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UNIVERSITY OF LINCOLN ENGLISH REFERENCING GUIDE This is short version of the Modern Humanities Research Association reference guide

. The full version can be accessed at t!le"uide.html section ## . 1.Within your essay • $talicise: titles of novels% pla!s% critical books% &ournals% ne'spapers% and films. ()amples: Jane Eyre% The Tempest% Critical Practice% Modern Drama% Guardian, Pulp Fiction. Place in inverted commas : titles of all articles *'hether in &ournals or in book collections+% poems and short stories. ()amples: ,-ola and the Political .ovel/% ,"oblin Market/% ,Ho' the k! "ot a Hole in $t/. . Re!eren"es to #ri$ary an% Se"on%ary Sour"es &'oo(s an% arti")es* 0our !irst detailed reference to an! primar! or secondar! source should be follo'ed b! a footnote giving !u)) +u')i"ation %etai)s of the source% and the page number% as belo'. Su'se,uent references to the same +ri$ary or sour"e can be given 'ithin the bod! of !our essa!1 and subse2uent references to the same se"on%ary sour"e should be follo'ed b! a footnote 'ith a short re!eren"e *see section 3 belo' hort References+. (nsure !ou follo' the correct order of presentation% including correct punctuation. ..B. the footnote should be inserted at the end of the sentence in 'hich ,!our 2uotation/ appears.# For re!eren"es to e-'oo(s. see se"tion / 'e)o0. Books *both primar! and secondar! sources+ "ive author forename and surname% title in italics% publisher place/compan!/date in brackets% then page number*s+% as follo's: •


Fran( 1"Court. Angela’s Ashes: A Memoir of a Childhood &Lon%on2 F)a$in3o. 1445*. +. 6/.

7. 1ann. Chaucer and Medieval Estates Satire &Ca$'ri%3e2 Ca$'ri%3e Uni8ersity #ress. 1456*. ++. //-/9. $f there is an editor as 'ell as an author% put the editor/s name after the book title:


Char)es Di"(ens. Hard Times. e%. 'y #au) S"h)i(e &O:!or%2 O:!or% Uni8ersity #ress. 14;4*. +. 91. $f it is part of a multi4volume set% put total volumes after the book title% and include volume number *in Roman numerals+ as 'ell as page number at the end:


/ H. Ste+hen D. +.B. >4-59 &+.R. >*. $f the book is a revised edition% put the edition number after the title: 9 E)aine Sho0a)ter. ++. in The 'ineteenth(Centur) 'ovel: A Critical *eader . Please note differences in details of presentation from article in a book: 1= Laura #atterson. 1444*. e%. 1=6*. &+.6*. Article in a &ournal "ive author forename% surname% article title in inverted commas *. I.6 &S+rin3 1449*. e%. 9-// &+.5T italics+% title of &ournal% volume number% date in brackets% page numbers occupied b! the article% then finall! !our specific page reference in brackets. 1unro Cha%0i"( an% N. +. ?On the 1ar3in2 #ost$o%ernis$. Ironi" History. 146 -/=*. ometimes the volume is subdivided into numbers% 'hen a &ournal publishes more than one number per !ear. 'y Ste+hen Re3an &Lon%on2 Rout)e%3e. ?The O""i%enta) Tourist2 "racula an% the Cn:iety o! Re8erse Co)onisationA. *. $f there is a book or pla! title appearing 'ithin the article title% remember to italicise it: . The Growth of Literature. 'y Cn%re0 1ous)ey &@asin3sto(e2 1a"$i))an. />=*. an% 1e%ie8a) Stu%iesA. ?Chau"er an% @o""a""ioAs Latin Wor(sA. ?DThis Fe$inine #reser8eE2 Histori"a) @io3ra+hies 'y Vi"torian Wo$enA. A Literature of Their Own: rom Charlotte !ronte to "oris Lessing . e%. in Sha$es%eare& A%hra !ehn and the Canon .. . Poems 6 . 16. 19*.5T italics+% . 1444*.B. 14. 6-6= &+. ++. ho' volume and number as follo's: 11 Rohan 1aitBen. ?The I%ea o! the CanonA. .. ?DOh. in Chaucer and the #talian Trecento.. 'y W. 144>*.5-1=. >9 &144=*. n% e%n Article in a critical book "ive author forename and surname% article title in single inverted commas *. 6 8o)s &Ca$'ri%3e2 Ca$'ri%3e Uni8ersity #ress. $f there is a 2uotation 'ithin the article title% the 2uotation should be 'ithin double inverted commas% 'hile the 'hole article title remains in single inverted commas: 4 C"hsah Gui''ory. <ersha0 Cha%0i"(. 'y #ao)o @oitani &Ca$'ri%3e2 Ca$'ri%3e Uni8ersity #ress. S%eculum. &Lon%on2 Vira3o #ress. ++. 6. ++.ictorian Studies. )et $ee not ser8e soE2 The #o)iti"s o! Lo8e in DonneAs title of book in 'hich the article appears% editor name*s+% publication details% page numbers 'hich the article occupies in the book% then finall! !our specific page reference in brackets: > #hi)i+ Go%$an. O0ens an% LiB'eth Goo%$an &Lon%on2 Rout)e%3e.-/>/ &+. e%. /9. . in +ohn "onne: Contem%orar) Critical Essa)s. 6. 5/*. 651-646 &+. . ==1*. 5 LiB'eth Goo%$an. 1//-9. Crata.

14. +.*G &Heaney.5*. +. /. 66/-4*.1*. IV. . 3 . +.g. . 7or primar! te)ts% this can be given 'ithin !our script% in brackets: &Di"(ens. III.-5/*. )). 6. >4-1. 65=-65/. Pla!s $talicise the pla! title1 give numbers of act *in Roman numerals+% scene *in Arabic numerals+ and line numbers% if these are available% instead of page numbers: 19 Wi))ia$ Sha(es+eare. +. ). II. in The -oems of *o3ert Henr)son& e%. II./00(. 6. 9. The 4inter’s Tale. 144>*. in !our essa! !ou refer to t'o 'orks b! the same author+% include a short form of the title as 'ell/instead: &Oliver Twist. $f the poem is long% remember to include the pages 'hich the poem occupies in the volume% as 'ell as !our specific page and line reference: 1/ Ro'ert Henryson. hort stories Present as an article in a book% including pages occupied b! the 'hole stor! in the collection% as 'ell as !our specific page reference: 16 Geor3e E)iot. 1/>. 14.Present as an articles in a book% e)cept that !ou also have to include the line number: 1 Sea$us Heaney. #ress. 9=->9 &+. 9=. ?@)a"('erry-#i"(in3A. ). This is usuall! &ust author surname and page number. ?1r Gi)!i)As Lo8e StoryA. . in Scenes of Clerical Life &Lon%on2 Dent F Sons. . 1/*G &Chur"hi)). 144=*. ++. ?@)a"('erry-#i"(in3A. Serious Mone) &Lon%on2 1ethuen. ). Short Re!eren"es 5nce !ou have given the full source details in !our first reference% subse2uent references should be given in short form. 145>*. 94. 'y Ernest S"hanBer. n% e%n &Lon%on2 #en3uin. 194*G &Heaney. $f the pla! does not have line/scene numbers% give as much information as possible% but add the page number as 'ell: 1> Cary) Chur"hi)). $f there is an! possibilit! of confusion *e./12 &Lon%on2 Fa'er an% Fa'er. 9=*. 1/*G &Hamlet.The Lion an% the 1ouseA. in Seamus Heane): 'ew Selected -oems . ++. +. e%. 'y Dere( Fo: &O:!or%2 O:!or% Wor)%As C)assi"s. . 59*. &+.

6. ?The Lan3ua3e o! Cary) Chur"hi))2 The Rhyth$s o! Fe$inist Theory. $f !ou do'nload a free cop! of a 'ork *$M Ja""esse% 4 Se+te$'er ==>K &+ara 6 o! 15*.7or secondar! te)ts% the short reference to an article or book should be given in a !ootnote: 15 1aitBen. re)ease% /I. "h. C"tin3 Theory. 1. / -6. ++. from Pro&ect "utenberg or $nternet Archive+% the source should also suppl! edition details. 4omen 4riters 'etwor$ Jon)ineK 7u)y 1444 Lhtt+2II000. +. Cu$$in3s. 5nline ources *'eb4based &ournals% and online databases including full4te)t primar! sources+ 7ollo' the rules for print versions as far as possible: give author% title of the item% title of the complete source in italics% :online. 7ilm and Television Programmes "ive title *in italics+% director *for film+% then distributor and date in brackets: @ .I =1=*.% publication details% plus <full =R> address? :date accessed.E. in Literature Online htt+2II)ion. ?$a33ie an% $i))y an% $o))y an% $ayA. Again% if there is an! possibilit! of confusion *e.netIe%itoria)sI#ri"eE%1. +."ha%0i"(."o$I8ie0Iarti")eI 44>>M Ja""esse% 6= 7une ==4K. (4books *as accessed on (4book readers such as 8indle+ 7ollo' the rules on print books as far as possible: if !ou have purchased an e4version of a particular edition% give author% title of the 'ork% and publishing details.6*.u( Ja""esse% 9 7une ==4K &). in !our essa! !ou refer to t'o 'orks b! the same author+% include a short form of the title as 'ell: 14 Sho0a)ter."o. 1//. $f it is a te)t version *'ith no fi)ed page numbers+% then suppl! chapter and paragraph number: FranB <a!(a. ?E$$a 7ane Wor'oiseA. 1ann. /.g. #ri"e. Re!eren"in3 Other Sour"es &1ore e:a$+)es o! %i3ita) $e%ia are in 1HRC on-)ine 3ui%e*. +ara 16.o:!or%%n'. $f no specific edition is listed% use the release date. O5ford "ictionar) of !iogra%h) Jon)ineK O"to'er ==/ Lhtt+2II000. >.0o$en0riters. Metamor%hosis &#roHe"t Guten'er3. $f !our 'ork is a P97 version of an original% then this gives page numbers.6. an% Gen%er #o)iti"sA. E.% then page number in brackets if available% or paragraph number if not: 7ohn C. 1 = 14 @rett Harrison. A Literature of Their Own.g.

• Put surname of main author/editor first. +. 14. 'y 7ohn For% &T0entieth-Century Fo:. • 7or poems and short stories% cite the collection rather than the individual item. >eave in the pages occupied b! the item in &ournals and collections of essa!s. E:a$+)e @i')io3ra+hy Doctor Who *BBA Television% 6BBC+. > -14=/A &un+u')ishe% 9. "ail) Telegra%h & = 7anuary == *. ==9*. . ++. • $f !ou have an item 'ithout an author/editor% lead 'ith the title% alphabeticall! ordered. 9 / =npublished Theses/9issertations "ive name% . 1.. Guardian.e'spaper Articles "ive author name% article title% publication title% date% and page number: 7ohn Si$+son. • >ist items in alphabetical order of author/editor surname. %issertation !or the Uni8ersity o! Lei"ester.title/% state if BA/MA/MPhil/Ph9 Thesis/ 9issertation% =niversit!% date% page number: Hiro(o To$i%a.The Gra%es of 4rath. C . 14/=*. ?The Wo$an an% the Hour2 Fran"es #o0er Co''e 1.@i')io3ra+hy This should appear on a separate page at the end of !our essa!. se"tion G . %ir. 7onathan Frie%)an%. &19 7anuary ==>*. #hi). 6 "octor 4ho &@@C Te)e8ision. 19.*. ?C"ross the Di8i%eA. • $nclude ever! item that !ou have referenced in !our essa!. / . ?Vi"torAs 7usti"e He)+s Re8i8e the @eaten 1onsterA. • $nclude all the details that are in !our first full reference% but remove !our specific page reference number/line numbers. 1=11. +.

+% The Grapes o! Wrath *T'entieth4Aentur! 7o)% #E@B+.-*+. b! J.The $dea of the Aanon/% in ha#espeare. 7riedland% Honathan% . 5ctober 6BB@ <http://'''./ *>ondon: 7aber and 7aber% #EEB+% p.5n the Margin: Postmodernism% $ronic Histor!% and Medieval tudies/% peculum% GC *#EEB+% KF4#BK.The >anguage of Aar!l Ahurchill: the Rh!thms of 7eminist Theor!% Acting Theor!% and "ender Politics/% Women Writers (et)or# G .The Joman and the Hour: 7rances Po'er Aobbe #K664#EB@/ *unpublished M. McAourt% 7rank% $ngela0s $shes1 $ Memoir o! a Childhood *>ondon: 7lamingo% #EEF+. ho'alter% (laine% $ "iterature o! Their &)n1 From Charlotte %ronte to Doris "essing% 6nd edn *>ondon: Lirago Press% #EEE+. $phra %ehn and the Canon% ed. "oodman% >iIbeth% . 343B.. 7ord% Hohn *dir. dissertation for the =niversit! of >eicester% #EKK+.% . 66 Hul! #EEE <http://'''. Patterson% >aura% . Harrison% Brett% .(liot% "eorge% cenes o! Clerical "i!e *>ondon: 9ent D ons% #EFG+.'omen'riters.. b! (rnest chanIer% 6nd edn *>ondon: Penguin% #EEG+. Heane!% eamus% (e) elected Poems *+. Tomida% Hiroko% .htm? :accessed 6E eptember'/article/6EEGG? :accessed 3B Hune 6BBE.. hakespeare% Jilliam% The Winter0s Tale% ed. Price% Hohn A. 5'ens and >iIbeth "oodman *>ondon: Routledge% #EEG+% pp. #B4##.Across the 9ivide/% Guardian% *#C Hanuar! 6BBG+ section "6% pp.(mma Hane Jorboise/% &'!ord Dictionary o! %iography :on4line. Phil.C.

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