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Flywheel energy storage

NASA G2 Flywheel Flywheel energy storage (FES) works by accelerating a rotor to a very high speed and maintaining the energy in the system as inertial energy. Commercially available FES systems are used for small uninterruptible power systems. The rotors normally operate at !!! "#$ or less and are made of metal. %dvanced flywheels are made of high strength carbon&composite filaments that spin at speeds from '!(!!!&)!!(!!! "#$ in a vacuum enclosure. $agnetic bearings are necessary as speeds increase to reduce friction found in conventional mechanical bearings. *uick charging is done in less than )+ minutes. ,ong lifetimes of most flywheels( plus high energy (- ).! /h0kg) and high power are positive attributes. The round trip energy efficiency of flywheels can be as high as 1!2. Since FES can store and release power 3uickly( they have found a niche providing pulsed power.

Contents
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) $ain components ' #hysical characteristics . %pplications %dvantages and disadvantages + Future improvements 4 "eferences 5 See also

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Physical characteristics Metal Flywheel Rotor Energy is stored in the rotor in proportion to its momentum( but the s3uare of the angular momentum. 6n larger systems( the bearings are magnetic. Energy is stored by using an electric motor to increase the speed of the spinning flywheel. The kinetic energy stored in a rotating flywheel is8 /here ' . The system releases its energy by using the momentum of the flywheel to power the motor0generator. The rotors are generally made of steel on smaller systems but large systems use high&tensile&strength fibers (such as carbon fibers) embedded in epo7y resins( or some other high&strength composite material.Main components Internal Flywheel Components % typical system consists of rotor suspended by bearings inside a vacuum chamber to reduce friction( connected to a combination electric motor0electric generator.

is work resulted in many original solutions for wheel suspension( sealing the vacuum chamber( rotation rate decline compensator and hydraulic transmission. <n the )=1!s Soviet engineer @ourbey Aulia had been working on flywheel energy storage. . . AuliaBs Csuper flywheelsC were tightly wound of metal or plastic tape( which( in addition to tensile strength higher than that of molded steel( simply unwound inside the chamber( filling it and grinding to a stop. $oreover( they are not as limited in the amount of energy they can hold. .I 9 the moment of inertia of the mass about the center of rotation : 9 the angular velocity in radians % flywheel is more effective when its inertia is larger( as when its mass is located farther from the center of rotation either due to a more massive rim or due to a larger diameter.owever( the primary advance was the composite flywheel capable of rotation rates e7ceeding !(!!! rpm( running for up to a week when not loaded( and resistant to e7plosive destruction.owever( because increasing the rotational velocity of the flywheel results in a geometric increase in stored kinetic energy (rather than a linear growth when increasing the mass)( modern research focuses on making flywheels spin as fast as possible. Flywheel systems have also been used e7perimentally in small electric locomotives for shunting or switching. Advantages and disadvantages Flywheels are not affected by temperature changes as are chemical batteries( nor do they suffer from memory effect. <t is hoped that flywheel systems can replace conventional chemical batteries for mobile applications( such as for electric vehicles. Eevelopers of such flywheel energy storage systems include %ctive #ower( %FS Trinity and Feacon #ower. . Applications <n the )=+!s flywheel&powered buses( known as gyrobuses( were used in >verdon( Swit?erland( and there is ongoing research to make flywheel systems that are smaller( lighter( cheaper( and have a greater capacity. They are mainly used to provide load leveling for large battery systems( such as an uninterruptible power supply. %nother advantage of flywheels is that by a simple measurement of the rotation speed it is possible to know the e7act amount of energy . Flywheel power storage systems in current production ('!!)) have storage capacities comparable to batteries and faster discharge rates. AuliaBs first wheels were made of steel tape( but the latest models used Devlar filament( wound not unlike a bobbin of thread. They are also less potentially damaging to the environment( being made of largely inert or benign materials. #roposed flywheel systems would eliminate many of the disadvantages of e7isting battery power systems( such as low capacity( long charge times( heavy weight( and short usable lifetimes.

stored. The reason superconductors can work well stabili?ing the load is because they are good diamagnets.TSC powders can be formed into arbitrary shapes so long as flu7 pinning is strong. Fortunately( composite materials tend to disintegrate 3uickly once broken( and so instead of large chunks of high&velocity shrapnel one simply gets a containment vessel filled with red&hot sand (still( many customers of modern flywheel power storage systems prefer to have them embedded in the ground to halt any material that might escape the containment vessel).igh temperature superconductor (. <n hybrid&bearing systems( a conventional magnet levitates the rotor( but the high temperature superconductor keeps it stable.TSC are used to stabili?e it. 6ne of the primary limits to flywheel design is the tensile strength of the material used for the rotor. "otational a7is vibration problems caused by the low stiffness and damping and are an inherent problem in completely superconducting magnetic bearings for flywheel applications.TSC bearings have historically had problems providing the lifting forces necessary for the larger designs( but can easily provide a stabili?ing force. .TSC can be made much easier for FES than for other uses.TSC) bearings however may be economic and could possibly e7tend the time energy could be stored economically. Since flu7 pinning is the important factor for providing the stabili?ing and lifting force( the . Aenerally speaking( the stronger the disc( the faster it may be spun( and the more energy the system can store. Conse3uently( traditional flywheel systems re3uire strong containment vessels as a safety precaution( which increases the total mass of the device. . Even without such improvements( however( modern flywheels can have a ?ero&load rundown time measurable in years. Further improvements in superconductors may help eliminate eddy current losses in e7isting magnetic bearing designs.owever( use of flywheel accumulators is currently hampered by the danger of e7plosive shattering of the massive wheel due to overload. . /hen the tensile strength of a flywheel is e7ceeded the flywheel will shatter( releasing all of its stored energy at onceG this is commonly referred to as Cflywheel e7plosionC since wheel fragments can reach kinetic energy comparable to that of a cannon shell.ybrid bearing systems are most likely to see use first. . Future improvements #arasitic losses such as friction( hysteresis and eddy current losses of both magnetic and conventional bearings mean that flywheel energy storage systems can store0deliver power for only a short period( a few seconds or minutes (without recharging). This is known as the magnetic stiffness of the bearing. %n ongoing challenge that has to be overcome before superconductors can provide the full lifting force for a FES . Therefore( in hybrid bearings( permanent magnets support the load and . The e7pense of refrigeration led to the early dismissal of low temperature superconductors for use in magnetic bearings. . <f the rotor tries to drift off center( a restoring force due to flu7 pinning restores it. AuliaBs tape flywheels did not re3uire a heavy container and reportedly could be rewound and reused after a tape fracture.

).ill( pp. ) =+H) ==. ('!!'). ()=1 ).( @akamura( >. http800www. El&/akil( $.org0loyola0scpa0! K!'.( #. #hysica C .( Ieong( @. ()== ).an( S.edu06. Sung( T.uci.wang( S.igh&Temperature Superconductivity.ighlights and %ccomplishments .. Cryogenics J. <t is a pressure storage reservoir in which a non&compressible hydraulic fluid is held under pressure by an e7ternal source... Doshi?uka( @.(@asu( . <ntroduction to . 41+&41=.4'.( Choi( S. /olsky( %.( Saito( 6. Eesigns and analyses of flywheel energy storage systems using high&Tc superconductor bearings.. H +!. . "ypes o accumulator + .( <toh( >.an( >.( D. ('!!').ee( I.pl0)==50=5! http800www. pp.+5H..54( pp. ('!!.EK/EFS<TE0paper0eeenergy. The status and prospects for flywheels and S$ES that incorporate . $cAraw&.( .( E.( <shikawa( F. The main reasons that an accumulator is used in a hydraulic system are so that the pump doesnBt need to be so large to cope with e7tremes of demand( so that the supply circuit can respond more 3uickly to any temporary demand and to smooth pulsations.htm http800infoserve.14( pp..( Saito( S. Compressed gas accumulators are by far the most common type.( .( .pdf • • • • • • • • !ydraulic accumulator % hydraulic accumulator is an energy storage device.( .TS. Re erences • Sheahen( T.( $.( <ke?awa( .( Takahata( ".htm @%S% #ower and #ropulsion 6ffice8 .parcon.). 54&51( '+& . #hysica C . That e7ternal source can be a spring( a raised weight( or a compressed gas.wtec. #lenum #ress( @ew >ork. #owerplant Technology. These are also called hydropneumatic accumulators.( C.( S.( $urakami( $.( $.system is finding a way to suppress the decrease of levitation force and the gradual fall of rotor during operation caused by the flu7 creep of SC material. #rogress of superconducting bearing technologies for flywheel energy storage systems.( .( .5'H.( $atsunaga( D. '( pp.( >amamoto( .( Tomita( $.gov0cgi&bin0techlib0access&control.( .sandia..

Spring type % spring type accumulator is similar in operation to the gas charged accumulator above( e7cept that a heavy spring (or springs) is used to provide the compressive force.Raised #eight % raised weight accumulator consists of a vertical cylinder containing fluid connected to the hydraulic line. The e7act type and placement of each may be a compromise due to its effects and the costs of manufacture. <n the case of piston&type pumps this accumulator is placed in the best place to absorb pulsations of energy from the multi&piston pump. There may be more than one accumulator in a system. The large e7cursions of system components( such as landing gear on a large aircraft( that re3uire a considerable volume of fluid can also benefit from one or more accumulators. %n accumulator can maintain the pressure in a system for periods when there are slight leaks without the pump being cycled on and off constantly. <t also helps protect the system from fluid hammer. <ts si?e helps absorb fluid that might otherwise be locked in an small fi7ed system with no room for e7pansion due to valve arrangement. 4 . These are often placed close to the demand to help overcome restrictions and drag from long pipework runs. This protects system components( particularly pipework( from both potentially destructive forces. The outflow of energy from a discharging accumulator is much grater( for a short time( than even large pumps could generate. This is the only type of accumulator that delivers a constant pressure( regardless of the volume of fluid in the cylinder( until it is empty. Therefore as the spring compresses( the force it e7erts on the fluid is increased. %s the volume of the compressed gas changes the pressure of the gas( and the pressure on the fluid( changes inversely. /hen temperature changes cause pressure e7cursions the accumulator helps absorb them. %n additional benefit is the additional energy that can be stored while the pump is subLect to low demand. %ccording to . The other side contains an inert gas under pressure that provides the compressive force on the hydraulic fluid. The designer can use a smaller&capacity pump. Compressed Gas or (Gas Charged Accumulator) % compressed gas accumulator consists of a cylinder with two chambers that are separated by an elastic diaphragm or by a floating piston. Functioning o an accumulator <n modern( often mobile( hydraulic systems the preferred item is a gas charged accumulator( but simple systems may be spring&loaded. %n accumulator is placed close to the pump with a non&return valve preventing flow back to it. The cylinder is closed by a piston on which a series of weights are placed that e7ert a downward force on the piston and thereby energises the fluid in the cylinder. <nert gas is used because o7ygen and oil can form an e7plosive mi7ture when combined under high pressure. 6ne chamber contains hydraulic fluid and is connected to the hydraulic line.ookeBs law the force e7erted by a spring is inversely proportional to its e7tension.

The gas precharge in an accumulator is set so that the separating bladder( diaphragm or piston does not reach or strike either end of the operating cylinder.ydraulic %ccumulator & Eetailed discussion of various types. #oor maintenance of precharge can destroy an operating accumulator. "etrieved from Chttp800en.org0wiki0. $%ternal lin&s /hatBs %n %ccumulatorM . %ccumulators & Technical description. % properly designed and maintained accumulator should operate trouble&free for years. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.ydraulicKaccumulatorC Spring 'device( From /ikipedia( the free encyclopedia. Toys /ikibooks modules + E7ternal links 5 . Iump to8 navigation( search Springs % spring is a fle7ible elastic obLect used to store mechanical energy.wikipedia. Springs are usually made out of hardened steel. Contents • • • • • ) Types of spring ' Theory . The design precharge normally ensures that the moving parts do not foul the ends or block fluid passages. This technology-related article is a stub.

1 . the spring washer( used to apply a constant tensile force along the a7is of a fastener the torsion spring (any spring designed to be twisted rather than compressed or e7tended) the gas spring( a volume of gas which is compressed rubber band( a tension spring where energy is stored by stretching the material "heory <n classical physics( a spring can be seen as a device that stores potential energy by straining the bonds between the atoms of an elastic material. .ookeBs law of elasticity states that the e7tension of an elastic rod (its distended length minus its rela7ed length) is linearly proportional to its tension( the force used to stretch it. 6ther types include8 • • • • • the Felleville washer or Felleville spring( a disc shaped spring commonly used to apply tension to a bolt (and also in the initiation mechanism of pressure&activated landmines)."ypes o spring % helical or coil spring. Similarly( the contraction (negative e7tension) is proportional to the compression (negative tension). The most common types of spring are8 • • • • the helical or coil spring (made by winding a wire around a cylinder) and the conical spring & these are types of torsion spring( because the wire itself is twisted when the spring is compressed or stretched the leaf spring (flat springy sheet( used in vehicle suspensions( electrical switches( bows) the spiral spring (used in clocks and galvanometers) the cantilever spring which is fi7ed only at one end.

) Cost of production o . Typically( the demise of the petroleum&age is presented as a catastrophic collapse. The replacement should not be thought of as an energy sourceG it is a means of transferring and concentrating energy( a CcurrencyC.. Criticisms o .ookeBs law is actually a mathematical conse3uence of the fact that the potential energy of the rod is a minimum when it has its rela7ed length. <t is proposed as an alternative to li3uid hydrogen in some transport modes and as a means of locally storing energy captured from renewable sources.. "oys )i*uid nitrogen economy % li*uid nitrogen ')N2( economy is a hypthetical proposal for a future economy in which the primary form of energy storage and transport is li3uid nitrogen.' Energy density of li3uid nitrogen o .i3uid @itrogen Economy is a proposal to initiate an energy diversification( an alternative to the typical collapse scenario. %n analysis of this concept provides insight into the physical limits of all energy conversion schemes. %ny smooth function of one variable appro7imates a 3uadratic function when e7amined near enough to its minimum pointG and therefore the force N which is the derivative of energy with respect to displacement N will appro7imate a linear function. Frost formation See also + E7ternal links 4 "eferences +escription Currently( most road vehicles are powered by internal combustion engines run off fossil fuel.. The . <f this is to be made sustainable over the long term( the fuel must be replaced by something else produced by renewable energy.ookeBs law can not be meaningfully applied to these materials. Contents • • • • • • ) Eescription ' #olitical argument .This law actually holds only appro7imately( and only when the deformation (e7tension or contraction) is small compared to the rodBs overall length.. = . . For deformations beyond the elastic limit( atomic bonds get broken or rearranged( and a spring may snap( buckle( or permanently deform. $any materials have no clearly defined elastic limit( and .

The re3uirements of storage prevent the use of pipelines as a means of transport.i3uid hydrocarbon fuels by comparison have a high energy density. #ossible energy diversification includes the hydrogen economy( solar and biofuel alternatives.i3uid nitrogen is distributed and stored in insulated containers. Currently practical refrigeration plants producing a few tons0day of li3uid nitrogen at about +!2 of Carnot efficiency Osee ref P. Criticisms The approach has been critici?ed on the following grounds( which can also be seen as the engineering challenges that must be overcome. The dependence on the petroleum economy has a significant global influence. #etroleum reserves represent political and monetary power. .i3uid nitrogen consumption is in essence production in reverse.eat from the surrounding environment boils the li3uid. The environmental impact from the carbon dio7ide discharge is currently unsustainable. "educing inflowing heat reduces the loss of li3uid nitrogen in storage. % high energy density makes the logistics of )! . Cost o production . . The insulation reduces heat flow into the stored nitrogen. The cooler can be powered by renewable generated electricity or through direct mechanical work from a hydro or wind turbines.. Since long& distance pipelines would be costly due the insulation re3uirements( it would be costly to use distant energy sources for production of li3uid nitrogen. $nergy density o li*uid nitrogen . Political argument The adaptability of thermal&engines and a diverse means of production is likely to lead to the diversification( locali?ation and stability of the energy market. . .i3uid nitrogen production is an energy&intensive process. The Stirling engine or cryogenic heat engine offers a way to power vehicles and a means to generate electricity. #etroleum reserves are typically a vast distance from consumption.i3uid nitrogen is generated by cryogenic or Stirling engine coolers that li3uefy the main component of air( nitrogen (@'). .i3uid nitrogen can also serve as a direct coolant for refrigerators( electrical e3uipment and air conditioning units.i3uid nitrogen as an energy store has a low energy density. The consumption of li3uid nitrogen is in effect boiling and returning the nitrogen to the atmosphere. %lternatives are a matter of necessity. Considerable effort is focused on managing a stable supply( shaping global politics.

The convenient storage of petroleum fuels combined with its low cost has lead to an unrivalled success. The addition of more comple7 power cycles would reduce this re3uirement and help enable frost free operation. )P See also • • • • • • • • Energy storage Energy crisis Future energy development .Osee ref. (. % practical volume( but a noticeable increase over the typical +! litre gasoline tank.icense AFE. Osee ref. .transport and storage more convenient. %ddtional heat e7changers( weight( comple7ity( efficiency loss( and e7pense( would be re3uired to enable frost free operation. Frost ormation Qnlike internal combustion engines( using a cryogenic fuel re3uire heat e7changers to warm and cool the working fluid.+! litre onboard storage vessel is re3uired.ydrogen economy $ethanol economy . Convenience is an import factor in consumer acceptance.'@ Jehicle ) & % li3uid nitrogen powered car using a Cryogenic . /atts&hours per kilogram(/&hr0kg). • )) . )P %dd to that the fact the container would need to be insulated.i3uid @itrogen Economy & Similar overview with diagrams. The ma7imum energy density that can be realised from li3uid nitrogen at atmospheric pressure is '). This compares with about . <n a humid environment( frost formation will prevent heat flow and thus represents an engineering challenge.eat Engine at the Qniversity of @orth Te7as. )P For an isothermal e7pansion engine to have a range comparable to to an internal combustion engine( a .'@ Jehicle '& %nother li3uid nitrogen powered car at the Qniversity of /ashington.ithium economy Rinc economy Solar power $%ternal lin&s • • . This adds topping cycles to ensure the heat e7changer does not fall below free?ing.) . Osee ref.(!!! w& hr0kg for a gasoline combustion engine running at '12 thermal efficiency( ) times the density of li3uid nitrogen used at the Carnot efficiency. To prevent frost build up( multiple working fluids can be used.

Carlos( Cryogenic Heat Engines Made sing Electrocaloric Capacitors( %merican #hysical Society( Te7as Section Fall $eeting( 6ctober &4( '!!) Fort /orth( Te7as $eeting <E8 TSF!)( abstract UEC.'@ vehicle feasibility at .• • • • /hisperAen & Eomestic stirling generators.( Schneider ".i3uidKnitrogenKeconomyC )' . Fruckner and %.<( Eecember( )=5 .ert?berg( C.igh Efficiency Conversion Systems for . Sontag( !undamentals o" Classical Thermodynamics #I $ersion %nd Ed.%.#. %. Dnowlen( %. %.i3uid @itrogen %utomobilesC( Society of %utomotive Engineers <nc( )=11.T.ow stuff works Thermodynamic #roperties of various fuels & Tabulated data. "eidy CCryogenic . Fran?( C.( S% @itrogen EconomyT( /inter $eeting %SEE( .onolulu( . F. O+P Aordon I. $attick( %. O P I. #lummer( ". Eiscusssion on . 6rdone?( $.eat Engines for #owering Rero Emission JehiclesC( #roceedings of '!!) %S$E <nternational $echanical Engineering Congress and E7position( @ovember ))&)4( '!!)( @ew >ork( @>.@. Cryogenic Coolers & Small( rapid( compact cooling. O. • • • • "etrieved from Chttp800en.P Dleppe I.!!=( )!0'!!). Jan /ylan and "ichard F. Re erences • O)P C. O'P C. 6rdone?( %. .wikipedia.org0wiki0. C.