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STUDENTS: Celeste Calzolari 779725 Mathieu Gorris 784647 Silvia Sanasi 778497 Sara Sciuccati 778099

PHYSICAL TRANSFORMATION OF AMSTERDAM 1. 1. In 1839 the first railway-line of the Netherlands was realized from . One of the most important elements in the success of the Dutch trading culture was the foundation of the VOC (Verenigde Oost-Indische Companie) in 1602. therefore this epoch was crucial for the city’s development in the future and it is explanatory for the limited impact that Industrial Revolution had in the Netherlands. Thanks to the positive effects that industrialization and the development of colonial commerce had on the Netherlands. In 1675 the estimated population of Amsterdam reached 206. Already in the beginning of the existence of Amsterdam. Paris and Naples lived a comparable amount of people. After these few decades.1. In 1700. where nowadays Nassaukade and Stadhouderskade are now located. the increase of the population in Amsterdam was impressive.000 inhabitants. was of unprecedented prosperity for Amsterdam. In this chapter we will analyze the chronological development of the city in terms of morphology. Amsterdam had to face an epoch of decline due to the English Maritime Wars and the French invasion by Napoleon I. though. in the surroundings of the existing canal belt a working-class neighborhood called De Jordaan was realized in western direction. Especially from 1870.1 AMSTERDAM. namely the construction of the first canal belt in 1613. thanks to the settlement of the leftwing government.000 citizens. The modern age also assisted to a demographic growth and expansion of the city. originally “Amesterdamme. Keizersgracht and Prinsengracht. the 17th century was particularly prosperous and led to the first and probably most consistent increase of population and physical expansion of the city where the system of canals is dominant.” suggests the origin of the city: a dam in the river Amstel. Zuidas. Finally we are going to analyze the contemporary age. a period of expansion for the city of Amsterdam occurred.3 MODERN HISTORY (19th -20th CENTURY) Between the very end of 18th century until the early 19th century. Three large canals were dug in western direction: Herengracht. During this period Amsterdam experienced an economic recession. that around 1570 counted less than 30. a number of detailed transformation projects for the development of the new financial district. jews and ‘free-thinkers’ could live together in a coherent way and could stay true to their own beliefs and different opinions. As a result the population doubled from around 250.000 inhabitants in 1850 to 510. First of all the so called the “Golden age”.2 THE GOLDEN AGE . trying to understand also the economical and demographic conditions that influenced expansions and the creation of plans and infrastructures. in particular the administrative system. in the 17th century. 1. The city. which will rule on Amsterdam for the rest of its history: catholics. the city was characterized by a mixture of different people and especially in this period acquired a distinctly cosmopolitan character. since the 17th century a tradition of freedom and tolerance has been present. A MODEL OF CITY PLANNING Amsterdam is the capital of the Netherlands and is located in the province of Noord-Holland. Given this extreme economic growth and possibilities.000 inhabitants. new trading relations and routes were realized and new types of industries were created. on the south bank of the river IJ. in 1620 reached 100. therefore number of plans were drawn up in this period. Therefore the city developed rapidly and underwent a significant urban expansion. Only in London.000 inhabitants. reflected by the stagnation of the demographic development. Furthermore. protestants.17TH CENTURY The Golden Age. The canals functioned as a fortification and a wall was built behind them. initially thanks to the industrial revolution. The great innovation of this period is represented by the necessity of creating a general masterplan in order to control the expansion.000 in 1900. In fact it settled as a small fishing village in the 13th century. The name Amsterdam. again a physical expansion of the city was required. Therefore. Three main periods particularly influenced the physical transformation of the city. the Industrial Revolution started to influence the city. In 1810 the population declined to 180. Also in the next chapter we will show an overview of the population and in the last one.

and the new blocks were meant to clearly define the urban structure. in 1874 a law allowing districts to be built outside the confinement was approved. Due to the 1875 project by Kalf. The 1910’s expansion of the harbor was the starting point of a new plan: the municipality decided to provide new neighborhoods and houses for the needier classes. Amsterdam was home for many Jewish families escaping from other Dutch cities which had been strongly influenced by the anti-Jewish policy adopted by the Nazis. Therefore. It’s worth of consideration that the Amsterdam Zuid plan of 1921 greatly follows these principles and implementation methods. the 1929 worldwide crisis caused a halt of the construction activity. a passage towards the North Sea. thanks also to the Amsterdam Olympic Games of the same year which helped the relaunch of construction activity. extending orthogonally in two directions. Big typological innovation were embodied. Unfortunately. the expansion of the city was critical and the implementation plans were not sufficient anymore. Kalf proposed a ring of development around the cluster following. This way the old city became the core of this cluster of four different patterns: Amsterdam West . playing on an orthogonal system based on two directions. Since the migration from the countryside to the city. which functioned as a direct connection between the harbors of the capital and the sluices of IJmuiden. going from west to east and preventing the fusion of the new neighborhoods by using some green areas to divide them. A masterplan for Amsterdam was needed.Mercatorplein was built in 1925 . which main axis Hoofdweg. All this cluster is enclosed by four main elements: the Amstel and the Vondelpark in the southern part. in 1875 the Noordzeekanaal canal was built. Furthermore the plan abandoned the radiocentric form. almost completely wiping out the Jewish community. and more than 100. the city suffered from the global economic recession. while other forms of compensation and restitution only came much later in time. as street layout. with the creation of a square and location of public facilities and businesses. leaving to private real estate developers the possibility to manage by themselves the building construction. there were efforts to build more houses to accommodate the fast-growing population. Unfortunately. Because of the population growth a new plan was required to be comprehensive with the whole municipal territory and with a fifty years contemplation.000. approved in 1917.the garden city built by D. Amsterdam’s economy flourished up until the 1920s. surrounded by the Amstelkanaal. with the new expansion plan a geometrical problem came up: the junction of two direction axes. These reasons clearly led to a physical expansion of the city. some new projects were launched starting from 1933. starting to organize the new expansion according to the principle of separated functions and in continuity with the existing city. During World War II. intentionally ignored the grid created by Kalf’s plan. the irrigation grid of the pre-existing rural plot subdivision. Jews who returned from the concentration camps were faced with neglect and sometimes outright hostility: possessions and buildings were given back with a really slow pace. mostly around 1950. The new Algemeen Uitbreidingsplan (master plan) was prepared in 1928. was considerable. which was easily solved with the monumental construction of the Rijksmuseum. with a special monumental approach for the ones facing the square.with the garden cities of Buiksloterham and Nieuwendammerham.Amsterdam Zuid.Amsterdam to Haarlem. and the connection of this shape to a new development pattern. The plan by Berlage. German troops occupied the city in 1940.and Amsterdam Noord . order to take benefits from these expansions. Amsterdam Oost .the area of Bos en Lommer. . Greiner . the city had to provide a modern harbor. By 1930 the population of Amsterdam is nearly 757. creating a self-standing urban structure reminding to the canal order of the old city. The settlement was fanshaped. for example the facade design played an important role as filter between external and indoor spaces.000 Jews were deported. In fact. In addition. During the two following decades. It only concerned the street layout. After the end of the war. the IJ and the harbor in the northern part. The housing construction problem was carried out in a totally different way compared to the previous plan. resulting in the 19th century belt created by Jan Kalf in 1875. in order to realize 10000 new housing units.

the Zuidas has recently become the main financial and legal hub. which drives the Dutch economy. namely 177. which is the biggest and most important in Europe. connecting the northern and southern part of the city. From the 60’s many guest workers. namely Rotterdam. Nowadays the capital counts 790. mainly from Turkey. as we will mention in the last chapter. therefore. The project was meant to attract a large number of suburban population and the buildings had different characteristics in respect to the traditional dutch ones. which will be ready in 2017: the Noord/Zuidlijn. Amsterdam is building new projects in order to expand the capacity of the infrastructures such as the Weststrandweg. located close to the central station. though it can't compete with the capacity of the main harbor of the Netherlands. the Gaasperdammerweg and the enlargement of the A10-Zuid. while formulating their own regulation plans they are not allowed to be in conflict with a higher level. together with the harbors of Antwerp (Belgium) and Hamburg (Germany). with a series of identical high-rise buildings organized in a hexagonal grid. the transportation of goods. Nonetheless. We will analyze the demographic situation of the city in depth in the next chapter.5% foreign citizens. This is one of the biggest and most important airports in Europe. located on the east side of the municipality. is an important element for both economical and infrastructural reasons. is of great importance. Generally the plans sought to address social problems and make Amsterdam more livable. 1. After completing the project in 2017 they expect 200. The responsibilities of municipalities are characterized by autonomy of action within their own areas. an interesting project built on six artificial islands on the IJmeer.000 users a day. More recently the city developed IJburg. The Port of Amsterdam. In the Netherlands there are three layers of government. Nowadays. Each level has its roles set out in the constitution and all levels are involved regarding implementing plans. Each level has independent legislative and administrative powers under the overall supervision of the central state and. especially connecting the new suburb of Bijlmer and the center of Amsterdam. Since few middleclass people wanted to live there. immigrated to Amsterdam and settled mainly in the Bijlmer and. 1. after Surinam obtained independence in 1975. the Zuidas. and the supervision of the allowed budget which needs approval of the provinces. The first connection by subway was created in 1977. a relevant flux of Surinamese immigrants followed. located in Westpoort. On the other hand the different functions were seen as separate activities and for this reason the new area was seen ad bland and unattractive. a second Coentunnel. provincial and municipal level. and developed the "White Plans". Amsterdam is the city that hosts the most different nationalities in the world. In fact. the original plan was not totally realized. Amsterdam is the financial and business capital of the Netherlands and it is also one of the reference points of International Business in Europe. has the same function of transporting goods. Provinces have elected governments and their role can be described as one of intermediary and coordinator. . located south-west of Amsterdam.5 SYSTEM We can investigate this kind of organization studying more in depth the Dutch Model. The original project looked very impressive. fully underground subway-line. can be described as a decentralized unitary state. Therefore they play an important role in economical and physical planning and environmental matters within their region. In 2002 they started the construction of a new. namely on the fifth position regarding the flow of passengers and on the third regarding cargo. which makes it the most important infrastructural element of the city by far.044 inhabitants.6% of the total amount in the Netherlands. a really important element in the Dutch logistics. namely on national. Schiphol Airport.4 THE CONTEMPORARY AGE One of the relevant results of Amsterdam major urban expansion in the 1960s is Bijlmer neighborhood. Especially the connection with the business-district.As we have already seen. with the PvdA as the biggest party. also many tourists during the year come to visit Amsterdam with cruise-ships using the Amsterdam Passenger Terminal on the IJ-river. with a percentage of 50. We already mentioned their responsibilities and autonomies. Amsterdam has always been dominated by a left-winged government. The political wing of the Provos won a seat on the city council of Amsterdam. compared to 20. an interesting planning system in the european reality.

polders and finally dykes (dams). Difficulties encountered in making land usable encouraged the concentration of buildings. Obtained land was first cultivated and only in the period that we are talking about used also for construction: dykes need to be watched over for at least five years before the construction of buildings and then checked by the municipality periodically to guarantee the safety. Therefore. therefore. and. because their concentration guaranteed stability. uses a special system. 1. so the proper existence of land. before buildings. Map showing the expansion of the city (13th-20th century) . the canals create a very clear urban structure. By means of drainage. This means that decisions on building construction are taken out of private hands. has the possibility to acquire its land. in which the absence of flexibility is an important point of discussion. This condition affects the relationship between the state and the private developers. The land problem is created by the fact that Amsterdam is situated below the sea level. due to this kind of interventions. land can be obtained. For example. Amsterdam owns 75% of its territory. allowing an economical and logical distribution of the space.6 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES AND LAND CONDITIONS AFFECTING CITY PLANNING Typical Dutch technical constraints in city planning have given a particular aspect to land problems in Amsterdam.The Dutch system is described as a comprehensive and strong one. depends on a technical intervention. In Amsterdam. service it and sell or lease it to private developers. Amsterdam (just like Rotterdam).

. which were ‘abandoned’ by these Amsterdam natives. The capital Amsterdam is the city with the highest number of inhabitants. Therefore. young professionals and artists moved into neighborhoods such as de Pijp and the Jordaan. in this category there is a decrease in the amount of population.2 MIGRATION OF AMSTERDAM In Amsterdam we analyzed several phenomena of migration. While focussing on the immigration of different age categories (graph on the left).044. Because of this. The density of dwellings in Amsterdam is 2. namely 177. AMSTERDAM POPULATION 2.1 INTRODUCTION The Netherlands is the most dense country in the world with 477 inhabitants per square kilometers of land. This amount is more than half of the total domestic flux and two times the amount of the same people that moved out of the city. Amsterdam is the city with the highest amount of different nationalities in the world. The immigration (light blue line) has been increasing since 2001 and is now. exceeding the flux of people moving out of the city.401 per square kilometer with an average of two inhabitants per dwelling. the amount of people moving out is greater than the flux moving in. with a density rate of 4. in 2012. The main reason for emigrating is the start of a family.3% of the people living in Amsterdam don’t have a Dutch origin.2. starting with 20-29 years. During those years these cities were subjected to transformations according to a governmental urban plan. Regarding the migration of inhabitants with Dutch origins in relation with other municipalities in the Netherlands. we can also conclude that this is in relation with the age category of 0-9. The main reasons for this flux is work and study. there were 15. Regarding the age category of 30-39.000 people moving from an other municipality towards Amsterdam in 2006. such as Almere and Purmerend. This plan promoted suburbanization and realized new developments in the so called "groeikernen" (cores of growth).000 people a year move outwards. therefore.791 per square kilometers. shown in the graph on the right with the dark blue line. Around 30. 2. In the 80's there was a particular migration of inhabitants of Amsterdam towards new cities nearby. there’s a flux going outwards which stayed more or less equal since 1996. 50. namely 790.

though it has been different in the past. which stated that the Netherlands is not a migration country and it will never become in the future. A urgent housing problem emerged: a settlement program was stated and municipalities had to take in a number of Surinamese families. High unemployment rates were soon replaced. The Dutch government had some hesitation about accepting their settlement in the Netherlands but the population tried to give to their children a high level of education in the Dutch school system.In the graph shown on the right the reasons are given why Dutch natives move to Amsterdam: family migration has been the most important which can easily be connected to reasons for migration regarding work. In 1972 the immigration got a high increase and it reached 51. became an enclave of newly arrived Surinamese. Consequently. letting the citizens travel without restrictions. The Surinamese Immigration The population of Suriname was made of African slaves. ‘Het Statuut door het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden’ of 1954 is a constitutional law regulating the Dutch West Indies' economy and stipulating that there was only one citizenship in the whole kingdom. The kids received Dutch education. . and a big number of returnees had migrated back to the Netherlands again. and most of them never went back to Suriname. Because of the disbelief the country had to migration flows. Even when the Turkish and Moroccan families of the labourers began settling. The return rate of the Surinamese to their mother-country had never been higher than 3%. In 1975 110. In 1966 13. the “beat the ban rush” phenomenon: people wanted to migrate as quick as possible.000. and they developed favorable economic conditions. During WWII the flow interrupted but.000. with an average educational level and a integrated residential pattern. it started again during the 50s. A huge migration rate compared to the total population of Suriname of 385. soon melted to the Europeans who moved. Their children received an education in their own language and culture. intended to house the Dutch working classes and remained empty because of the questionable design taste used. they drawn up the Buitenlandse Arbeiders of 1970.3 IMMIGRATION FLOWS OF FOREIGNERS TO AMSTERDAM The Repatriation from Indonesia After the decolonization of Indonesia. also lower-skilled Surinamese started to migrate. the case was more seen as a repatriation instead of immigration. The amount of students moving to Amsterdam has been increasing and is related to the age category of 20-29 mentioned before.000 Surinamese lived in the Netherlands. thanks to the fast recovering of the Netherlands and the 1954 Statuut. According to this. The Labourers from Mediterranean Countries During the 60‘s. and these immigrants integrated well into the society. generating chain migration later on. and the educational task was given to special teachers especially brought to the Netherlands from those countries. focussing on the three main population flows. the Dutch government signed agreements with several Mediterranean countries recruiting labourers for industry and mining sectors. These 5 years of gap signed a massive immigration. the government kept neglecting this reality of immigration and increasingly permanent settling. in the second generation. even if they still took part into the suburbanization process of Amsterdam. so richest families sent them to the Netherlands to complete their education. but a visa regulation for Surinamese emigration only came in 1980. The independence of Suriname and the end of the Statuut came in 1975 with the new leftwing Dutch cabinet. 2. the Bijlmer.000 in the beginning of the 70s. This phenomenon will be further analyzed in the following chapter. People searching for asylum is the less common reason nowadays. supposed to go back to their country of origin one day. In Amsterdam. an average amount of Dutch natives and people from the second generation (Eurasians) had to leave the new Indonesian Republic to go back to their country of origin.000 Surinamese were living in the country and in 1980 they became 145.

year of settling in the Netherlands and country of birth. It is also one of the district where homes are valued lower. and nowadays this percentage is still decreasing. Most of them are under 50 years of age. property value in Geuzenveld-Slotermeer is considerably low. Amsterdam is divided in eight main districts (map on the left).000 inhabitants. On average. over 60% are autochthonous.5 rooms which is the lowest number of all districts. and the property value s lower that Amsterdam average.030 ).000 inhabitants live in this district.16% of them is over 65 years of age which is a quite high percentage compared to other Amsterdam . marriage and reuniting with the family. and their property value.8). 19% are western expats or foreigners. age.occupied houses after Osdorp. 50% are social rent houses. Amsterdam West This area is composed by 3 main neighborhoods: Oud-West.The percentage of foreigners in Geuzenenveld-Slotermeer is 65%. The city center is the district with most western foreigners (23%). According to the average. while 26. The value of property is in line with Amsterdam’s average. Over 31. Amsterdam Districts: Amsterdam Centrum Amsterdam city center is inhabited by almost 82. De Baarsjes contains almost 19. With a little under 15. called IND (Immigratie! en Naturalisatiedienst). differently from the previous two. Over 45. but only 9% of all inhabitants are western foreigners. Osdorp district is quite far from the city center. Especially for EU-citizens reasons of migration are often unknown. The average number of rooms in Oud-West is quite low (2. In 2009 only 20% of the motifs was known. Slotervaart and Osdorp.western foreigners while 10% are western foreigners. Geuzenenveld-Slotermeer is situated just outside the center ring road in the west of the city. especially form Suriname.Information about the reasons behind immigration nowadays is analyzed by the ‘immigration -and naturalization service’. it’s difficult to do a proper research. half of them are non-western foreigners. Amsterdam Nieuw West The main districts of this area are Geuzenenveld-Slotermeer. There are 34. it has one of the highest number of dwellings (47. 2. In this district 63 % of the inhabitants are autochthonous.000 people live in this district. Only 7 % of them are over 65 years of age.000 inhabitants live in Osdorp.4 DISTRIBUTION OF ETHNICITIES IN THE URBAN AREA In this paragraph we are analyzing the composition of the population by ethnic origin of each areas of Amsterdam.000 people at is one of the most dense areas of the city. after Oud-Zuid. Among these. Over 30. Slotervaart has 45. More than 41. Bos en Lommer has least homes of all Amsterdam districts (after Westpoort). De Baarsjes is situated just within de center ring road on the west of the city. In order to make a rough calculation the IND analyses significant variables such as gender. The three main reasons are work. De Baarsjes and Bos en Lommer. Bos en Lommer is situated on the west side of the city just inside the center ring road. and 14 % are western foreigners. Among all districts.000 inhabitants. The Oud-West is a district that was largely built before the WWII nearby the the city centre.000 homes. The value of houses is one of the highest. civil class.000 people live in this district. Also here the percentage of foreigners is quite high: 56% are non.000 houses of in average 3 rooms. With this percentage Slotervaart is the district with most owner. houses in Centrum have only 2.2% of all housing are owner-occupied property. Though. many foreigners.

000. Most of the households are single person households (almost 58%).3% of them are owner-occupied. Almost 40. They are occupied for 70 % by autochthonous. Western foreigners constitute only 8 % of the inhabitants. Zeeburg is partially built in the IJ river and it’s is a quite new and attractive district. This district is under control by the municipality. With almost 88. The houses in this district are about 38.000 inhabitants. About 40. Zuider-Amstel is a district situated on the south border of Amsterdam. only 10% of the inhabitants is older than 65 years of age. ZuiderAmstel is a popular district because of its good location and the nice property. almost 48. Only 9% of them is private property.000 inhabitants. There are 47.districts. Furthermore.000 houses are located in Oost. There are about 130 different national backgrounds and the most representative one is Surinam. 40 % of them is above 50 years of age and 21 % is over 65 years of age. .000 houses are located in here.Almost 30. which is the lowest percentage in Amsterdam. Noord is the most populated. Almost 44.000 homes. which is the highest percentage of western foreigners in the city. Half of the inhabitants are Dutch and 10% are expats or western foreigners. as well as luxurious apartments and blocks of flats. 45% of them are foreigners. which is the highest percentage of inhabitants over 65.000 inhabitants live in here. 18.000 inhabitants live in Zeeburg. Almost 59. Oost-Watergraafsmeer is situated south-east of the city center within the center ring road. 12 % are western foreigners.000 inhabitants spread over three area's.2% of them are owner-occupied houses and their value is higher than the average. a large river just behind Central Station. Approximately 40 % are nonwestern foreigners. The value of the houses is the highest in all Amsterdam district. Zuid is the area that has the highest number of dwellings. Amsterdam Zuidoost Zuidoost is separated from Amsterdam's other districts by two villages.000 households. As a consequence they are the largest of the city with 4. Amsterdam Zuid Zuid is situated south of the city centre. spread in 20. 18.occupied houses (32%).4 % of all houses in ZuiderAmstel is owner. Ouder-Amstel and Diemen. many of them are western foreigners and expats. there are about 1500 companies.000. There is a variety of buildings: a lot of cheap homes can be found. Inhabitants are spread over 28.000 houses. It counts about 79. Only 6% are people over 65 years of age. This district has over 83. The lowest percentage of western foreigners live in Noord (9%). The inhabitants are usually quite young. ZuiderAmstel and Zeeburg. Amsterdam Westpoort Westpoort is an expanding harbour and industrial area. Over 60% of them are Dutch people while 20% are western foreigners. Zuidoost is also known because of the large amount of national backgrounds. people of 25 to 39 years old are slightly more represented than other age ranges.Watergraafsmeer. 23. 21% are western foreigners. Most of them live in Bijlmer (58%) followed by Gaasperdam (40%) and Driemond (2%).occupied and the average value is one of the highest.2 rooms.Watergraafsmeer. Amsterdam Oost The main districts of Amsterdam Oost are Oost. the property value is in line with the average one. Osdorp is the district with the highest percentage owner.000 people work in Westpoort but only 100 homes are situated here. which is fairly high. Amsterdam Noord District Noord is separated from other Amsterdam districts by 'het IJ '. There is also a large number of expats or western foreigners. Zeeburg is still expanding at a quick pace: in 10 years from now the estimated number of inhabitants will be 90.000 inhabitants.

where low price housing was created. In particular immigrants settled in some areas. The areas with the highest percentage of immigrants are the south-western one. especially Bijlmer. where the main industries are located and the very south-east part. Property values and attractiveness of residential areas . It is possible to notice an increasing of immigration flows during the years. because these new buildings were not accepted by the municipality social housing was created there and it was possible for immigrants to afford buying apartments in that area. 2000 and 2012 divided by neighborhoods. where land prices were cheaper and where it was possible to find more job opportunities. where cheap housing from the 60s were located.Distribution of ethnicities over the years The following maps are showing the concentration of foreigners settled in Amsterdam respectively in 1970. In recent years they also started to settle in the Northern area. In the maps: the darker means higher concentration of foreign ethnicities. 1990.

and they are strictly correlated to the areas in which different ethnicities are more concentrated.As a consequence to the maps shown before. compared to the municipal average (17. Minimum income households per neighbourhood.9%) and related attractiveness of residential areas. . the industrial South-West part and the North-West axis present a very low attractiveness. clearly shows the relationship with immigration: the lighter colored areas indicate the less degree of attractiveness. The whole neighborhood of Bijlmer. It is also possible to notice the influence that this factor has on the income of population living in those specific neighborhoods (map on the bottom of the page). Characteristics of the residential environment explaining the land value situation. the map about the attractiveness of the different neighborhoods shown below.

due to dynamic nature of developments in Zuidas. In 2000. The Zuidas cannot be explained according to the traditional definition of a spatially . has to be considered the biggest and one of the most important and complex contemporary urban developments in the Netherlands. ZUIDAS AMSTERDAM: A PROJECT OF URBAN TRANSFORMATION The Zuidas project. The plan’s aim was to achieve a balance among living and working activities. For this reason the area is sometimes referred to as Amsterdam’s ‘golden mile’. that is the country’s prime office location. This document describe the development of the area from a starting location for international business into a defined urban hub with a variety of functions and a high quality degree of livability. Before the development of the project the area was a sort of transitional zone between two parts of the city (Zuid. built in the fifties and sixties). The Zuidas is located in a strategic position. During the past few decades. which seems especially necessary for a project with a building period of about thirty years. Nowadays the Zuidas is still a project under development. after ABN AMRO's decided to build its new headquarters there. The project we are referring takes into consideration the the final Zuidas Vision Document that was drawn up in 2009 and approved by Amsterdam City Council on 9 September that year. but also for the whole infrastructural network of the city. the first Zuidas Vision Document was drawn up.3. A first Master Plan for this area was approved in 1998. which developed on the south axis of Amsterdam (from which takes its name). a plan by urbanist van Eesteren. The project’s initiators always refer to flexibility as a crucial strategy for development. and Buitenveldert. This plan had to be reviewed quite often. The space between these two city was 'reserved' by several plans that were made since Berlage's time for the infrastructure and a railway station. which is a crucial point for its development: it is next to Amsterdam’s southern ring road and close to the international airport. a large number of new infrastructural investments in roads and railways have resulted important not only for the accessibility to the area itself. built according to a plan of the architect Berlage between 1920 and 1950.

a number of infrastructural projects are currently being carried out. the cycle network and pedestrian paths. It is close to the city centre. it is instead a loose framework of various smaller projects and a continuous transformation. has an easy connection to the.1 INFRASTRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENT Zuidas location and the vision document As we previously mentioned. among a number of strategic objectives. the problem of congestion of major roads and public transportation is significant. In order to find an appropriate solution for this problem. is extensively focused on infrastructural development. while others are in the preparatory stage. For this reason. The main investment of the transformation of the neighborhood is the “Dok” project. The vision document and the dock The Vision Document for Zuidas. there will be an improvement of the tram line. enhancing district accessibility but avoiding the creation of barriers. The ambitions of the Vision Document are. The image is part of the Vision Document for Zuidas and represents the alternative of the Dok system for the junction of the main roads in Zuidas .contained and defined in time transformation. the neighborhood of Zuidas has a strategic location. the purpose of this project is the removal of physical barriers between Zuidas and other part of Amsterdam. the local metro. also known as the 'Financial Mile'. Schiphol Airport and the east of the Netherlands. than in 2009 and approved in 2011. The accessibility from the city and also form other part of the Netherlands is achieved by the great A10 motorway. among the achievement of a sustainable and leavable environment. The idea is to provide a suitable net of infrastructure for Zuidas international setting. The development of Zuidas networks are various and the aim is to develop the connection not only at local and regional scale. 3. which is an underground tunnel bundling of road and rail infrastructure. presented firstly in 2000. At a local scale. Zuidas is in fact a large and rapidly developing business district. the decrease of environmental pollution and traffic noise and the increase of space for traffic. the create and efficient but also responsible network. but also at a larger scale.

taxi rank and the car rank. In addition. It will be the junction node of various public transport modalities.The north/south metro line Another important project that is undergoing in Amsterdam and interests the area of Zuidas is the North/south metro line. to Zuidas. this will run 9. tram stops. with a forecast of 75000 passengers per day. via Utrecht and Arnhem. This neighborhood will host two stations on this metro line: Europaplein and Amsterdam Zuid. the 'Financial Mile'. On the other hand it is possible to see that these plans are coherent with the overall economical and social development of Zuidas. Zuid/WTC station Nevertheless our aim is to focus on those project that will have implications in the international sphere. The idea is also to enhance the role of Zuidas in the city of Amsterdam and on an international framework. The station will be in the central core of Zuidas. in the north of Amsterdam. Thank to the improvement of the Zuid/WTC Station. . and will become the second main station of Amsterdam and it is expected to be 5th busiest passenger station in the Netherlands.7 kilometres from Buikslotermeer. The idea is to make this station the reference point for international movements. These projects are not finished so there is no feedback of the population regarding the quality of the improvement this infrastructural layer in the neighborhood. This map represents the improvement of tram and metro network in Zuidas compared to the existing situation. serving the district and the entire city. some connection of European scale will depart and arrive from Zuid/WTC Station. Most transfers will be between metro and train while at the adjacent urban street there will be bus stops. The line will emerge above ground in the central reservation of the A10 orbital motorway between Europaplein station and Amsterdam Zuid station. the connection to the Schiphol Airport. a number of international connections will be possible. which is currently allowed by a railway line that takes around 8 minutes. Schiphol is Europe’s fourth busiest airport. From this point of view the improvement of the Station Zuid certainly significant. will be improved by a faster and direct metro line form the station. the ICE to Cologne and Berlin. and the German high speed network. form 2017. First of all. in the south. These are the high-speed (HSL) services to Brussels and Paris.

hotels and cafes. Furthermore. and the most important firms of the country. Its buildings are older than the new development of the district. Russia have offices in the district. Despite the 2008 economical crisis. denoting that the business network binds the district. for a total of 600 companies. Companies from Japan. The success of the district was mainly given by its primary meaning as an extension of the traditional office district.000 sqm per year of taken offices. because they offer a lower vacancy risk. The eastern one. The companies which decide to create offices in Zuidas trade the highest rent rates of the Netherlands for top quality accommodation. 125. and all the buildings are aligned in a virtual north/south axis.2 ECONOMICAL DEVELOPMENT Zuidas is divided into three main subareas. especially about the size in square meters they occupy.000. In 2009 a total of 210. Most private investors are from domestic origin. Law firms play a significant role as well in Zuidas. since the amount of transactional square meters exceeds 34. This situation. Its excellent accessibility with all kinds of transport and the closeness to Schiphol airport invited many companies to locate their headquarters and offices in the area. restaurants. lies next to the railway station RAI. from 2008 onwards. The average rent in 2009 was 301" per sqm a year. many shops. The movement of companies from the old business centre to the new Zuidas will steadily decline because most of the large-scale companies already made the step to Zuidas and now the users’ profiles of both districts are diverging. half of which have a global coverage. “Vivaldi”. Ownerships Only five out of the 55 buildings of Zuidas are owned by the companies which have offices there. The public sector only occupies the 3% of the office users in Zuidas. especially from financial and business services sectors. America (Google and Accenture among the others). As a side effect. Most of the office buildings of the district were recently built: 35% of the buildings has been built after 2000. 55% of which newly occupied and 45% concerning lease renewals. but also German investors get a large share. Zuidas includes more than 500 apartments.000 sqm transactions. and then US and French investors come third and fourth.3. while all the other offices dealt mostly with new transactions. the sector of financial and business services takes up more than half of the number of companies situated in the district. Zuidas started to attract also head offices and national branches of international companies. from 160"# per sqm a year for the oldest office building in Vivaldi. The lease market The leasing market in Zuidas is very active. was in countertrend with the rest of the country. The most important offices located in the district found a new settling place in Zuidas. The western subarea contains newest buildings such as the Amsterdam law court and the ING House. Leasing prices significantly vary in Zuidas. The other two clusters are located at the eastern and western edge of the district. and most important one is the heart of the district. ABN AMRO headquarters. The first. India. Oud Zuid.000 sqm of new office space has been sold. This gap can be easily synthesized with the closeness to the transportation hub. where have place the World Trade Centre. Many buildings in Zuidas are multi-tenant facilities. The 30% of these contracts were signed at WTC. . Anyhow transactions in the district do not happen often: since 2008 only eight buildings changed their ownership. especially due to the difficult office market condition. with wider spaces and modern properties that they were missing in the old locations. companies rather relocate within the district of Zuidas instead of moving away to a new office location. The inflow of tenants has been constantly high: the long-term (in 10 years) average of 45. 24 of them are owned by institutional parties or companies which target institutional money and all the remaining ones are owned by private investors who rent the offices to company users. and they were mostly concerning leases’ renewals. with the same rate of vacancy of the previous years. to 380" per sqm a year for some of the best offices in WTC. The architectural typology in Zuidas is strongly contemporary and realized in an impressively large scale. except the new Ernst & Young’s headquarters by Norman Foster.000 sqm was involved in transactions. 70% of these relating to less than 2. Furthermore. Sectors mostly present in the area In terms of branches.500 sqm office spaces and 20% of share calculated for more than 5.

the canal belt.4 DECISION-MAKING SIGNIFICANT ELEMENTS The historical economical center of Amsterdam. 3. to use the IJ-bank as the new economical center. The project had to be carried on with the financial participation by the central government and a large role in providing infrastructural network for the private sector. Regarding the Zuidas the municipality works together more intensively with important private actors and is often forced to do so. in order to make vacancy fall very rapidly. Recently other governmental agencies. It was close to the central station and the city center. Perhaps. and need renovation. The company choose the plot in the Zuidas where they wanted to built it. In total 60% of the costs will be paid by the privates who in return would receive development rights in the new area. considering the projects as an opportunity to expand the capacity of roads and railways. a party that had to follow and agree with the wishes of multinationals. The project did not provoke much opposition and. where no 10 years-long leasings were stipulated. and office buildings on top of them. At the same time the municipality of Amsterdam strongly focused on the economic and urban aspects of the Zuidas. New development projects Since the 2008’s crisis no new building projects were started so. the municipality became. Amsterdam decided. because they were afraid of fact that the company would choose an other city to go to. and they make difficult to calculate the actual rent of a building. at the moment. instead of a leading institute. Amsterdam learnt from the mistakes made in the IJ-bank project. The municipality drafted a plan for the southern area of the city. in the further future. it did not attract much attention of the civil and social groups. The municipality of Amsterdam still contemplates the creation of a dock area over the A10 motorway. these ambitious plans can be carried out and will create even higher economical strength in Zuidas. the municipality didn’t take the opinion of important actors in consideration. while the new lease contracts in the central area have usually 20%. The location seemed to be perfect. building height regulations and the existing buildings which were present and expensive to re-use. The municipality had to agree with the terms of condition of the ABNAMRO. taking other European harbour cities as an example. especially in the first phases. the ministry of finance and the provincial government started to get involved. 3. a new headquarter was required. because of the small subsidy available to carry on new urban projects. Therefore. Looking at 2018. In the Vivaldi area incentives exceed 30% of the contract’s worth. avoiding the inevitable opposition of the community if they built highrise buildings in the core of the city. considering both renewals and new transactions. Therefore. . underlining the importance of the Zuidas for the national economy.Incentives are really important in the rent’s prices since the average granted incentive for 2009 in Zuidas is 17%. The current vacancy at Zuidas stands at 11%: only 3 mid-size buildings of more than 20 years old are empty. After the fusion between ABN and AMRO. although a number of public meeting to discuss the plan and its mixed-use conception were organized. but later the ambition to realize an international and competitive economic center were supported by stronger national actors. the decreasing availability may become a major problem. Quite soon it became clear that the investors weren’t convinced about the location because of infrastructural problems. so the municipality had to choose a new area where new economical developments had to take place. At the beginning only a few pioneering private investors were interested in exploiting investment opportunities in the new area. On the other hand the ministry of spatial planning did not strongly support the plan. This concept would bring all public transport and the A10 motorway underground. big companies clearly preferred an empty plot to built their new headquarters upon. The ministry of transport also played a relevant role in the project. preferring Dok models. such as the ministry of economic affairs. Though. 10 years after the 2008 crisis. grew in the end of the 80’s outside its boundaries.3 ACTORS INVOLVED IN THE TRANSFORMATION The development of the Zuidas started in the early 1990s. only residential schemes are planned to be realized in the next four years.

Though. with the presence of wanted small creative shops. companies aren’t willing to rent the needed spaces for a lower price. Though. saying that Amsterdam could play an important role in these developments. but none of them are willing to make the ground floor of their buildings available for these purposes. An other situation to explain this issue is that. He notes that the municipality should stimulate companies to work on increasing the livelihood. Institutions and Transforming Spaces). again. Stan Majoor has a solution for this problem. but if actions need to be made.3. all actors are in favor of having nice lunchrooms in the surroundings. Companies and developers agree with improving the livelihood. research center AISSR (Amsterdam Institute for Social Science Research) and member of the research group: Planning. Though he underlines that it’s important for private actors to stimulate the improvement of the livelihood within the area. a problem which could be solved using a higher degree of participation of decision making by the population. the attractiveness will increase. For example. .5 POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS TO THE CRITICAL ISSUES According to Stan Majoor (assistant professor at the Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences of the University of Amsterdam. This is why improving the livelihood in the Zuidas becomes a significant element in succeeding for the project. The goal of the Zuidas is not only creating a concentrated district defined by multinationals located in skyscrapers. but it also has to become a new important residential area. this increasing cooperation between the municipality and investors is a positive change. none of them wants to get involved. realizing this goal seems difficult. for example with the use of bonuses and compromises.

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