but which in course of time and after tremendous stru!!les and conflicts a!ainst heresies and e5treme sectarian opinion received the sanction of Ijma. :by which time a 3E . /. in fact. such as his opinions or decisions on issues. the adherence of the majority of the $ommunity.' and 'what is to be done in case of civil war. e5tremely varied because there are various versions of the same event. )owever. the earlier livin! Sunnah was reflected in the mirror of the )adith with the necessary addition of chains of narrators. p. nothin! but the Sunna%Ijtihad of the first !enerations of Muslims.Difference between sunna and hadith :The majority of the contents of the hadith corpus is. Muslims could !o the #rophet for answers2 after his death.' 'how to behave on one's weddin! ni!ht. one major difference1 whereas Sunnah was lar!ely and primarily a practical phenomenon. 9inally. :The hadith sayin!s are in fact a veritable panorama of daily life in the seventh century.' The hadith constitute the recordin! in writin! everythin! that #rophet Muhammad was to have said. In other words.

3+ . <' The sunna of the #rophet differs from the hadith in that .!reat mass of diverse ahadith reflected the variety of le!al opinion developed over the past two centuries of juristic reasonin! in the le!al schools. Meco!nition that the hadith literature included many fabrications led to a concerted effort to distin!uish more clearly authentic traditions.: &Hsposito.

. 7hartiya. .comQodQlawQaQsources. llahabad Jaw !ency http1QQwww. Meprinted 3E+E.about. S.BIBLIOGRAPHY Syed Lhalid Mashid*s Muslim Jaw.mwlusa. Hastern 7oo( $ompany Muslim Jaw.htm http1QQwww.comQarticleQl/E3%Sources%of%Islamic%Jaw.M.th Hdition. V. )abibi.or!QtopicsQsourcesQsources.#.html 33 .html http1QQislam.le!alserviceindia.