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DRAFT

Code of Practice
MANAGING RISKS IN CONSTRUCTION WORK

Table of Contents
FOREWORD .................................................................................................................................. 4 SCOPE AND APPLICATION.......................................................................................................... 4 1. INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5 1.1 What is construction work? ............................................................................................. 5 1.2 Who has duties relating to construction work? ................................................................ 7 1.3 What is involved in managing risks relating to construction work?................................. 10 MANAGING RISKS WITH CONSTRUCTION WORK............................................................ 12 2.1 Identify the hazards ....................................................................................................... 12 2.2 Assess the risks ............................................................................................................ 12 2.3 Control the risks ............................................................................................................ 13 2.4 Review control measures .............................................................................................. 14 SAFE WORK METHOD STATEMENTS ................................................................................ 16 3.1 What is a safe work method statement?........................................................................ 16 3.2 Preparing a safe work method statement ...................................................................... 17 3.3 Implementing a safe work method statement ................................................................ 18 3.4 Reviewing a safe work method statement ..................................................................... 19 WHS MANAGEMENT PLANS............................................................................................... 21 4.1 What is a WHS management plan? .............................................................................. 21 4.2 Preparing a WHS management plan ............................................................................. 21 4.3 Implementing the WHS management plan .................................................................... 21 4.4 Reviewing and revising a WHS management plan ........................................................ 22 LICENCES ............................................................................................................................ 23 5.1 High risk work ............................................................................................................... 23 5.2 Other licences ............................................................................................................... 23 INFORMATION, TRAINING, INSTRUCTION AND SUPERVISION ....................................... 25 6.1 General construction induction training ......................................................................... 25 6.2 Workplace specific training............................................................................................ 26 6.3 Other training ................................................................................................................ 26 6.4 Supervision ................................................................................................................... 27 FACILITIES AND THE WORK ENVIRONMENT ................................................................... 28 7.1 Facilities at a construction workplace ............................................................................ 28 7.2 The work environment................................................................................................... 29 7.3 Emergency plan ............................................................................................................ 31 CONTROLLING RISKS IN CONSTRUCTION WORK ........................................................... 32 8.1 Falls and falling objects ................................................................................................. 32 8.2 Traffic management ...................................................................................................... 37 8.3 Essential services ......................................................................................................... 38 8.4 Hazardous manual tasks............................................................................................... 39 8.5 Hazardous chemicals .................................................................................................... 40 8.6 Asbestos ....................................................................................................................... 44 8.7 Confined spaces ........................................................................................................... 46 8.8 Public access and workplace security ........................................................................... 47 8.9 Electricity ...................................................................................................................... 48 8.10 Plant ............................................................................................................................. 48 8.11 Noise ............................................................................................................................ 50 8.12 Steel construction ......................................................................................................... 51

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Concrete placing ........................................................................................................... 52 Safety signage .............................................................................................................. 53

APPENDIX A DEFINITIONS...................................................................................................... 54 APPENDIX B TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND OTHER REFERENCES ................................. 57 APPENDIX C EXAMPLES OF THE INTERACTION BETWEEN DUTY HOLDERS .................. 59 APPENDIX D SAFE WORK METHOD STATEMENT TEMPLATE............................................ 61 APPENDIX E SAFE WORK METHOD STATEMENT EXAMPLE .............................................. 63 APPENDIX F HIGH RISK CONSTRUCTION WORK................................................................. 66 APPENDIX G WHS MANAGEMENT PLAN CONTENT ............................................................ 72 APPENDIX H EXAMPLES OF CONSTRUCTION WORKPLACE FACILITIES ......................... 76

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FOREWORD
This Code of Practice for managing risks in construction work is an approved code of practice under section 274 of the Work Health and Safety Act (the WHS Act). An approved code of practice is a practical guide to achieving the standards of health, safety and welfare required under the WHS Act and the Work Health and Safety Regulations (the WHS Regulations). A code of practice applies to anyone who has a duty of care in the circumstances described in the code. In most cases, following an approved code of practice would achieve compliance with the health and safety duties in the WHS Act, in relation to the subject matter of the code. Like regulations, codes of practice deal with particular issues and do not cover all hazards or risks which may arise. The health and safety duties require duty holders to consider all risks associated with work, not only those for which regulations and codes of practice exist. Codes of practice are admissible in court proceedings under the WHS Act and Regulations. Courts may regard a code of practice as evidence of what is known about a hazard, risk or control and may rely on the code in determining what is reasonably practicable in the circumstances to which the code relates. Compliance with the WHS Act and Regulations may be achieved by following another method, such as a technical or an industry standard, if it provides an equivalent or higher standard of work health and safety than the code. An inspector may refer to an approved code of practice when issuing an improvement or prohibition notice. This Code of Practice has been developed by Safe Work Australia as a model code of practice under the Council of Australian Governments Inter-Governmental Agreement for Regulatory and Operational Reform in Occupational Health and Safety for adoption by the Commonwealth, state and territory governments. A draft of this Code of Practice was released for public consultation on 26 September 2011 and was endorsed by the Select Council on Workplace Relations on [to be completed].

SCOPE AND APPLICATION


This Code provides practical guidance to persons conducting a business or undertaking on how to manage risks at a workplace where construction work, including high risk construction work) is being carried out or is likely to be carried out. . A person conducting a business or undertaking may be a person who commissions construction work, a designer, a principal contractor, contractor, subcontractor or someone who is selfemployed at a construction workplace. How to use this code of practice In providing guidance, the word should is used in this Code to indicate a recommended course of action, while may is used to indicate an optional course of action. This Code also includes various references to provisions of the WHS Act and Regulations which set out the legal requirements. These references are not exhaustive. The words must, requires or mandatory indicate that a legal requirement exists and must be complied with.

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1. 1.1

INTRODUCTION What is construction work?

The WHS Regulations define construction work as any work carried out in connection with the construction, alteration, conversion, fitting-out, commissioning, renovation, repair, maintenance, refurbishment, demolition, decommissioning or dismantling of a structure. Construction work includes: any installation and testing carried out in connection with an activity referred to in the above definition the removal from the workplace of any product or waste resulting from demolition the prefabrication or testing of elements, at a place specifically established for the construction work, for use in construction work the assembly of prefabricated elements to form a structure or the disassembly of prefabricated elements forming part of a structure the installation, testing or maintenance of an essential service in relation to any structure any work connected with an excavation any work connected with any preparatory work or site preparation (including landscaping as part of site preparation) carried out in connection with an activity referred to in the above definition, and an activity referred to in the above definition that is carried out on, under or near water, including work on buoys and obstructions to navigation. Construction work does not include: the manufacture of plant the prefabrication of elements, other than at a place specifically established for the construction work, for example, making precast concrete panels or roof trusses at a workshop of a person conducting a business or undertaking who is not involved in the construction work the construction or assembly of a structure that once constructed or assembled is intended to be transported to another place, for example mobile or pre-fabricated homes testing, maintenance or repair work of a minor nature carried out in connection with a structure, for example: o undertaking regular inspections of a buildings fire equipment or lifts o replacing or repairing a sprinkler or smoke-detector o replacing carpet in an office o servicing or minor repair of an air-conditioning system or solar panel unit, or o regular testing and repair of pressure piping, or mining or the exploration for or extraction of minerals, for example: o extracting sand or rock from a quarry or an open-cut mine, or o removing overburden at an open-cut mine. What is a structure? A structure is defined under the WHS Act as anything that is constructed, whether fixed or moveable, temporary or permanent, and includes: buildings, masts, towers, framework, pipelines, transport infrastructure and underground works (shafts or tunnels) any component of a structure, and part of a structure. Examples of a structure include:

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a roadway or pathway a ship or submarine foundations, earth retention works and other earthworks, including river works and sea defence works formwork, falsework or any other structure designed or used to provide support, access or containment during construction work an airfield a dock, harbour, channel, bridge, viaduct, lagoon or dam, and a sewer or sewerage or drainage works

The above definition does not apply to plant unless: the plant is: o a ship or submarine o a pipe or pipeline o an underground tank o designed or used to provide support, access or containment during work in connection with construction work work on the plant relates to work that is carried out in connection with construction work, or the plant is fixed plant on which outage work or overhaul work that involves or may involve work being carried out by 5 or more persons conducting businesses or undertakings at any point in time, What is high risk construction work? The WHS Regulations define high risk construction work as construction work that: involves a risk of a person falling more than 2 metres is carried out on a telecommunication tower involves demolition of an element of a structure that is load-bearing or otherwise related to the physical integrity of the structure involves, or is likely to involve, the disturbance of asbestos involves structural alterations or repairs that require temporary support to prevent collapse is carried out in or near a confined space is carried out in or near a shaft or trench with an excavated depth greater than 1.5 metres, or a tunnel involves the use of explosives is carried out on or near pressurised gas distribution mains or piping is carried out on or near chemical, fuel or refrigerant lines is carried out on or near energised electrical installations or services is carried out in an area that may have a contaminated or flammable atmosphere involves tilt-up or precast concrete is carried out on, in or adjacent to a road, railway, shipping lane or other traffic corridor that is in use by traffic other than pedestrians is carried out at a workplace in which there is any movement of powered mobile plant is carried out in an area in which there are artificial extremes of temperature is carried out in or near water or other liquid that involves a risk of drowning, or involves diving work. There are specific duties for high risk construction work, for example, a safe work method statement must be prepared. These duties are outlined in Chapter 3 of this Code. What is a construction project? The WHS Regulations define a construction project as a project that involves construction work where the cost of the construction work is $250,000 or more.

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Valuing construction work The cost of construction work can be determined by the contract price for carrying out the work and would include: project management costs associated with the work the costs of fittings and furnishings, including any refitting or refurbishing, associated with the work (except where the work involves an enlargement, expansion or intensification of a current use of land), and any taxes, levies or charges (other than GST) paid or payable in connection with the work by or under any law. The cost of the construction work would not include: the cost of the land on which the development is to be carried out the costs associated with marketing or financing the development (including interest on any loans), and the costs associated with legal work carried out or to be carried out in connection with the development. A construction project covers all the activities involved in the construction work. 1.2 Who has duties relating to construction work?

Person conducting a business or undertaking A person conducting a business or undertaking has the primary duty under the WHS Act to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that workers and other persons are not exposed to health and safety risks arising from the business or undertaking. The WHS Regulations also require a person conducting a business or undertaking to carry out specific duties for high risk construction work which include: before the work commences, ensuring a Safe Work Method Statement (SWMS) for the proposed work is prepared, or that it has already been prepared by another person, in accordance with the WHS Regulations putting in place arrangements to ensure that work is carried out in accordance with the SWMS stopping the work immediately (or as soon as it is safe to do so) if it is not carried out in accordance with the SWMS and only resumed as per the details in the SWMS if the work is in connection with a construction project, a SWMS must be given to the principal contractor before the work commences ensuring the SWMS is reviewed and as necessary revised if relevant control measures are revised ensuring the SWMS is kept and is readily available for inspection as specified in the WHS Regulations, and ensuring a copy of the SWMS is made available to any worker engaged by the person conducting a business or undertaking to carry out high risk construction work. Information on preparing SWMS can be found in Chapter 3 and Appendices E & F of this Code. A person with management or control of a workplace at which construction work A person with management or control of a workplace at which construction work is being carried out must ensure so far as is reasonably practicable that the workplace is secure from unauthorised access and must have regard to matters including: risks to health and safety arising from unauthorised access to the workplace the likelihood of unauthorised access occurring, and

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the extent that where unauthorised access to the workplace cannot be prevented how to isolate hazards within the workplace.

A person conducting a business or undertaking who commissions construction work or construction project A person conducting a business or undertaking who commissions construction work or a construction project is often referred to as the client. There may also be other persons who represent a client, for example, project managers, construction managers, architects or engineers, who may coordinate the commissioning work on the clients behalf. A registered owner/builder is also a person conducting a business or undertaking who commissions construction work. The WHS Regulations require the person conducting a business or undertaking who commissions construction work to: consult with the designer, so far as is reasonably practicable, to ensure that risks to health and safety arising from the design are eliminated or minimised and give the designer any information in relation to the hazards and risks at the workplace where the construction work is carried out take all reasonable steps to obtain a copy of a designers safety report if another person commissioned the design, and if the construction work is a construction project, give the principal contractor any information in relation to hazards and risks at or in the vicinity of the workplace where the construction work is to be carried out, including a copy of any safety report provided by or obtained from a designer. Designer A designer is a person conducting a business or undertaking that designs a structure (or plant or substance) that is to be used, or could reasonably be expected to be used, as or at a workplace. There may be multiple designers involved in the design of a structure and have the same duties, for example, architects, civil engineers, electrical engineers, mechanical engineers, structural engineers and hydraulic engineers. The WHS Regulations require the designer to: ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the structure is designed to be without risks to the health and safety of persons in relation to the manufacture, assembly, construction or use of the structure or the proper demolition or disposal of the structure, and give the person who commissioned the design a written (safety) report that specifies the hazards relating to the design of the structure that the designer is aware of that: o create a risk to health or safety of persons who are to carry out any construction work on the structure or part, and o are associated only with the particular design and not with other designs of the same type of structure. Principal contractor Where a construction project exists, a principal contractor must be identified. A construction project can only have one principal contractor and that person is responsible for the construction work at all times until the work is completed. The WHS Regulations define a principal contractor as: the person conducting a business or undertaking that commissions the construction project (the client), or a person conducting a business or undertaking that is engaged by the client to be the principal contractor and is authorised to have management or control of the workplace.

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A principal contractor can be a sole proprietor (for example, a self-employed builder), a partnership, a trust or a company. In the case of a company, the company has the duties of the principal contractor rather than the individual managers who are employed by the company. Unless the client engages another party to be the principal contractor, they are the principal contractor. If the owner of residential premises is an individual (that is, they are not a person conducting a business or undertaking) who directly or indirectly engages a person conducting a business or undertaking to carry out a construction project in relation to the premises, the person engaged is the principal contractor if they have management or control of the workplace. There are a number of duties the principal contractor has under the WHS Regulations. These are: For WHS management plans, the principal contractor must: o prepare a written WHS management plan for the workplace before work on the project commences o ensure, so far as reasonably practicable, that each person who is to carry out construction on the project is made aware of the WHS management plan and their right to inspect it before commencing work o review and revise the WHS management plan to ensure it remains up-to-date o ensure so far as is reasonably practicable, each person carrying out construction work in connection with the project is made aware of any revision to the WHS management plan, and o ensure a copy of the WHS management plan for the project is kept until completion and is made available as specified in the WHS Regulations. For Safe work method statements, the principal contractor must: o take all reasonable steps to obtain copies of SWMS relating to high risk construction work before that work commences. For workplace arrangements, the principal contractor must: o put in place workplace arrangements to comply with the WHS Regulations for the general working environment, provision of facilities, personal protective equipment, first aid and emergency plans o ensure that signs are installed that: show the principal contractors name and telephone contact numbers show the location of the project office (if any), and are clearly visible from outside the workplace, or the work area of the workplace, where the construction project is being undertaken, and o manage risks to health and safety associated with: storage, movement and disposal of construction materials and waste at the workplace storage at the workplace of plant that is not in use traffic in the vicinity of the workplace that may be affected by construction work carried out in connection with the construction project, and essential services at the workplace.

Contractor and subcontractor A contractor may be engaged by an individual who is not conducting a business or undertaking, a client, a project manager, a principal contractor, a designer, or another contractor.

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A contractor is a person conducting a business or undertaking that is engaged to carry out construction work. A subcontractor is a person conducting a business or undertaking engaged to carry out construction work by a contractor or subcontractor. Contractors and subcontractors have the duties of a person conducting a business or undertaking, including for high risk construction work (see Chapter 3 of this Code). Officers Officers, such as company directors, have a duty to exercise due diligence to ensure that the business or undertaking complies with their duties and obligations. This includes taking reasonable steps to ensure that the business or undertaking has and uses appropriate resources and processes to eliminate or minimise risks that arise from the construction work. Workers Workers have a duty to take reasonable care for their own health and safety and must not adversely affect the health and safety of other persons. Workers must comply with any reasonable instruction and cooperate with any reasonable policy or procedure relating to health and safety at the workplace. 1.3 What is involved in managing risks relating to construction work?

In order to manage risk under the WHS Regulations, a duty holder must: a) identify reasonably foreseeable hazards that could give rise to the risk b) eliminate the risk so far as is reasonably practicable c) if it is not reasonably practicable to eliminate the risk minimise the risk so far as is reasonably practicable by implementing control measures in accordance with the hierarchy of risk control d) maintain the control measure so that it remains effective, and e) review, and if necessary revise risk control measures so as to maintain, so far as is reasonably practicable, a work environment that is without risks to health and safety.

This Code provides guidance on how to manage the risks associated with construction work by following a systematic process that involves: identifying hazards if necessary, assessing the risks associated with these hazards implementing risk control measures, and maintaining and reviewing the effectiveness of risk control measures. Chapter 2 of this Code provides more specific guidance on this process. Guidance on the general risk management process is available in the Code of Practice: How to Manage Work Health and Safety Risks. Consulting, cooperating, coordinating with other duty holders The WHS Act requires that you consult, cooperate and coordinate activities with all other persons who have a work health or safety duty in relation to the same matter, so far as is reasonably practicable. Example of the interaction between duty holders The principal contractor engages a contractor for all demolition work associated with a construction project. The contractor engages a subcontractor to carry out concrete cutting works as part of the demolition process. As a person conducting a business or undertaking:

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the principal contractor must ensure the health and safety of all persons from risks associated with the construction project, including workers undertaking demolition and concrete cutting work the contractor must ensure the health and safety of all workers undertaking the demolition and concrete cutting work, and the concrete cutting subcontractor is responsible for the health and safety of all workers undertaking concrete cutting work and passersby.

Consulting with workers The WHS Act requires that you consult, so far as is reasonably practicable, with workers who carry out work for you who are (or are likely to be) directly affected by a work health and safety matter. If the workers are represented by a health and safety representative, the consultation must involve that representative. A person conducting a business or undertaking must consult with workers (including contractors and subcontractors) and their health and safety representatives about health and safety matters. By drawing on their experience, knowledge and ideas, hazards are more likely to be identified and effective risk controls developed. A principal contractor for a construction project must consult, so far as is reasonably practicable, with all workers who are (or are likely to be) directly affected by a matter relating to work health or safety. In many cases, decisions about construction work and projects are made prior to engaging workers, therefore, it may not be possible to consult with workers in these early stages. However, it is important to consult with them as the work or project progresses. In addition to health and safety representatives, workers can be consulted through: general or workplace induction processes, for example, when specialist skills arrive on site toolbox talks participative risk assessment processes, and one-off sessions or events called for a specific purpose. Example of toolbox talks Toolbox talks can be used to convey health and safety information to and receive feedback from contractors, subcontractors and workers. Toolbox talks can also assist in raising awareness of how the construction work will be conducted in a healthy and safe manner. When using toolbox talks it is good practice to: keep a written record of the topic covered, attendees and any feedback received organise a program of toolbox talks to ensure workers are given sufficient opportunity to provide input into how risks should be controlled, and monitor the effectiveness of toolbox talks through safety outcomes (for example, controls implemented and near misses). Specific guidance on consultation is available in the Code of Practice: Work Health and Safety Consultation, Co-operation and Co-ordination.

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2.
2.1

MANAGING RISKS WITH CONSTRUCTION WORK


Identify the hazards

When identifying hazards, particular attention should be paid to hazards arising from: the construction workplace itself, including its location, layout, condition and accessibility any design relating to the construction work working at heights hazardous substances, including the handling, use, storage, and workplace transport or disposal of hazardous substances the presence of asbestos systems of work plant, including the transport, installation, erection, commissioning, use, repair, maintenance, dismantling, storage or disposal of plant manual handling, including the potential for occupational overuse injuries, and the physical working environment, for example, the potential for electric shock, immersion or engulfment, fire or explosion, slips, trips and falls, people being struck by moving plant, objects or structures falling on people, exposure to noise, heat, cold, vibration, radiation, static electricity or a contaminated atmosphere, and the presence of a confined space. A person conducting a business or undertaking should also ensure there are effective procedures in place to identify and record hazards: before and during the installation, erection, commissioning or alteration of plant before changes to systems of work are introduced or a significant change to the construction workplace, or a part of it, is implemented before hazardous substances are introduced, and when new or additional occupational safety and health information from an authoritative source becomes available - for example, national standards or codes of practice, guidance material produced by a regulatory authority, industry codes of practice or information from manufacturers, suppliers or designers. 2.2 Assess the risks

Assessing the associated risks will assist in determining: what regulated duties apply how severe a risk is whether any existing control measures are effective what action should be taken to control the risk whether action or control measures are necessary, and how urgently the action needs to be taken. Assessing the risk includes considering things like: the severity of any injury or illness that could occur, for example is it a small isolated hazard that could result in a very minor injury or is it a significant hazard that could have wide ranging and severe affects, and the likelihood or chance that someone will suffer an illness or injury, for example, consider the number of people exposed to the hazard. A risk assessment is not necessary if the risk and how to control it is already known.

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2.3

Control the risks

The ways of controlling risks are ranked from the highest level of protection and reliability to the lowest. This ranking is known as the hierarchy of risk control. You must always aim to eliminate a hazard, which is the most effective control. If this is not reasonably practicable, you must minimise the risk by: Substitution Isolation Engineering controls If risk remains, it must be minimised by implementing administrative controls, so far as is reasonably practicable. Any remaining risk must be minimised with suitable personal protective equipment. Administrative control measures and personal protective equipment rely on human behaviour and supervision, and when used on their own, tend to be least effective in minimising risks. Eliminating the risk This means removing the hazard or hazardous work practice from the workplace. This is the most effective control measure and must always be considered before anything else. For example, eliminate the risk of a fall from height by doing the work at ground level. If elimination of the risk is not reasonably practicable, you must consider using substitution, isolation or engineering risk controls, or a combination of these controls, to minimise the risk. Minimising the risk Substitution Minimise the risk by substituting or replacing a hazard or hazardous work practice with a less hazardous one. For example: Substituting a manual task of carrying tools from one level to another with a material hoist or craning material will minimise the risk of workers developing a musculoskeletal disorder. Substituting a two part epoxy substance with a water based acrylic water proofing system will minimise exposure to a hazardous substance. Isolation Minimise the risk by isolating or separating the hazard or hazardous work practice from people involved in the work or other people at the workplace. For example, isolating a mobile plant work zone from workers and/or the public with physical barriers will minimise the risk of contact occurring between a person and the mobile plant. Engineering Controls Use an engineering control to minimise the risk if the physical characteristics of the plant, structure or work area are hazardous. For example: Benching, battering or shoring the sides of the excavation will minimise the risk of a person being trapped and prevent the excavation from collapsing. By enclosing an open cab excavator, for example, using a falling objects protection structure (FOPS) will minimise the risk of an operator being struck by a falling object or being crushed if the excavator rolls over. Administrative Controls These are work practices that minimise the risk, such as ensuring there is no unauthorised entry of a person to a work area thus preventing them from being exposed to a particular hazard. For example:

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Using a keep out sign and a person to secure an exclusions zone when dismantling scaffolding may minimise the risk of people entering the work area and being struck by a falling object. Using a tag and lockout procedure at the entry point of a confined space will minimise the risk of a person entering the confined space and losing consciousness or suffering asphyxiation, injury or death due to the immediate effects of airborne contaminants or oxygen deficiency.

Personal protective equipment (PPE) PPE is the lowest order control measure in the hierarchy of controls and should only be considered when other control measures are not practicable, or to increase protection from the hazard. PPE relies on a persons behaviour and the proper fit and use of the PPE and does nothing to change the hazard itself. It therefore requires thorough training and effective supervision to ensure compliance and effectiveness. For example: Provide workers with long sleeved shirts and trousers, wide brimmed hat (where hard hats are required then it should be a hard hat brim or neck flap), sunglasses and sun screen to minimise the exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Provide workers with ear plugs, ear muffs or other PPE when they are near or operating noisy machinery and powered tools to minimise the exposure to excessive noise. Combination of control measures In many cases a combination of control measures may be implemented. For example, to control the risk of persons working in the same area from being struck by mobile plant control measures should include: using traffic lights instead of a traffic controller to control traffic at road works (substitution) replacing an item of mobile plant which has a restricted field of vision to one that has a clear field of vision (substitution) using zero tail swing excavators rather than conventional tail swing excavators (substitution) segregating the work processes through distance and time (isolation) installing reversing cameras and audible warning devices activated when the vehicle is reversing (engineering) developing and implement a traffic management plan for any traffic control activities being carried out (administrative), and requiring all workers to wear high visibility reflective clothing or vests (PPE). When selecting and implementing a combination of risk controls it is important to consider whether any new risks might be introduced as a result and, if so, the combination of risk controls should be reviewed. There are a range of hazards and risks common to construction work, including noise, hazardous manual tasks and hazardous chemicals. Further information on these common hazards and risk controls is provided in Chapter 8, Appendix C and G of this Code. 2.4 Review control measures

Control measures must be reviewed regularly to make sure they remain effective. Controls can be checked by using the same methods as the initial hazard identification process. Common methods include workplace inspection, consultation, testing and analysing records and data. Control measures must be reviewed (and revised if necessary): before any change is made to the way the construction work is carried out
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before a new system of work is introduced before the place where the work is being carried is changed if a new hazard is identified or if new information about a hazard becomes available (for example, an alert is published on a particular hazard) if a notifiable incident occurs in relation to construction work if a control measure does not control the risk, or a request for a review is received from a health and safety representative.

When reviewing control measures, a SWMS and the WHS management plan must also be reviewed and revised where necessary.

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3.

SAFE WORK METHOD STATEMENTS

This Chapter only applies to high risk construction work. A safe work method statement (SWMS) must be prepared for any and all high risk construction work to be undertaken prior to the work commencing. 3.1 What is a safe work method statement?

A safe work method statement (SWMS) is a document that: lists the types of high risk construction work being done states the health and safety hazards and risks arising from that work describes how the risks will be controlled, and describes how the risk control measures will be put in place and maintained. A SWMS must be clearly set out, easy to understand and readily accessible so the risk control measures can be implemented and monitored. A SWMS is not a work health and safety (WHS) management plan although a SWMS can form part of a WHS management plan. A SWMS should not, for example, include workplace management arrangements or describe general safety procedures or task procedures. A SWMS should include the specific risk controls that must be implemented to manage the risks for the proposed high risk construction work activity (for example, the need to complete a confined space entry permit). Note that a SWMS must deal with the specific hazards and risks at the workplace where the high risk construction work is being undertaken. An example of a basic SWMS template that may be most suited to small to medium sized businesses is included in Appendix E. Other SWMS formats can be used and larger organisations may integrate SWMS requirements into their documented WHS management system. That is, as long as there is a documented SWMS that meets the requirements of the WHS Regulations it can be prepared in any suitable format. Who is responsible for preparing SWMS? All persons conducting a business or undertaking at the workplace must ensure a SWMS is prepared for any high risk construction they propose to carry out. It must be prepared prior to the high risk construction work commencing. A person conducting a business or undertaking, in consultation with workers who will be directly engaged in the high risk construction work, should prepare a SWMS as they are often best placed to: understand the work being carried out and the workers undertaking the work, and ensure the SWMS is correctly implemented, monitored and reviewed. Who is the SWMS for? A SWMS should be prepared so the supervisor of the work and the worker is able to understand the risks associated with the high risk construction work and implement the risk controls listed in the SWMS. The SWMS should be able to be easily read by those who need to know what has been planned to manage the risks.

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How many SWMS should be prepared? One SWMS can be prepared to cover all the high risk construction work being carried out at the workplace by a contractor and/or subcontractor. For example, excavation work might involve a number of types of high risk construction work, such as: a risk of a person falling more than 2 metres, and a trench with an excavated depth greater than 1.5 metres. Alternatively, a separate SWMS can be prepared for each type of high risk construction work. In this case, thought must be given to situations where the different types of work activities may impact on each other, in terms of potential inconsistencies between different risk control measures. It is up to the principal contractor to coordinate work activities and eliminate these inconsistencies. For example, if a principal contractor engages a contractor to carry out demolition work and that contractor engages a subcontractor to carry out part of the demolition using explosives: the principal contractor must ensure a SWMS has been prepared for all high risk construction work being carried out including the demolition and explosives work the contractor must ensure a SWMS has been prepared for the demolition and explosives work, and the explosives subcontractor must ensure a SWMS has been prepared for the work involving explosives. In the above example multiple SWMS may be prepared. To avoid different and inconsistent SWMS being developed, consultation must occur to the extent necessary that all persons agree either: one SWMS for all the demolition work that involves high risk construction work, or a suite of SWMS that is compatible and consistent. What if a principal contractor has not been engaged? Where two or more contractors are engaged on construction work that includes high risk construction work but it is not a construction project (that is, no principal contractor is involved), then the contractors must consult and decide to either: adopt the same SWMS (for example, one of the contractors SWMS) for the high risk construction work, or use their own SWMS for that work providing they are compatible and consistent and cover all of the risks associated with the high risk construction work. 3.2 Preparing a safe work method statement

A SWMS must be prepared prior to high risk construction work being undertaken at the workplace. When developing a SWMS the following must be taken into consideration: the circumstance at the workplace that may affect the way in which the high risk construction work is carried out, and on a construction project, the WHS management plan prepared by the principal contractor. The SWMS must: identify work that is high risk construction work specify hazards relating to the high risk construction work and risks to health and safety associated with those hazards describe the measures to be implemented to control the risks, and describe how the risk control measures are to be implemented, monitored and reviewed.

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It is recommended that a SWMS also includes the following information: the person conducting a business or undertakings name, address and ABN (if they have one) details of the person(s) responsible for ensuring implementation, monitoring and compliance with the SWMS, and if the work is being carried out at a construction project workplace: o the name of the principal contractor o the address where the high risk construction work will be carried out o the date prepared and the date provided to the principal contractor, and o the review date (if any). Workers and their health and safety representatives should be consulted in the preparation of the SWMS. If there are no workers engaged at the planning stage, consultation should occur during worker construction induction training, when the SWMS is first made available to workers, or when it is reviewed. The content of a SWMS should provide clear direction on the risk controls to be implemented. There should be no statements that require a decision to be made by supervisors or workers. For example, the statement, use appropriate personal protective equipment does not detail the risk control. The control measures should be clearly specified and the example of a completed SWMS template in Appendix F illustrates how this may be done. 3.3 Implementing a safe work method statement

Construction projects On a construction project, a person conducting a business or undertaking must not commence high risk construction work unless they have provided the principal contractor with a copy of the SWMS. If the principal contractor is not aware of the content of the SWMS then they will not be able to comply with their duties. The WHS management plan will also provide details of how the SWMS should be provided to the principal contractor. Complying with a safe work method statement All persons conducting a business or undertaking who are involved in high risk construction work must develop and implement arrangements to ensure the work is carried out in accordance with the SWMS. Arrangements may include a system of routine or random workplace inspections. For example, asking workers and supervisors a few questions about the controls used in the SWMS to see if workers understand what has to be done. If the work is not being carried out in accordance with the SWMS, then the work must stop immediately or as soon as it is safe to do so. Work must not resume until the work can be carried out in accordance with the SWMS. Supervision A person conducting a business or undertaking who directly engages workers in high risk construction work must ensure that workers in a supervisory role (for example, leading hand, foreman, supervisor) are provided with the training to understand and implement SWMS and the authority to ensure the work is carried out in accordance with the SWMS. Information and instruction A person conducting a business or undertaking must ensure that all workers who will be involved in high risk construction work are provided with information and instruction so they:

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understand the hazards and the risks arising from the work understand and implement the risk controls in a SWMS, and know what to do if the work is not being conducted in accordance with the SWMS.

For example, this information and instruction may be provided during workplace induction training or during a toolbox talk by principal contractor, contractor or subcontractor. Making the SWMS available A person conducting a business or undertaking must ensure the SWMS is available, on request, to any person engaged to carry out the high risk construction work, health and safety representatives, inspectors, any authorised person and any other workers in the vicinity. Keeping the SWMS The SWMS must be kept and be available for inspection until at least the high-risk construction work is completed. Where a SWMS is revised, all versions must be kept. The SWMS must be kept at the workplace where the high risk construction work will be carried out. If this is not possible, then the SWMS should be kept at a location where it can be delivered to the workplace promptly. If a notifiable incident occurs in connection with the high-risk construction work to which the SWMS relates then the SWMS must be kept for at least 2 years from the occurrence of the notifiable incident. If the construction work at the workplace has ceased within that period then the person conducting a business or undertaking should keep the SWMS available for inspection at its offices. Making the SWMS available for inspection A person conducting a business or undertaking must ensure the SWMS is available for inspection under the WHS Act. 3.4 Reviewing a safe work method statement

A SWMS must be reviewed regularly to make sure it remains effective. A SWMS must be reviewed (and revised if necessary): before any change is made to the way the construction work is carried out, before a new system of work is introduced before the place where the work is being carried out is changed if a new hazard is identified or if new information about a hazard becomes available (for example, an alert is published on a particular hazard) if a notifiable incident occurs in relation to construction work if a control measure does not control the risk, or a request for a review is received from a health and safety representative. The review process must be carried out in consultation with contractors, subcontractors, workers and their health and safety representatives at the workplace. When a SWMS has been revised the person conducting a business or undertaking must ensure all persons involved with the high risk construction work are advised that a revision has been made and how they can access the revised SWMS. The person conducting a business or undertaking must provide a copy of the revised SWMS to the principal contractor if the work is being carried out at a construction project.

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The person conducting a business or undertaking must ensure all persons who will need to change a work procedure or system as a result of the revision are advised of the revision in a way that will enable them to implement their duties consistently with the revised SWMS. The person conducting a business or undertaking must ensure all workers that will be involved the high risk construction work are provided with whatever information and instruction may be required to ensure they understand and implement the revised controls in a SWMS.

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4.

WHS MANAGEMENT PLANS

This Chapter only applies to the preparation, maintenance and use of a WHS management plan by a principal contractor for a construction project. 4.1 What is a WHS management plan?

A WHS management plan sets out the arrangements to manage work health and safety on a construction project where there can be many contractors and subcontractors involved and where the circumstances can change quickly from day-to-day. In larger organisations, the WHS management plan may form part of a larger documented management system used by a principal contractor to manage the construction project. The WHS management plan must be in writing and easy to understand by contractors, subcontractors and workers. It must be able to be communicated and understood to the extent that it is applicable to their work. The intention of a WHS management plan is to ensure the risks associated with a complex construction project, particularly relating to the interaction and coordination of a number of contractors and subcontractors, are effectively managed. Who is responsible for preparing a WHS management plan? A WHS management plan must be prepared by the principal contractor prior to the construction work being started. 4.2 Preparing a WHS management plan

The WHS management plan prepared by the principal contractor must include: the names, positions and health and safety responsibilities of all persons at the workplace whose positions or roles involve specific health and safety responsibilities the arrangements in place for consultation, cooperation and coordination the arrangements in place for managing any work health and safety incidents any project specific health and safety rules and the arrangements for ensuring that all persons at the workplace are informed of these rules, and the arrangements to collect and assess, monitor and review safe work method statements. Further information on what should be included in a WHS management plan is included at Appendix H. 4.3 Implementing the WHS management plan

Informing people about the WHS management plan The principal contractor must ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, all persons who are to carry out construction work on the project are made aware of the content of the WHS management plan in respect to their work and their right to inspect the plan. The principal contractor must make the WHS management plan available to all persons working on the construction project and discuss the parts that will affect them including workers, contractors, subcontractors, project managers, architects, engineers. Obtaining safe work method statements The principal contractor must ensure contractors and subcontractors are aware of their responsibility to provide a copy of their SWMS to the principal contractor prior to commencing any

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high risk construction work. SWMS and any revised versions should form part of the WHS management plan. The principal contractor should establish a process to collect, assess, monitor and review SWMS to ensure work being undertaken does not conflict with risk controls being used by other contractors or subcontractors working in the same location or create additional risks for other workers. Making the WHS management plan available The principal contractor must ensure the WHS management plan (including any revisions) is readily available to all persons who are to carry out construction work on the project, including: workers, contractors and their workers, and people inspecting the construction work anyone who is about to start work on the construction project, and any worker on the project who is a member of a health and safety committee, is a health and safety representative or has been chosen by employees to act on their behalf in resolving a health and safety issue. Keeping the WHS management plan The principal contractor must ensure the WHS management plan (including any revisions to it) is kept until the construction project is finished. If a notifiable incident occurs during the project then the WHS management plan will need to be available for at least 2 years from the occurrence of the notifiable incident. If the construction project has ceased within that period then the principal contractor should keep the WHS management plan available for inspection at its offices. Making the WHS management plan available for inspection The principal contractor must ensure the WHS management plan is available for inspection under the WHS Act. 4.4 Reviewing and revising a WHS management plan

The principal contractor must review and, as necessary, revise the WHS management plan to ensure it remains up-to-date and relevant for the construction project. A WHS management plan must be reviewed: before any change is made to the way the construction work is carried out before a new system of work is introduced before the place where the work is being carried is changed if a new hazard is identified or if new information about a hazard becomes available (for example, an alert is published on a particular hazard) if a notifiable incident occurs in relation to construction work if a control measure does not control the risk, or a request for a review is received from a health and safety representative. The review process should be undertaken in consultation with contractors, subcontractors and workers at the workplace. Following the revision of a WHS management plan, if a process has changed, the principal contractor must ensure that all affected persons are advised of the revision so they can implement their duties consistently with the revised plan. This can be achieved by providing the revisions in writing to contractors and holding face to face toolbox meetings.

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5.
5.1

LICENCES
High risk work

A person must hold a licence before they undertake certain classes of high risk work as set out in Schedule 3 of the WHS Regulations. The table below summarises the duties that apply to high risk work licences. Duty holder Person conducting a business or undertaking Worker Responsibilities Must not direct or allow a person to carry out work at a workplace if the person is not licensed in accordance with the WHS Regulations. Must ensure that a person supervising the work of a person carrying out high risk work provides direct supervision of the person except in the circumstances set out in sub regulation 84(2). Must not carry out a class of high risk work unless the person holds a high risk work licence for that class of high risk work. Must keep the licence document available for inspection by an inspector under the WHS Act.

Construction work can include a range of classes of high risk work. For example, the following plant can only be operated by a person holding a current high risk work licence: any tower crane, including self-erecting tower cranes non-slewing mobile cranes with a lifting capacity of more than 3 tonnes any slewing mobile cranes any concrete placing boom boom-type elevating work platforms, where the length of the boom is 11 metres or more personnel and/or materials hoists, and forklift trucks. Other construction work that requires a person with a high risk work licence includes: the erection and maintenance of a scaffold that exceeds 4 metres in height, and rigging and dogging work. Note that while some construction work may require a person with a high risk work licence, most activities only require competent, trained workers who hold a current general (construction) induction card (see Chapter 6 of this Code). 5.2 Other licences

Asbestos The WHS Regulations require a person conducting a business or undertaking who commissions the removal of asbestos at the workplace to ensure asbestos removal work is carried out only by a licensed asbestos removalist who is appropriately licensed to carry out the work, unless specified in the WHS Regulations that a licence is not required. There are two types of licences: Class A and Class B. The type of licence required will depend on the type and quantity of asbestos or asbestos containing materials (ACM) or asbestos contaminated dust or debris (ACD) that is being removed at a workplace.

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Type of licence Class A

Class B

What asbestos can be removed? Can remove any amount or quantity of asbestos or ACM, including: any amount of friable asbestos or ACM any amount of ACD any amount of non-friable asbestos or ACM Can remove: any amount of non-friable asbestos or ACM 2 (Note: A Class B licence is required for removal of more than 10m of non-friable 2 asbestos or ACM but the licence holder can also remove up to 10m of non-friable asbestos or ACM). ACD associated with the removal of non-friable asbestos or ACM (Note: A Class B licence is required for removal of ACD associated with the removal of more than 10m of non-friable asbestos or ACM but the licence holder can also remove ACD associated with removal of up to 10m of non friable asbestos or ACM.

A licence is not required when: up to 10m2 of non-friable asbestos or ACM is being removed ACD is being removed that: o is associated with the removal of less than 10m2 of non-friable asbestos or ACM, or o is not associated with the removal of friable or non-friable asbestos and is only a minor contamination. Further information on the duties associated when removing asbestos can be found in the Code of Practice: How to Safely Remove Asbestos. Explosives Explosives can only be used by a competent person who is licensed in the use of explosives and has experience in the work to be undertaken. All possession, storage, handling and use of explosives must be carried out in compliance with the relevant dangerous substances/goods or explosives legislation applicable in your state or territory. The transport of explosives must be in accordance with the Australian Code for the Transport of Explosives by Road and Rail. Any construction work that involves the use of explosives is defined by the WHS Regulations as high risk construction work and a SWMS must be prepared before this work commences. Demolition A licence is required to undertake some demolition work but the specific requirements vary between the states and territories. Demolition licensing will be managed nationally by the National Occupational Licensing Authority (NOLA) but until this transition occurs, demolition licensing must be completed in accordance with the relevant legislation applicable in your state or territory. Trades Building occupational licensing, such as for plumbing and electrical work, will also be managed nationally by NOLA. In some instances, the transition to the national licensing arrangements for building occupations still to occur and in these cases occupational licensing must be completed in accordance with the relevant legislation applicable in your state or territory.

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6.

INFORMATION, TRAINING, INSTRUCTION AND SUPERVISION

The WHS Act requires a person conducting a business or undertaking to provide relevant information, training, instruction and supervision to protect all persons from risks to their health and safety arising from work carried out. This means that a range of activities may need to be completed to ensure people have the necessary knowledge and skills to complete the work safely, including general construction induction training and other training that may be specific to the workplace or the task the person is performing. Information that might be provided includes workplace health and safety arrangements and procedures, including for emergency evacuations. Information can be provided in various forms, including written formats or verbally, for example, during workplace specific inductions, pre-start meetings or toolbox talks. Often information and instruction are provided at the same time. In addition, supervisors will provide specific workplace instructions during the work, including for health and safety. Supervisors need to be aware of and provide the level of supervision necessary to ensure the health and safety of workers, including assessing workers competency to undertake the work. 6.1 General construction induction training

General construction induction training must be completed to carry out construction work under the WHS Regulations. General construction induction training provides basic knowledge of construction work, the work health and safety laws that apply, common hazards likely to be encountered in construction work, and how the associated risks can be controlled. General construction induction training must be delivered in Australia by a Registered Training Organisation (RTO) and cover the content set out in the specified unit of competency for general construction induction training. The training will include: the roles, responsibilities and rights of duty holders health and safety consultation and reporting processes the principles of risk management common construction hazards and risk control measures, and safety information and documentation (for example, WHS management plans and SWMS). Any person who is to undertake construction work must successfully complete general construction induction training for example, project managers and engineers, architects, foreman, supervisors, surveyors, labourers and trades persons. There may also be other people who would benefit from completing general construction induction training so they are aware of the hazards and risk controls at the workplace, for example: persons who access construction workplaces unaccompanied or are not directly supervised by a person with a general construction induction card, and persons whose work causes them to routinely enter construction workplaces. General construction induction training cards A person conducting a business or undertaking must ensure workers have successfully completed general construction induction training before starting construction work and that each construction worker holds: a general construction induction training card, or

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a general construction induction training certification that has been issued within the preceding 60 days if the worker has applied for but not yet issued with a general construction induction training card.

Construction workers must keep their card available for inspection by an inspector. They will also need to provide their card to the person conducting a business or undertaking that engages them so they can be sure the worker has successfully completed the training. If a worker has applied for a general construction induction training card and has not been notified of the decision on the application, the certificate is only valid for 60 days. If the worker receives a cancellation notice, they must return the card as requested in the notice. 6.2 Workplace specific training

Workplace specific training aims to provide participants with knowledge of work health and safety issues and safe work practices specific to a particular construction workplace. For example, project-specific construction induction training may be developed and implemented by a principal contactor for a construction project to make sure that everyone working on the project understands how health and safety is managed. All workers and other persons visiting the workplace should attend workplace specific training so they can become aware of procedures, management and reporting arrangements as well as other issues that are relevant to a particular construction workplace. Workplace specific training should be conducted by a person conducting a business or undertaking that has management or control at the workplace. This is usually the principal contractor. Where there are several persons conducting a business or undertaking share duties at a construction workplace, consultation, cooperation and coordination must occur to ensure workers are informed of and understand the procedures and arrangements for the workplace. Construction workplace specific training should cover the following: safety documents, policies and plans, including the WHS management plan and SWMS supervisory, consultation and reporting arrangements workplace safety rules, including first aid provisions and emergency procedures workplace facilities, including their location, use and maintenance emergency procedures including after hours emergency contacts access, egress and security workplace specific hazards and control measures how safety issues and disputes are resolved, including health and safety representative arrangements how to report hazards and unsafe work practices how to report accidents, incidents and dangerous occurrences what to do if a person is injured, including first aid provisions, and workers compensation arrangements. 6.3 Other training

Other training can also be provided to give information and instruction to anyone undertaking a particular construction activity. For example, task specific training may be provided to communicate hazards and risk controls and to provide the skills necessary for workers to carry out a specific task safely.

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This type of training should be identified as a control measure as a result of a risk assessment or risk control review. For example, if a worker is carrying out a hazardous task incorrectly, a revised combination of control measures could include task specific training to show workers the proper technique. If task specific training is conducted, it should be developed for the specific task and regularly reviewed and updated whenever there are changes to the task, processes, systems of work, plant and substances that may affect health and safety. 6.4 Supervision

Adequate supervision must be provided, particularly where workers are unfamiliar with the site or the nature of the work. Workers in a supervisory role (for example, leading hand or foreman) should be trained and authorised to ensure the work is carried out in accordance with relevant SWMS.

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7.

FACILITIES AND THE WORK ENVIRONMENT

Under the WHS Regulations, a person conducting a business and undertaking is responsible for providing access to facilities at their workplace and a safe working environment. For example, a principal contractor for a construction project can be responsible for putting these arrangements in place to ensure compliance at the workplace. 7.1 Facilities at a construction workplace

Given the often temporary and dynamic nature of construction workplaces, how these facilities are provided and who provides them will vary at workplaces that carry out construction work. The table below summarises duties of a person conducting a business or undertaking to provide facilities at the workplace. Duty holder Person conducting a business or undertaking Responsibilities Must, so far as is reasonably practicable, ensure the provision of adequate facilities for workers, including toilets, drinking water, washing facilities and eating facilities. Must, so far as is reasonably practicable, ensure the facilities are maintained in a good working order and are clean, safe and accessible. When providing facilities, must consider all relevant matters, including: o the nature of the work being carried out at the workplace o the nature of the hazards at the workplace o the size, location and nature of the workplace, and o the number and composition of the workers at the workplace. Must, so far as is reasonably practicable, consult with affected workers when making decisions about the adequacy of facilities for the welfare of workers.

Deciding what facilities are required To decide what facilities are required at any particular construction workplace, a person conducting a business or undertaking must consider: the nature of the work being carried out, for example, if workers are required to change into protective clothing to use hazardous chemicals, it may be reasonably practicable to provide change rooms the nature of the hazards at the workplace, for example, if workers are required to travel over an extensive area at the workplace, they should be provided with portable, clean drinking water the size, location and nature of the workplace, for example: o where there are existing suitable facilities available (for example, a factory shutdown) arrange with the owner to use these facilities o where the construction work will be carried out in remote or isolated area that is not connected to essential services, potable toilets, drinking water and washing facilities should be provided, and the number and composition of the workers at the workplace, for example: o facilities need to be accessible to during the hours that shift workers are working, and o where there are both male and female workers, separate toilet, washing and shower facilities may be required.

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Note: Toilets, washing and shower facilities should not be used for any other purposes for example, storing of dangerous goods. The table in Appendix I provides examples of some common construction workplaces and the facilities that might be suitable for these workplaces. Further guidance on workplace facilities is available in Chapter 3 of the Code of Practice: Managing the Work Environment and Facilities. First aid All workplaces must have first aid provisions in case of injury or illness. All construction workplaces should have access to a trained first aider. First aid staff should be familiar with the specific conditions and hazards at the construction workplace and the types of injuries likely to occur. The principal contractor must put in place arrangements for ensuring compliance with the requirement to provide first aid at the construction project workplace. How the principal contractor intends to ensures compliance should be detailed in the WHS management plan. When considering first aid provisions for a workplace, including the number of and training requirements for first aiders, the person conducting a business or undertaking and/or the principal contractor, should take into account the: nature of the work and the workplace hazards size and location of the workplace, and number and occupations of the workers and other people. A construction workplace where high risk construction work is undertaken should be considered to be a high risk workplace. In these high-risk construction workplaces or environments, it may be appropriate to employ specific occupational health professionals or services. Further guidance on how to provide first aid is available at the [draft] Code of Practice: First Aid in the Workplace. 7.2 The work environment

Entry and exit A person conducting a business or undertaking must ensure the means of entry and exit to and from all areas of their workplace are safe. For example, providing separate entries and exits for mobile plant (including cranes or trucks) and pedestrians will reduce the risk of persons being hit by moving vehicles. If persons and vehicles have to share a traffic route, use kerbs, barriers or clear markings to designate a safe walkway and traffic management controls implemented. Housekeeping As untidy workplace can cause injuries good housekeeping practices are essential to ensure a safe workplace. For example: the entry, exits and access ways in the workplace are kept clean and clear of materials and waste a safe system implemented for collecting, storing and disposing of excess or waste materials enough area is allocated to safely store materials or plant for the construction work, and making protruding objects that are a hazard safe (e.g. bending over or removing exposed nails and placing a cap over vertical reinforcing steel).

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Principal contractors must also ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the storage, movement and disposal of construction materials and waste at the workplace are without risks to health and safety. This should be considered when preparing a WHS management plan. Work areas Work areas need to be clearly identified and separated as necessary so that work can be undertaken safely. Vehicle, plant and pedestrian traffic in the workplace need to be controlled through signage, physical barriers and/or traffic controllers. Where there is risk of falling objects, exclusion zones may need to be created to prevent unauthorised people entering the work area and being put at risk. Floors and surfaces The type of work surfaces that are required at a workplace will depend on the different phases of construction and the type of work being carried out. Construction work surfaces will vary (for example, earth, steel, timber and concrete) and the risk of slips, trips and falls must be appropriately controlled. Consideration will need to be given to the surface slope, profile and how workers carry out work on the surface. Dust, moisture and the materials from which the surface is constructed will also present hazards to workers and the placement of materials and equipment. Surfaces should be inspected regularly and maintained to eliminate or minimise slip and trip hazards. Lighting Sufficient lighting, whether it is from a natural or artificial source must be provided to allow safe movement around the workplace so workers can perform their job safely. Heat and cold Heat stress can arise from working in high air temperatures, exposure to high thermal radiation or high levels of humidity, including working on a formwork deck, landscaping works and fit-out work in an enclosed non air-conditioned structure. The symptoms of heat stress include dizziness, fatigue, headache, nausea, breathlessness, clammy skin or difficulty remaining alert. Hypothermia arises when a person gets an abnormally low body temperature as a result of exposure to cold environments and wind chill on exposed skin. The symptoms of exposure to extreme cold include numbness in hands or fingers, uncontrolled shivering, loss of fine motor skills and slurred speech and difficulty thinking clearly. Both of these conditions are potentially fatal. If it is not reasonably practicable to eliminate exposure to heat and cold, risks can be minimised with a range of control measures. For example, in hot work environments consider installing shade structures, fans, air-conditioners, evaporative coolers, task rotation and rest breaks, or isolating workers from heat. Make sure that workers have access to adequate, cool, clean water. In cold work environments, consider providing localised heating, protection from wind and rain or task rotation and rest breaks for workers. These practices will allow a workers body temperature to return to its normal level before recommencing activities. Outdoor work Outdoor workers should be provided with protection in adverse weather conditions, for example, sunshades, sheds, caravans, tents, and windbreaks. Protection against solar ultraviolet (UV) exposure is also important, for example by:

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organising outdoor work so that workers carry out alternative tasks or work in shade during hot periods of the day, and providing personal protective clothing and equipment, such as a wide brim hat, long sleeved and collared shirt, long pants, sunglasses and sunscreen.

Remote and isolated work Remote or isolated work is work carried out anywhere a person is unable to get immediate assistance from other workers or other people in an emergency or when requiring assistance to perform a task. The Code of Practice: Managing the Work Environment and Facilities provides guidance on assessing the risk and implementing appropriate controls. 7.3 Emergency plan

All workplaces must have an emergency plan that has been specifically developed for the particular workplace and its specific hazards and cover a range of potential incidents. The emergency procedures in the emergency plan must clearly explain how to respond in various types of emergency, including how to evacuate people from the workplace in a controlled manner. Contact numbers for emergency services should be prominently displayed. A reliable and effective means of communication should be established between all work areas, and persons involved to permit and ensure effective evacuation of danger areas. Rescue equipment for the prompt removal of an injured worker, as well as a communication system to contact any necessary emergency services, should be available and readily accessible at the workplace. Evacuation procedures should be established and communicated to all workers and may include: a warning system safe and rapid evacuation procedures, including for injured persons having trained personnel to respond to and oversee the evacuation of injured persons appropriate medical treatment and evacuation of injured persons shutting down of work, including plant and electrical equipment information regarding hazardous substances located on site provision of fire fighting and rescue equipment at appropriate locations, and display of evacuation procedures in appropriate location(s) at the workplace.

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8.

CONTROLLING RISKS IN CONSTRUCTION WORK

There are a range of health and safety risks that will need to be controlled during construction work. The following information should also help in managing common hazards and control risks in construction work. The WHS Regulations also define a number of construction activities as high risk construction work and these require documented risk controls to be included in a SWMS. Further information on these activities, the risks and risk control requirements, and relevant risk control reference material that might be useful is provided in Appendix E. 8.1 Falls and falling objects

The risk of persons or objects falling in construction work must be controlled. Any construction work that involves a risk of a person falling more than 2 metres is defined by the WHS Regulations as high risk construction work and a SWMS must be prepared before this work commences. When work must be undertaken at height or there are open excavations there will be a risk of people or objects that fall, topple over or roll over. If work cannot be performed safely from the ground or from solid construction, passive fall protection, such as perimeter guard rails and temporary work platforms (for example, scaffolding, elevating work platforms and work boxes) should be provided. If the provision of passive fall protection is not reasonably practicable or fully effective, then other forms of fall protection should be used in conjunction with passive fall protection. These may include work positioning systems or fall arrest devices. Where ladders are used they must be selected to suit the task to be undertaken. In doing this, you should consider the duration of the task, the physical surroundings of where the task is to be undertaken and the prevailing weather conditions. Falling objects can pose a significant risk and cause serious injuries to workers on construction workplaces or members of the public if controls are not implemented to eliminate or minimise the associated risks. For example, a person could receive fatal head injuries if building materials or equipment is not secured or prevented from falling. It is essential to ensure that objects do not fall onto workers or other persons who may be under or adjacent to the area where the work is being performed. Objects that could fall include: parts of a structure being built or dismantled walls being demolished materials stored or stacked at the workplace construction or waste material debris plant tools scaffolding components, and pre-cast concrete panels.

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The WHS Regulations require that a person conducting a business or undertaking must ensure risks associated with an object falling at the workplace are minimised, so far as is reasonably practicable, by implementing one or more of the following risk control measures (in descending order of priority): provision of a safe means of raising and lowering plant, material and debris provision of a secure physical barrier to prevent objects falling freely from one level to another use of personal protective equipment administrative controls other reasonably practicable risk control measures. Measures to control the risk of an object falling should be implemented first, for example by properly securing loads being raised or lowered, before considering measures to protect people from being hit by objects if they do fall. Risk controls that you should consider include: using the appropriate equipment to raise and lower objects, including ensuring that working load limits are not exceeded providing a secure physical barrier at the edge of the elevated area, such as toe boards or infill panels that form part of a guardrail system, and erecting perimeter containment screening made of mesh, timber, plywood or metal sheeting. The framework supporting the screen should be able to bear the load of the screen. Control measures which may be implemented to control falling objects when undertaking construction work include: securing and properly bracing structures (elimination) perimeter containment screening (passive fall protection) toe boards on edge protection (passive fall protection) tool lanyards (fall arrest) a catch platform and/or nets (fall arrest) a gantry where work involving multiple levels is being performed that is beside a footpath (fall arrest) closure of the adjoining area to form an exclusion zone (administrative) a traffic management device (administrative) a road diversion or traffic detour (administrative) traffic controllers to direct pedestrians or other traffic (administrative) working outside normal hours (administrative) PPE such as hard hats (PPE). When considering control measures to contain or catch falling objects, you should identify the types of objects that could fall, as well as the fall gradient and distance, to ensure that any protective equipment or structures are strong enough to withstand the impact forces of the falling object. Examples of these control measures include: erecting a covered, pedestrian walkway erecting a catch platform with vertical sheeting or perimeter screening, and providing overhead protective structures on mobile plant. Other control measures to minimise the risks associated with falling objects involve: tethering tools to lanyards when working at height using chutes when placing debris into a skip below the work area enclosing areas over which loads are being lifted establishing a no-go zone with the necessary barriers and training of workers in its observation, and

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using personal protective equipment such as hard hats. Perimeter guard rails Guard rails may be used to provide effective fall prevention: at the edges of roofs at the edges of mezzanine floors, walkways, stairways, ramps and landings on top of plant and structures where access is required around openings in floor and roof structures, and at the edges of shafts, pits and other excavations. The installation of Guardrailing should include the following: a top rail 900mm to 1100mm above the working surface toeboards or mesh infill to prevent tools, materials and debris falling from the roof, unless an exclusion zone is established below the area where roofing works are being carried out and the slope of the roof is less than 15 degrees an additional mid-rail to ensure the nominal clear distance between rails does not exceed 450mm, and a third rail or in-fill panel where the distance, through which a person may fall, between the work surface and the mid rail exceeds 250mm. The Code of Practice: Scaffolding [under development] provides information on the requirements of using and installing these types of systems as guardrail or fall arrest platforms, and working on roofs with a pitch over 26 degrees. Where the slope of the roof exceeds 35 degrees, the roof is an inappropriate surface to stand on. Perimeter guardrails and catch platforms are inappropriate measures to protect workers on a steeply sloping roof. In these circumstances, roof workers need a system to prevent sliding and to prevent falls from the perimeter, comprising one or more of the following: aerial access equipment, such as an elevating work platform a work positioning system, such as travel restraint or industrial rope access system a scaffold platform, located at the roof edge (fall arrest platform), or a roof ladder. Proprietary systems should be configured, installed, used and dismantled in accordance with the manufacturers instructions. Before using a guard rail system, a check should be undertaken to ensure it is adequate for potential loads. The required load resistance will depend on the momentum of a falling person. For example, the momentum of a person falling from a pitched roof will increase as the pitch (or angle) of the roof increases. For further guidance, refer to AS/NZS 4994 Temporary Edge Protection. Perimeter safety screens Perimeter safety screens are a protective structure fixed to the perimeter of a building, structure or working platform to prevent objects and people from falling. They can also be used to redirect a falling object onto a catch platform. A perimeter safety screen can be an effective physical barrier control measure to protect workers and others within the boundary of the construction workplace and to protect others exposed to the risk of falling objects outside the boundary of the construction workplace. Perimeter safety screens should not have any gaps greater than 25mm.

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Mesh used for perimeter safety screening should be made of at least 2.5mm diameter steel with a tensile strength of at least 380MPa and the openings within the mesh should not be over: if the mesh has lining securely attached to the inside of the mesh - 50mm in any direction, or Otherwise - 25mm in any direction. Lining includes intact shade cloth or another intact lining that, when tested in accordance with method A in AS 2001.2.4, has a mean bursting pressure of at least 1000kPa. Catch platform or safety nets A catch platform or safety net is a temporary platform and/or net located below a work area that is designed to catch a worker or a falling object and sustain the maximum potential impact load. A catch platform and/or net is an effective physical barrier control measure to protect workers and others within the boundary of the construction workplace who are exposed to a fall risk or the risk of falling objects. It may also provide protection to others exposed to the risk of falling objects outside the boundary of the construction workplace. If a catch platform used or to be used as a control measure is installed, extended or reduced, the person conducting a business or undertaking should ensure that control measures are used to prevent a component of the platform falling on persons while the platform is being installed, extended or reduced. Overhead protective structures (Gantry) A gantry is a structure that has an overhead platform and a hoarding at least 1800mm high that is fully sheeted with timber, plywood, metal or sturdy synthetic sheets, running along its length, and is designed to be able to stop an object that may reasonably be expected to fall on it. A gantry is an effective physical barrier control measure to protect persons moving about within the area covered by the gantry. However, a gantry should be used in conjunction with other control measures to eliminate or minimise the risk from falling objects to health and safety. Exclusion zones The closure of part or all of an adjoining work or public area to form an exclusion zone can be an effective control measure to protect persons from the risk of falling objects. However, as an administrative control it should be used in conjunction with other controls and will require direct supervision to ensure it remains effective. The establishment of an exclusion zone may necessitate the erection of appropriate signage and/or barriers and the use of traffic controllers depending on the ease of access and the ability of workers or members of the public to access the area. The provision of perimeter fencing around the area will assist the operation of exclusion zones. If an adjoining public area is to be closed, a person conducting a business or undertaking should, before construction work starts, do each of the following: ensure that written approval to close the area is obtained from the authority (for example, a local government authority or police service) or other person who controls the area, and if an authority controls the area, use any measures for the closure required by the authority, for example: o physical barriers to prevent use of a footpath or road o signs about the closure and to direct traffic o signs directing pedestrians to use another footpath or access way, and

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traffic controllers to direct pedestrians or other traffic.

Lifting loads over adjoining public area Generally, loads should not be lifted over people or property. If it is necessary to do so, a person conducting a business or undertaking should ensure that, before the work starts: the adjoining area is closed at least to the extent necessary to prevent objects falling on or otherwise hitting persons in the adjoining area, or a gantry is erected that provides adequate protection to persons in the adjoining area against falling objects if the load were to fall, for example, if a pallet of scaffolding components is to be lifted over an adjoining area, the downwards force that the gantrys overhead platform must be able to withstand is: o if the force applied by the pallet and components is less than or equal to 10kPa 10kPa, or o if the force applied by the pallet and components is greater than 10kPa - the force applied by the pallet and components. Hoardings and barricades A hoarding or barricade when erected to protect a person from a falling object must be designed to be able to stop an object that may reasonably be expected to strike it from entering the adjoining area. The hoarding or barricade must be strong enough and appropriately designed and erected for the circumstances in which it is used, including the location of the workplace and the type of work to be carried out near the hoarding or barricade. Controls to protect other persons including members of the public Before deciding on an appropriate control measure for members of the public consideration must be given to the highest point of the structure where work is to be performed and an object could fall and its proximity to the boundary line. A hoarding, barricade or gantry that can stop an object that has fallen from the highest point of the structure from striking a member of the public at or beyond the boundary line may be an appropriate control measure to minimise the risk of falling objects to the public. If a hoarding, barricade or gantry cannot ensure that an object that has fallen from the highest point of the structure will not strike a member of the public at or beyond the boundary line, then the person conducting a business or undertaking should consider controlling the risk by using perimeter safety screening, or a gantry, or by closing part or all of the adjoining area. Controls when erecting or dismantling formwork/falsework or demolition work A person conducting a business or undertaking must ensure that, before the construction work involving erecting or dismantling formwork or demolition work starts they must implement appropriate control measures to prevent objects falling on or otherwise hitting persons. These control measures may include: For other persons and members of the public: the adjoining area, being that beside the boundary line, is closed at least to the extent necessary to prevent objects falling on or otherwise hitting other persons or members of the public. For other persons and members of the public as well as workers within the workplace:

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perimeter safety screening is erected along each part of a structure from which an object could fall. scaffolding erected with perimeter safety screening, mesh or mesh fitted with a prescribed lining is erected along each part of a structure from which an object could fall.

Further guidance on formwork/falsework and demolition work is available in: Code of Practice: Formwork and Falsework [under development], and [draft] Code of Practice: Demolition Work. Further guidance on controlling the risk of falls is available in the: Code of Practice: How to Prevent Falls at Workplaces, and [draft] Code of Practice: Preventing Falls in Housing Construction. Further information on managing the risks of falls is also available in AS/NZS 1891: Industrial fallarrest systems and devices - Selection, use and maintenance. 8.2 Traffic management

Any construction work that is carried out on, in or adjacent to a road, railway, shipping lane or other traffic corridor that is in use by traffic other than pedestrians is defined by the WHS Regulations as high risk construction work and a SWMS must be prepared before this work commences. Managing traffic is essential to providing a safe and healthy construction workplace. Traffic can include construction vehicles (for example, cars, utes, trucks), non-construction vehicles (for example, delivery trucks, private vehicles), powered mobile plant and pedestrians. Vehicles and powered mobile plant moving in and around workplaces, reversing, loading and unloading, are activities frequently linked with workplace injuries and fatalities. Traffic management planning details the work to be undertaken and the stages involved, identifies the frequency of interaction of construction vehicles, powered mobile plant and pedestrians, evaluates the effectiveness of any risk control measures, lists contacts and who has responsibilities or needs to be notified, describes the management of emergencies, the impact on the general area and how these impacts are to be managed. Elements to take into account in traffic management planning include pedestrian and traffic routing, traffic demand, traffic controls and the types of controls needed, requirements for special vehicles (over-dimensional), emergency services and workplace access, parking requirements and welfare facilities for visiting drivers. Traffic management planning should set out the preferred travel paths for vehicles associated with a workplace, including points to enter and leave the workplace, haul routes for debris or plant/materials, or traffic crossing another stream of traffic. Planning should include traffic taming concepts to limit speed and limit the potential to take incorrect paths. The planning should include arrangements for persons, powered mobile plant and vehicle traffic in the work area and also identify travel paths on routes remote from the workplace such as places to turn around, dump material, access ramps and side roads. Workplaces should be arranged so that persons are able to move safely to and from as well as within the workplace. Pedestrian and vehicle pathways need to be kept free of obstruction and the movement and speed of vehicles and plant should be managed in a way to minimise the risk of injury to pedestrians and operators.

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Vehicle and pedestrian movement should be planned and controlled so that pedestrians and plant can operate safely at the workplace at the same time. Where practicable, the two should be kept separate and work in separate areas. The movement of visitors should be limited with barriers and signage. Prior to commencement of any excavation that affects roads or traffic movement, traffic management planning should be completed to include, where necessary, a traffic controller, traffic signals (portable or permanent), barricades and any road closures. Traffic management planning should be in written form and available at the workplace at all times. Further guidance on traffic management activities is available in the Code of Practice: Traffic management for work on or near roads [under development]. 8.3 Essential services

Essential services include the supply of gas, water, sewerage, telecommunications, electricity, chemicals, fuel and refrigerant in pipes or lines. It is the duty of the principal contractor to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that persons working on or about essential services at a construction project are without risks to health and safety. Any construction work that is carried out: on or near pressurised gas distribution mains or piping on or near chemical, fuel or refrigerant lines, or on or near energised electrical installations is defined by the WHS Regulations as high risk construction work and a SWMS must be prepared before this work commences. Before work commences, the principal contractor must find out from appropriate sources what services are at or near the location where the work is to be done that could create a risk if contacted or damaged. Services may be underground or hidden in floor slabs and behind walls. Underground essential services The WHS Regulations require that before commencing excavation work, a person conducting a business or undertaking must take all reasonable steps to obtain current underground services information that relates to the workplace and areas adjacent to the workplace. Where there are underground essential services and excavation work is to be undertaken, the WHS Regulations current information on the services must be obtained prior to commencing work and: there must be regard for the information during the work the information must be readily available for inspection under the WHS Act make the information available to any principal contractor and subcontractors, and retain the information until the excavation is completed or, if there is a notifiable incident relating to the excavation, 2 years after the incident occurs. General location of underground services can be determined by a number of different methods including: contacting organisations that can assist in locating underground services (for example, DIAL BEFORE YOU DIG) search of records held by the client, and those used by specialist organisations/devices.

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It may be necessary to use multiple methods to locate all services. Ways to verify the exact location of a service include: using those used by specialist organisations/devices vacuum (suction) excavation, or hand digging using appropriate hand tools, such as with non-conductive handles. This information should be recorded in writing and given to other contractors or subcontractors at the workplace, so the information is considered when planning all work in the area. 8.4 Hazardous manual tasks

A manual task is a task requiring the person to use force to lift, lower, push, pull, carry or otherwise move, hold or restrain any person, animal or thing. Manual tasks cover a wide range of activities including: operating mobile plant, using hand held tools, erecting and dismantling scaffolding, handling materials such as steel, timber, and bricks. Sometimes tasks are made more difficult by the person having restricted movement such as work on ladders and elevated work platforms. Equipment, tasks and work environments should be designed and/or selected so that manual handling risks are eliminated or minimised so far as is reasonably practicable. Examples include using well-designed and suitable plant to lift and move materials and the supply of materials in easy to handle sizes and weights and reducing the carrying distance. Some of the ways that risks involved with manual tasks can be eliminated or minimised, include: purchasing pre-packaged materials in smaller bags/containers or have materials supplied and handled in bulk improve the design and ease of handling of materials and components such as plasterboard, glass, mirrors and roof trusses by making them lighter weight or incorporate lifting points able to be handled with mechanical aids; use mechanical aids such as cranes, hoists, forklifts; laser screed for concreting; a brick elevator to deliver materials to elevated work areas; and vacuum lifters for windows and sheet materials store building materials and tools between waist and shoulder height and use work benches to reduce the amount of bending ensure clear access and adequate space where manual tasks are being performed ensure materials are placed close to where the work is being done to reduce the distance that loads are being handled ensure tools and equipment are well maintained ensure the right tool for the job is used organise the work to o reduce the frequency and duration that a worker performs a task; o ensure that the worker has regular rest breaks o reduce congestion by proper sequencing of work o ensure that there are adequate numbers of workers, ensure adequate supervision provide manual tasks training and ensure worker competency for the task control vibration at its source by purchasing vibration damped equipment and engine mountings

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The best time to make sure that all the risks are controlled is during the design and planning stage of the project. Consult with designers and those involved in planning the work to ensure that the work process which impact manual tasks have been considered and managed. Brief the designers and engineers designing the structures to consider the manual task implications for the life cycle of the design including cleaning and maintenance. Modify tasks or equipment involved in manual tasks to make sure risk is eliminated or minimised. Specify to suppliers that their materials, equipment, products and their packaging, including the way they are delivered, are designed to reduce the risk of injury to your workers. Further guidance on managing the risks involved with manual tasks is available in the Code of Practice: Hazardous Manual Tasks. 8.5 Hazardous chemicals

Construction work can occur at workplaces that contain or have contained hazardous materials, including chemicals. Hazardous chemicals may also be used in construction work, for example, where chemical stabilisation techniques or chemical anchors are used. The risks arising from potential exposure to hazardous chemicals should be assessed and controlled in accordance with the WHS Regulations. The [draft] Code of Practice: Managing Risks of Hazardous Chemicals provides detailed guidance on chemical risk controls and technical information for all industries. The following information is provided to assist with chemical management at a construction workplace. Anyone working with hazardous chemicals must be made aware of the risks and provided with adequate controls (refer to hierarchy of controls in Chapter 2 of this Code). Any contractor or subcontractor introducing new chemicals to the workplace must provide details of the chemicals to the principal contractor. Hazardous Chemicals Register A hazardous chemicals register is a list of all the hazardous chemicals that are used, handled or stored at the workplace along with the safety data sheet for each chemical. This information may be maintained either as a hard copy or in electronic format. The register must be kept in a place that is easily accessible to workers and other persons that may come in contact with the chemicals including emergency service personnel. Safety Data Sheets (SDS) The manufacturer or importer must supply a SDS for every hazardous chemical. This sheet contains information about the substance including chemical composition, PPE requirements, safe storage and handling practices and what to do during an emergency involving the hazardous chemical. Safety data sheets are required to be reviewed every 5 years. The register should include the most up to date version of the SDS (that is, less than 5 years old). Further guidance on safety data sheets is available in the Code of Practice: Preparation of Safety Data Sheets for Hazardous Chemicals. Contaminated materials Before starting any construction work, the workplace should be examined to determine whether: there is anything which could be a fire and/or explosion risk

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any previous use of the site might cause a risk because of the nature of and/or decomposition of materials, and there are any toxic, radioactive or other hazardous materials present.

Any hazardous materials should be clearly identified so that adequate risk controls can be implemented to ensure the health and safety of everyone on or near the workplace. If the nature of the material cannot be easily and reliably determined, samples should be taken and analysed by a competent person. Some hazardous materials will need to be specially removed and disposed of. The principal contractor and/or the construction contractor has the responsibility of informing all workers of the presence of hazardous materials or chemicals, as well as the measures for controlling exposure and safe disposal. Safety Data Sheets (SDS) for hazardous chemicals must be readily available for reference. Materials that can present a physical, chemical and/or biological risk to human health include some forms of metals (such as lead, cadmium and mercury), toxic elements and compounds: hydrocarbons and chlorinated hydrocarbons; pesticides: toxic, explosive and asphyxiant gases; combustible substances; biologically active substances and micro-organisms; hazardous wastes: radioactive wastes and other material such as asbestos, synthetic mineral fibres and silica dust. People may be exposed to contaminants through inhalation (breathing), ingestion (swallowing) or absorption (through the skin and or eyes). Appropriate, clean facilities and amenities need to be provided for workers to minimise risks where there are hazardous materials present. Where contaminated materials are found to be present, an appropriate assessment of the exposure levels should be undertaken before selecting the control measures. A risk assessment process should be used to determine the engineering controls, work practices and workplace atmospheric or biological monitoring required. Monitoring measures the amount that workers may be exposed to any contaminants or hazardous substances and may be needed as a part of the risk assessment or to check that control measures are effective. Monitoring of airborne contaminants such as dust and fumes involves taking air samples and checking against the relevant standard. Some of these contaminants may be hazardous chemicals that have exposure standards that must be observed. Details of exposure standards are set out in the manufacturers Safety Data Sheet (SDS) or in the Workplace Exposure Standards for Airborne Contaminants. Control measures for the handling and removal of the contaminated material will be required. The following are examples of control measures for hazardous substances contained in dust: extracting dust at the point of generation and collecting it in such a manner so as not to affect the health and safety of persons at the workplace using water, detergents or other substances to suppress dust at the point of generation using tools fitted with dust extraction and/or with a water attachment using low pressure water sprays sufficient to suppress dust fitting water applicators onto machinery rather than hand holding them fitting appropriate air filtering systems to the air conditioning units of excavators and other machinery growing vegetation on stockpiles or covering them covering trucks removing material before leaving the workplace spraying water over areas to be ripped and leaving overburden in place when ripping limiting exposures to dust, and

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using respirators that are capable of preventing persons inhaling hazardous dust or other airborne contaminants at the concentration and duration of the exposure.

Hazardous atmospheres An atmosphere is a hazardous atmosphere if: the atmosphere does not have a safe oxygen level the concentration of oxygen in the atmosphere increases the fire risk the concentration of a flammable gas, vapour, mist, or fumes is more than 5 percent of the lower explosive limit for the gas, vapour, mist or fumes, or a hazardous chemical in the form of a combustible dust is present in a quantity and form that would result in a hazardous area. Construction work involving the use of flammable solvents will give rise to airborne flammable vapours which if allowed to accumulate and exceed the lower explosive limit, will pose a risk of ignition. In addition to controlling potential ignition sources, ensure that adequate ventilation is provided during the use, handling and storage of flammable substances. Gases and fumes Gases and fumes can collect in enclosed spaces or excavations and displace oxygen (for example, gases, such as methane and sulphur dioxide; engine fumes, such as carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, and leakage from gas bottles, fuel tanks/lines, sewers, drains, gas pipes and LPG tanks). The gases or fumes most likely to be found in various kinds of excavations are listed in Table 1 below. Note that some of these gases can be toxic, flammable and/or an asphyxiant, as shown in Table 2. Where a risk assessment indicates the possibility of airborne contaminants, the workplace should be tested by a competent person using appropriate detection equipment. Test should be conducted with reference to the Workplace Exposure Standards for Airborne Contaminants. If airborne contaminants are detected, the risk of exposure must be eliminated where reasonably practicable. This may require the identification of the source (for example, a leaking pipe) and its removal (for example, pipe repair). Where the risk of exposure cannot be eliminated, tests should also be carried out before work starts and at regular intervals throughout the period of work. Mechanical ventilation or exhausts may be required to achieve safe oxygen and contaminant levels.

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Table 1: Gases commonly found in excavations and trenches


Gases or fumes found Methane, hydrogen sulphide Carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide Carbon dioxide, methane, hydrogen sulphide Natural gas and carbon dioxide Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, sulphur dioxide, methane Petrol fumes, LPG, kerosene Type of ground Peaty ground and decaying organic matter Filled and made ground Reclaimed land and tip fills City streets Thermal areas Petroleum installation and service stations

Table 2: Toxic, flammable and asphyxiate gases


Gas Methane Hydrogen sulphide Carbon dioxide Natural gas Carbon monoxide Sulphur Dioxide Petrol Fumes, LPG Kerosene Toxic Flammable Asphyxiant

Where testing reveals an oxygen deficient or contaminated atmosphere, the work should stop until adequate risk controls have been implemented. Where this is not practicable, appropriate respiratory protective equipment must be selected and used. If combustible or explosive gases are suspected, all persons including members of the public must be evacuated from the workplace and kept away from the area until control measures are implemented. Where a hazardous work area is identified, the area should be secured against unauthorised entry and appropriately signed. Further guidance on respiratory protective equipment can be found in the: Code of Practice: Managing the Work Environment and Facilities, and Guidance Material: Personal Protective Equipment [under development]. Fire and combustible material not to be accumulated Flammable or combustible substances include: flammable and combustible liquids such as petrol and diesel fuels, adhesives and resins, enamel paints and associated thinners and lacquers, and oils, and gas cylinders whether empty or full such as acetylene and LPG.

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These materials contribute to the fire load at a construction workplace and hence their quantities should be minimised to reduce the fire risk. Further information on the storage and handling of combustible material is available in AS 1940: The storage and handling of flammable and combustible liquids. Ignition sources Flammable or combustible gases, vapours, dusts and mists may be generated or evolve within a hazardous chemical storage and handling environment. These can form explosive mixtures with air in certain proportions. An area where an explosive atmosphere may occur is described as a hazardous area. An ignition source is any source of energy sufficient to ignite a flammable atmosphere. Ignition sources at a construction workplace may include: naked flames, including those from blow torches, heaters, pilot lights, driers, cigarettes, lighters and matches static electricity (for example, generated by workers clothing) heat from portable equipment friction from moving parts, such as fan blades rubbing nearby surfaces sparks from grinding and welding internal combustion engines and vehicles, and electric equipment, such as power points, extension cords, power tools, switches, lighting, appliances and battery-powered forklift trucks, radio transmitters and mobile phones which are not rated for a hazardous area. Potential ignition sources as described above must be controlled where flammable substances are used, handled or stored. Further guidance on welding is available in the [draft] Code of Practice: Welding and Allied Processes. Further information on welding is available in AS 4361.1: Safety in welding and allied processes Fire precautions. Dust The work method selected should minimise the creation and release of dust into the air, for example, silicosis, concrete and lead dust. Traffic management planning should include minimising vehicle pathways and the use of watering systems to limit airborne dust generation. 8.6 Asbestos

Any construction work, including demolition and refurbishment work that involves the disturbance of asbestos is defined by the WHS Regulations as high risk construction work and a SWMS, including a copy of the asbestos register, must be prepared before this work commences. When carrying out construction work, it is possible that asbestos may be found in the workplace or in materials being used at the workplace, for example: asbestos cement products such as roof and wall cladding, bath panels, boiler and incinerator flues, gutters, rainwater pipes, and water tanks textiles asbestos felts, ropes, fire blankets and woven asbestos cable sheathing sprayed insulation materials used for fire-proofing, thermal protection, insulation and soundproofing

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lagging and other loosely bound insulation materials used in a wide range of electrical, thermal and acoustic applications sprayed ('impet') asbestos on structural beams and girders lagging on pipework, boilers, calorifiers, and heat exchangers, and asbestos insulating board - ceiling tiles, partition walls, service duct covers, fire breaks, heater cupboards, door panels, lift shaft lining, fire surrounds, and soffits.

The WHS Regulations require the person with management or control of a workplace to ensure all asbestos or ACM at the workplace is identified (or assumed present) by a competent person and an asbestos register is prepared for the workplace. The asbestos register must be kept up-to-date. Where asbestos is only temporarily in the workplace In some cases it may not be necessary to include asbestos or ACM that is only temporarily in the workplace. For example, plant that contains asbestos is being repaired at the workplace but it is only there for a short period while being repaired, it does not need to be recorded in the asbestos register because it is only temporarily present at the workplace. However, if plant is often at the workplace, (for example, where the company specialises in repairing plant that typically contains asbestos) it would be important to include this in the asbestos register. Note that where work involving asbestos is carried out, there are requirements to ensure the safety of the worker. Where there is no asbestos register at the workplace An asbestos register is not required if a workplace has been constructed after 31 December 2003 or if no asbestos has been identified. If there is no asbestos register at the workplace but asbestos is identified during the course of any work being carried out, the person with management or control of the workplace should be advised who must then identify it (or ensure a competent person identifies it) and prepare a register. For buildings constructed prior to 31 December 2003, it should be presumed that the building contains asbestos unless the person is certain that the building is clear of asbestos containing materials. As there will be no asbestos register at a domestic premise, the homeowner or landlord must be advised if asbestos is identified and the amount and quantity should be determined without disturbing it. A licensed asbestos removalist may be required to remove and dispose of the asbestos. Detailed guidance on asbestos registers is available in the Code of Practice: How to Manage and Control Asbestos in the Workplace. Demolition and refurbishment Prior to carrying out any work at a workplace, the person with management of control of a workplace must review the workplace asbestos register, provide a copy of the asbestos register to the person who is carrying out the demolition or refurbishment work and identify any asbestos that may be disturbed and remove it so far as is reasonably practicable. When planning demolition or refurbishment, the person carrying out the work must review the asbestos register and should consider: the location of asbestos in relation to the proposed demolition or refurbishment if there are inaccessible areas that are likely to contain asbestos whether asbestos is likely to be damaged or disturbed as a result of the demolition or refurbishment work if yes, can it be removed safely before work commences?

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type and condition of asbestos present amount of asbestos present method of demolition or refurbishment and how will it affect the asbestos. the nature of the ACM (friable or non-friable), and how the demolished construction material and waste is to be disposed of including the loading of materials on trucks and covering of these loads.

Further guidance on managing asbestos when demolition and refurbishment work is being carried out is available in the Code of Practice: How to Manage and Control Asbestos in the Workplace. Further guidance on removing asbestos is available in the Code of Practice: How to Safely Remove Asbestos. Further guidance on demolition work is available in the [draft] Code of Practice: Demolition Work. 8.7 Confined spaces

Any construction work, including excavation work that involves a confined space is defined by the WHS Regulations as high risk construction work and a SWMS must be prepared before this work commences. A confined space is an enclosed or partially enclosed space that: is not designed or intended primarily to be occupied or entered by a person is, or is designed or intended to be, at normal atmospheric pressure while any person is in the space, and o presents a risk to health and safety from: o an atmosphere that does not have a safe oxygen level o contaminants, including airborne gases, vapours and dusts, that may cause injury from fire or explosion o harmful concentrations of any airborne contaminants, or o engulfment. A confined space does not include a mine shaft or the workings of a mine. A person has entered a confined space if: the person's head or upper body is in the confined space or within the boundary of the confined space, or the person is in close proximity to an opening into the confined space in such circumstances that there is a serious risk that the person's head or upper body will inadvertently enter the confined space. Regardless of why confined spaces are entered, all hazards must be thoroughly assessed prior to any persons entering. The work activities carried out in a confined space can indicate the hazards that may be present. For example, the use of hazardous chemicals can lead to oxygen deficiency, atmospheric contaminants or flammable atmospheres. Some of the hazards that may be associated with confined spaces include ignition hazards from welding and cutting, atmospheric hazards which cause the environment to be contaminated with harmful substance or oxygen deficient or oxygen enriched, engulfment hazards from sand and soil and noise hazards from the operation of equipment and plant.

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To minimise the risks associated with working in a confined space consider: the nature of the confined space if a hazard is associated with the level of oxygen or the level of airborne contaminants in the confined space, any change that may occur in the level of oxygen or the contaminant the work to be carried out in the confined space, the range of methods by which the work can be carried out and the proposed method of working the means of entry to and exit from the confined space, and the type of emergency procedures required. Other issues that need to be addressed include confined space entry permits, signage, communication, atmospheric monitoring and exposure standards, training and instruction, flammable gases and rescue procedures. Further guidance about managing risks associated with working in a confined space is available in the Code of Practice: Confined Spaces. 8.8 Public access and workplace security

Unauthorised entry to a construction workplace can expose persons to a number of hazards that, if not controlled, could result in fatalities or serious injuries. Risks include electric shock from live cables, falling into open excavations, suffocation or crushing from collapsing material. Either the principal contractor of the construction workplace and the person with management or control of the workplace must ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the workplace is secured to prevent unauthorised access. In most cases, risks to unauthorised persons entering the workplace can be controlled with fencing. When fences are installed around the perimeter of the workplace, either permanent or temporary, it should be maintained until unauthorised entrants are no longer at risk. For example, locks should be fitted to fencing to prevent unauthorised access and they should be tested regularly. When constructing the fence, it must be: of a suitable height to deter entry, for example 1.8 metres high constructed from dedicated materials difficult to climb difficult to gain access underneath stable and able to withstand anticipated loads, and secured by installing gates and joints so there is no weak point for entry. Unauthorised persons, including children, are more likely to comply with a physical barrier, such as a fence, than a warning sign. In certain circumstances construction workplaces may require specific security measures to be implemented which could include the employment of security officers and the use of electronic swipe cards to prevent unauthorised access. The security of plant and equipment left unattended at the workplace will also need to be addressed examples of these would include: locking electrical switchboards securing fuels and hazardous substances locking mobile plant and safe storage of keys, and safe storage of plant and equipment.

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8.9

Electricity

Before starting construction work, consideration needs to be given to the type of construction work to be carried out and how electricity will be involved. If electrical work is being carried out, this work must be carried out in accordance with AS/NZS 3012: Electrical installations Construction and demolition sites. When planning how wiring will be installed at a construction workplace, factors to take into account include: how construction wiring will be supplied to the workplace the height of the structure the use of distribution boards and switchboards ensuring mechanical protection for the construction wiring the marking of the construction wiring the allowable lengths of lead for flexible cords and extension sets and how to protect them assemblies of portable socket outlets the lighting, including emergency lighting any inspection and testing requirements, and Residual Current Devices (RCDs) fitted for all construction wiring. Persons carrying out electrical work are required to hold a relevant electrical work licence. There are hazards associated with working near electric lines and a risk of accidental contact with the lines occurring (see Section 8.10 of this Code). Further guidance about electricity in the workplace is available in the [draft] Code of Practice: Managing Electrical Risks at the Workplace. 8.10 Plant

All construction workplaces will have items plant being used on a daily basis, ranging from handheld tools to powered mobile plant and earthmoving machinery. Detailed guidance on managing the risks of plant is available in the [draft] Code of Practice: Managing the Risks of Plant at the Workplace Powered mobile plant The use of powered mobile plant is defined as being high risk construction work in the WHS Regulations and as such, requires the preparation of a SWMS before work commences. The WHS Regulations require the person with management or control of powered mobile plant at a workplace to, as far as is reasonably practicable: eliminate the risk of plant overturning, or colliding with a person or thing eliminate the risk of things falling on the operator or the operator being ejected from the plant ensure that appropriate operator protective devices are provided, used and maintained ensure that no person other than the operator rides on the plant without being provide the same protection as the operator ensure that the plant has a warning device if there is the possibility of a collision with a pedestrian. Plant operating near overhead electric lines Any construction work that is carried out on or near energised electrical installations or services is defined by the WHS Regulations as high risk construction work and a SWMS must be prepared before this work commences.

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If plant comes into contact with an overhead or underground electric line it may become electrified and pose a serious risk to the operator and any persons nearby. In addition to direct electric shock and possible electrocution, contact with electric lines can lead to a variety of hazardous conditions including fire, unpredictable cable whiplash and the electrifying of other objects (for example, signs, poles, surrounding earth, trees or branches). Specific risk control measures must be implemented when work is done in the vicinity of electric lines whether they are overhead or underground. The relevant authority should be consulted and appropriate risk controls implemented. When excavators, other earthmoving machinery, or similar items of plant are operated near overhead electric lines, a thorough examination of the approaches and surroundings of the workplace must be carried out before taking the plant to the workplace and setting it up. This examination will determine whether precautions need to be taken to prevent any part of the plant or any load carried on it from coming too close or contacting overhead electric lines: Guarding plant Wherever practical, guarding should be provided on moving parts of plant to minimise the risk of injury. Guards should be designed to help prevent the following type of injuries: cutting amputation injuries injuries from projectiles, and being struck by rotating parts. Guards supplied by the plant manufacturer should be used with the plant in accordance with the manufacturers instructions and should not be removed. Manufacturers of plant need to supply comprehensive information on the safe use of the guard and workers need to be provided with the information. Some items of plant used on construction workplaces that require guarding include the following: Portable concrete mixers -fixed guards over gear or belt type drive systems. Circular saws full retractable guards. Brick cutting machines generally a minimum 180 degree guard over the top half of the blade. Concrete cutting saws generally a minimum 180 degree guard that can be partially rotated around the cutting blade and locked in position. Brick elevators - guarding over drive systems. Angle grinders - generally a minimum 180 degree guard that can be partially rotated around the cutting blade and locked in position. Note: where tungsten tipped multi cutter blades are used on angle grinders a full guard that requires constant hand pressure to disengage is to be used (that is, similar to guarding required on circular saws). Lifts and hoists Lifts and hoists are registrable plant under Schedule 5 of the WHS Regulations. When construction work is being performed on high rise projects consideration needs to be given to how persons and materials will be able to access all levels. The height of the structure will determine what type of hoist may be considered for the project. Things to consider when selecting a hoist: height of the structure expected number of persons at the workplace

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type of materials requiring transport, and workplace access.

Lifts Persons required to work on and use lifts are to ensure safe working conditions and practices (supported by training) for those responsible for, and involved in, new lift installations and new construction. Further information on the safety of persons when entering and leaving the work area on a lift installation and while working there and the safety of others in the vicinity, whether working or not, who may be endangered by the action of those working on lifts is available in Information is available in AS/NZS 4431: Guidelines for safe working on new lift installations in new constructions. Hoists Persons required to work on and use hoists are to ensure safe working provisions and practices (supported by training) for those responsible for, and involved in, hoist installations. Further information is available in AS 1418.16: Cranes (including hoists and winches) - Mast climbing work platforms. Builders hoists When installing or using any type of hoist, documentation should be available showing the hoist is all in accordance with the manufacturers instructions. Further information on the planning, selection, siting, erection and dismantling, personnel, maintenance, inspection and repair of hoists is available in AS 2550.7: The safe use of builders' hoists and associated equipment. Plant not in use Hazards and risks can present themselves to workers and others when plant is not stored, secured, isolated or positioned appropriately at a construction workplace. Examples of practices where plant is left in an unsecure and unsafe state include: Ignition keys being left in mobile plant. Energy sources not locked and secured when the workplace is closed. Tools and Equipment left unattended in access ways. Mobile plant parked in emergency access areas. Control measures to ensure that plant is left in a safe and secure condition could include: designated and fenced areas for mobile plant parking locks and isolation procedures secure storage boxes and shelving for hand held tools and electrical leads ventilation systems for areas where substances are stored, and barricades and signage installed and permit to work systems implemented. 8.11 Noise

A person conducting a business or undertaking must prevent workers from being exposed to noise levels that exceed the exposure standard. Over exposure can result in reduced or permanent loss of hearing. Before work commences, noise sources and ways to eliminate or reduce exposure to excessive noise need to be identified. For example, a supplier or plant operator can help to identify ways to limit worker noise exposure both inside and outside the plant.
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Examples of noise control measures include: use an alternative, quieter working method or equipment to minimise the noise (substitution) isolate workers and other persons from the noise source by relocating or enclosing noisy equipment (isolation) install silencers on intake and exhaust systems to minimise noise (engineering) establish flexible working hours and exclusion zones to minimise exposure to a particular noise source (administrative), and provide workers with personal hearing protection such as ear plugs, ear canal caps, ear muffs, and hearing protective helmets (PPE). Further guidance about managing risks associated with noise is available in the Code of Practice: Managing Noise and Preventing Hearing Loss at Work. 8.12 Steel construction

Steel construction is any work to erect assembled portions and single components of structural steel, such as: columns beams bracing rafters purlins girts bridging and fly bracing trusses, and other related steelwork for example, free standing structures. Persons involved in the erection of structural steel components are required to hold a high risk work licence as a rigger. Any construction work that involves a risk of a person falling more than 2 metres is defined by the WHS Regulations as high risk construction work and a SWMS must be prepared before this work commences. Factors which can cause a person to fall include: moving from one surface to another the inability of a surface to support a load openings or holes not identified or protected open edges that are not protected by way of edge protection slippery surfaces equipment, tools or rubbish obstructing work areas incorrect or inappropriate use of ladders struck by a moving or falling objects, and travel restraint systems and devices not being provided or not used correctly. Section 8.1 of this Code provides further guidance on managing fall risks.

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8.13

Concrete placing

Concrete placing equipment can have a high level of risk and therefore it is extremely important to use plant that is manufactured and maintained to high standards. Concrete placement units with delivery booms, both vehicle and static mounted, must be both design and item registered under Schedule 6 of the WHS Regulations. The safe operation of concrete placing equipment requires high levels of competence and equipment preparation. Examples of hazards and risks associated with concrete placing operations include: Overturning of mobile concrete placement booms due to ground stability and short legging. Contact with moving parts. Contact with overhead electric lines. Concrete contacting workers body parts. Collapse of concrete placement booms. Rupture of concrete placement lines. Hose whip from line blockages. Manual handling of hose and pipes. When setting up for concrete pumping operations the following issues should be addressed: The plant is set-up, operated and maintained as per the manufacturers instructions. The pumping unit is set up and managed so that it can operate safely if in the vicinity of overhead electric lines or other hazardous items. The plant is set up on firm and level ground with timber or pads under outrigger feet. The outriggers feet are set up a safe distance from excavations and soft ground. Outriggers are always fully extended unless the boom manufacturer states short legging is permitted and you have followed the manufacturers instructions. Suitable PPE is worn (for example, safety glasses, gloves, footwear and hearing protection). A person with management or control of a concrete pump must ensure that the pump is: provided with adequate guarding and interlocks to eliminate, so far as is reasonably practicable, the risk of injury from entanglement, crushing or amputation as a result of contact with any moving parts in the concrete delivery hopper provided with concrete delivery pipes and connecting clamps that are able to withstand the pressures applied by the concrete pumping operation without failing subjected to regular thickness inspection, and operated in a manner that ensures that the risks to the operator of the unit and other persons at or near the workplace that arise from systems of work and the environment in which the unit is used are eliminated, so far as is reasonably practicable, or if it is not reasonably practicable to eliminate the risks, minimised so far as is reasonably practicable. A person with management or control of a concrete placement boom should ensure that it: is installed and operated in a manner that will prevent overturning or collapse of the concrete placement boom operated in a manner that prevents rapid or uncontrolled movement of concrete delivery pipes and hoses that could result in injury receives an annual safety inspection by a competent person, and receives a major inspection by a competent person at intervals not exceeding 6 years. The major inspection is to include items on the plant inspected during the annual inspection and all other critical safety components of the placement boom and its supporting structure.

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Further information on concrete placing equipment is available in AS 2550.15: Cranes Safe use Part 15: Concrete placing equipment. 8.14 Safety signage

Safety signs can be displayed to warn of a particular hazard or state the responsibilities of a particular person. The sign must be located next to the hazard and clearly visible to a person approaching the hazard. The number of signs needed depends on the size and complexity of the workplace. Signs should indicate the nature of the workplace and that unauthorised entry to the workplace is not allowed. The principal contractor must also install signs that are clearly visible from outside the workplace that shows their name and telephone contact numbers (including an after-hours telephone number) and shows the location of the project office. Other signs are required in most workplaces, including workplaces where construction takes place. These signs can indicate: the location of first aid equipment and facilities and fire extinguishing equipment the types and locations of hazardous substances and/or dangerous goods where personal protective equipment, such as head and foot protection, must be worn, and the location of and direction to the workplace amenities. Signage is an administrative control measure and should not be relied on as the sole control for a risk. Further information about signs is available in AS 1319: Safety signs for the occupational environment.

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APPENDIX A DEFINITIONS Airborne contaminant Asbestos A contaminant in the form of a fume, mist, gas, vapour or dust and includes microorganisms. The asbestiform varieties of mineral silicates belonging to the serpentine or amphibole groups of rock forming minerals including actinolite asbestos, grunerite (or amosite) asbestos (brown), anthophyllite asbestos, chrysotile asbestos (white), crocidolite asbestos (blue), and tremolite asbestos. Any material or thing that, as a part of its design, contains asbestos.

Asbestos containing material (ACM) Competent person Construction project Demolition work

A person who has acquired through training, qualification or experience the knowledge and skills to carry out the task.
Note: for certain activities, specific additional competencies are required refer to Chapter 1 of the WHS Regulations.

Design

Designer

Earthmoving machinery Essential services

Falsework

Formwork

A project that involves construction work, if the cost of the construction work is $250 000 or more Any work to demolish or dismantle a structure, or a part of a structure that is load bearing or otherwise related to the physical integrity of the structure. Demolition work does not include: a) formwork, falsework, scaffolding or other structures designed or used to provide support, access or containment during construction work; or b) the removal of power poles or telecommunication poles or similar structures. In relation to a structure, plant or substance includes: a) design of all or part of the structure, and b) to redesign or modify a design. A person who conducts a business or undertaking that designs a structure, plant or substance that is to be used as, or at a workplace, or could reasonably be expected to be used as, or at a workplace. Operator controlled plant used to excavate, load, transport, compact or spread earth, overburden, rubble, spoil, aggregate or similar material, but does not include a tractor or industrial lift truck. Services that supply: (a) gas, water, sewerage, telecommunications, electricity and similar services; or (b) chemicals, fuel and refrigerant in pipes or lines. Means any temporary structure that is used to support a permanent structure, material, plant, equipment and personnel until the construction of the permanent structure has advanced to the stage that it is self-supporting. A temporary structural support system referred to as falsework includes the foundations, footings and all structural members supporting the permanent structural elements. Falsework is commonly used to support spanning or arched structures, such as bridges, while they are being constructed. The temporary support structures for formwork (see below) used to mould concrete to form a desired shape and the scaffolding that might also give workers access to the structure being constructed is sometimes referred to as falsework. Means the surface, support and framing used to define the shape of concrete until it is self-supporting. Formwork includes the forms on which the concrete is poured, the supports which carry the forms and the concrete, the bracing which may be

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General construction induction training Hazard Lift

Notifiable incident Operator protective device Plant

Powered mobile plant Principal Contractor

Registrable plant Risk control Safe design

Scaffold Tilt-Up

added to ensure stability, as well as the foundations and footings. When complete, the formwork is sometimes referred to as the formwork assembly. The formwork supports, bracing, foundations and footings are sometimes known as falsework (see above). Training delivered in Australia by a Registered Training Organisation (RTO) for the specified unit of competency for general construction induction training. A situation or thing that has the potential to harm a person. Permanent plant or plant intended to be permanently installed in or attached to a building or structure in which people, goods or materials may be raised or lowered within a car or cage, or on a platform and the movement of which is restricted by a guide or guides and includes a chairlift, escalator, moving walk and stairway lift and any supporting structure, machinery, equipment, gear, lift well, enclosures and entrances. Means the death of a person; or a serious injury or illness of a person; or a dangerous incident. A roll-over protective structure, falling object protective structure, operator restraining device and seat belt. Includes any machinery, equipment, appliance, container, implement and tool, and includes any component or anything fitted or connected to any of those things. Plant that is provided with some form of self-propulsion that is ordinarily under the direct control of an operator. Either: the person conducting a business or undertaking that commissions the construction project, or a person conducting a business or undertaking that is engaged by the person who commissions the construction project to be the principal contractor and is authorised to have management or control of the workplace. Plant that requires design or item registration under Schedule 5 of the WHS Regulations. A measure implemented to eliminate or minimise the risk to health and safety. The integration of hazard identification and risk assessment methods early in the design process to eliminate or minimise the risks of injury throughout the life of the product being designed. It encompasses all design including facilities, hardware, systems, equipment, products, tooling, materials, energy controls, layout, and configuration. A temporary structure specifically erected to support access or working platforms. Relates to a method where a precast concrete element is cast in and lifted from a horizontal position to a vertical position by rotation about one edge and, if necessary, stabilised by bracing members until incorporated into the final structure. Essential services that use pipes, cables other associated plant located underground. In relation to proposed excavation work, means the following information relating to underground essential services that may be affected by the excavation:

Underground essential services Underground essential services

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information

(a) the essential services that may be affected (b) the location, including the depth, of any pipes, cables or other plant associated with the affected essential services, and (c) any conditions on the proposed excavation work.

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APPENDIX B TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND OTHER REFERENCES Note: this list is not exhaustive.
Standard AS 1012 (set) AS 1111 AS 1170.0 AS 1170.1 AS 1170.2 AS 1170.4 AS 1252 AS 1319 AS 1379 AS 1418 (set) AS 1554.1 AS/NZS 1576 (set) AS 1674.1 AS/NZS 1715 AS/NZS 1716 AS/NZS 1891.1 AS/NZS 1891.4 AS 1940 AS 2001.2.4 AS 2294 AS 2397 AS 2550.1 AS 2550.4 AS 2550.5 AS 2550.7 AS 2550.10 AS 2550.15 AS 2601 AS 2865 AS/NZS 3012 AS 3600 AS 3610 AS 3610 (Sup 2) AS 3799 AS 3828 AS 3850.1 AS 3850.2 AS 4100 AS 4361.1 AS/NZS 4431 Title Methods of testing concrete ISO metric hexagon bolts and screws Structural design actions General principles Structural design actionsPermanent, imposed and other actions Structural design actionsWind actions Structural design actions Earthquake actions in Australia High strength steel bolts with associated nuts and washers for structural engineering Safety signs for the occupational environment Specification and supply of concrete Cranes, hoists and winches Structural steel welding welding of steel structures Scaffolding - General requirements Guide to lead paint management-Industrial applications Selection, use and maintenance of respiratory protective equipment Respiratory protective devices Industrial fall-arrest systems and devices - Harnesses and ancillary equipment Industrial fall-arrest systems and devices - Selection, use and maintenance The storage and handling of flammable and combustible liquids Methods of test for textiles - Physical tests - Determination of bursting pressure of textile fabrics - Hydraulic diaphragm method Earth moving machinery Protective structures General Safe use of lasers in the building and construction industry Cranes, hoists and winches - Safe use - General requirements Cranes, hoists and winches Safe use Tower Cranes Cranes, hoists and winches Safe use Mobile Cranes Cranes - Safe use - Builders' hoists and associated equipment Cranes, hoists and winches Safe use Mobile elevating work platforms Cranes - Safe use - Concrete placing equipment The demolition of structures Confined spaces Electrical installations Construction and demolition sites Concrete structures Formwork for concrete Formwork for concrete Commentary Liquid membrane-forming curing compounds for concrete Guidelines for the erection of building steelwork Prefabricated concrete elements General Requirements Prefabricated concrete elements Building Construction Steel structures Safety in welding and allied processes - Fire precautions Guidelines for safe working on new lift installations in new constructions

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Standard AS/NZS 4576 AS 4744.1 AS 4991 AS 5047

Title Guidelines for scaffolding Steel shoring and trench lining Design Lifting devices Hydraulic shoring and trench lining equipment.

Other References Australian Code for the Transport of Explosives by Road and Rail (3rd edition), Commonwealth of Australia 2009 Building Code of Australia, Australian Building Codes Board 2010 Workplace Exposure Standards for Airborne Contaminants, Safe Work Australia

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APPENDIX C EXAMPLES OF THE INTERACTION BETWEEN DUTY HOLDERS Example 1 - Construction Work that is not a Construction Project
In addition to any specific duties relevant to a PCBU commissioning construction work under the WHS Act or Regulation, the PCBU may also have the following WHS duties: If they undertake any construction work then they will have the WHS duties of a contractor, and If they have management or control of the construction workplace then they will have a duty to ensure the health and safety of all workers (including contractors and subcontractors) and other persons arising from the construction work carried out at the construction workplace.

Person commissioning the construction work (Not a PCBU)

Where the person is not a PCBU, they have no duties under the WHS Act.

Person commissioning the construction work (Is a PCBU)

Contractor

A contractor will have the duty to ensure the health and safety of all workers (including subcontractors) and other persons arising from construction work carried out by the contractor. In addition: If the contractor has been delegated management and control of the construction workplace they will have the duty to ensure the health and safety of all workers (including contractors and subcontractors) and other persons arising from the construction work carried out at the construction workplace, and If the contractor is the sole contractor engaged by a person commissioning construction work who is not a PCBU they will have the duty to ensure the health and safety of all workers (including subcontractors) and other persons arising from the construction work carried out at the construction workplace.

Subcontractor

A subcontractor will have the duty to ensure the health and safety of all workers (including any further subcontractors) and other persons arising from construction work carried out by the subcontractor.

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Example 2 - Construction Work that is a Construction Project Person commissioning the construction work (Not a PCBU) Person commissioning the construction work (Is a PCBU)
In addition to any specific duties relevant to a PCBU commissioning construction work under the WHS Act or Regulation, the PCBU may also have the following WHS duties: If they undertake any construction work then they will have the WHS duties of a contractor, and If they do not appoint a PCBU as principal contractor with management and control of the construction project then the client will have the WHS duties of the principal

Where the person is not a PCBU, they have no duties under the WHS Act.

A principal contractor has a duty to ensure the health and safety of all workers (including contractors and subcontractors) and other persons arising from the construction work carried out at or in the vicinity of the construction project.

Principal Contractor

If the person commissioning construction work is not a PCBU and: a contractor has management and control of the construction project then the contractor is the principal contractor, or a contractor is the sole contractor engaged by the person commissioning construction work t then the contractor is the principal contractor.

Contractor

A contractor has a duty to ensure the health and safety of all workers (including subcontractors) and other persons arising from the construction work carried out by the contractor.

Subcontractor

A subcontractor has a duty to ensure the health and safety of all workers (including any further subcontractors) and other persons arising from the construction work carried out by the subcontractor.

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APPENDIX D SAFE WORK METHOD STATEMENT TEMPLATE


Recommended steps for filling out the SWMS template 1. Consult with relevant workers, contractors and HSRs the high risk construction work, the activities involved, and associated hazards, risks and controls. 2. In the What is the high risk construction work? column, identify the high risk construction work for the construction work activity that will be undertaken. 3. In the What are the hazards and risks? column, list the hazards and risks for each high risk construction work activity. 4. Identify the workplace circumstances that may affect the way in the high risk construction work will be done. Examples of workplace circumstances that may impact on the hazards and risks include: information relating to the design of the structure, the workplace (e.g. location, access, transport), and information contained in the WHS Management Plan information on any essential services located on or near the workplace confirmation that the regulator has been advised of any notifiable work (e.g. demolition work involving explosives), and work methods and plant to be used. 5. In the How will the hazards and risks be controlled? column, select an appropriate control or combination of controls by working through the hierarchy of controls. It is important that you are able to justify why the selected risk control measure is reasonably practicable for the specific workplace. Selecting risk controls 1. Eliminate any risk to health or safety associated with construction work by removing the hazard, such as stop using a hazardous chemical. 2. Minimise the risk to health or safety by using any one or any combination of the following controls: Substitute the hazard, such as by using a new activity, procedure, item of plant, process or chemical. Isolate persons from the hazard, such as by barriers, fencing or guardrails. Use engineering controls, such as mechanical or electrical devices. 3. Use administrative controls, such as changing the way the work is done. 4. Provide personal protective equipment (PPE), such as safety spectacles, ear muffs/plugs, and hard hats. SWMS compliance (information, monitoring and review) 1. Brief each team member on this SWMS before commencing work. Ensure team knows work is to stop if the SWMS is not followed. 2. Observe the work being carried out and monitor compliance with the SWMS. Review risk controls regularly: before a change occurs to the work itself, the system of work or the work location if a new hazard associated with the work is identified when new or additional information about the hazard becomes available when a notifiable incident occurs in relation to the work when risk controls are inadequate or the SWMS is not being followed. In all of the above situations stop the work, review the SWMS, adjust as required and re-brief the team. 3. Retain all versions of the SWMS in a readily available location for the duration of the high risk construction work and for at least 2 years after a notifiable incident occurs.

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APPENDIX D SAFE WORK METHOD STATEMENT TEMPLATE


[PCBU name, ABN, Office Address and Phone]
Work Activity: High Risk Construction Work: [Job description] Have workers been consulted about the SWMS? Person Responsible for ensuring compliance with SWMS Person(s) Responsible for reviewing the SWMS Date received: Date SWMS Provided to PC: Last SWMS Review Date: Signature: Works Manager: Contact Phone: [list work from WHS Regulations] Principal Contractor (PC) Work Location: [Name, ABN, Office Address]

What is the activity and high risk construction work?

What are the hazards and risks? (What is the problem?)

How will the hazards and risks be controlled? (Describe the control measures and how they will be used)

Think about the workplace and each stage of the work, including preparation and clean-up.
Break the job down into logical work or activity groups. Where it makes sense to address a range of activities with one control measure, group them into one entry on the SWMS. Identify the hazards and risks that may cause harm to workers or the public. Consider the environment, equipment, the work methods, other contractors/workers, etc. Describe what will be done to control the risk. What will you do to make the activity as safe as possible? Start by trying to eliminate the risk, and then move down the hierarchy of controls.

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APPENDIX E SAFE WORK METHOD STATEMENT EXAMPLE


ABC Bricklaying [ABN] 123 Mortar Street Standard Course ACT 2600 Ph: (02) 1234 5678 Work Activity: High Risk Construction Work: Bricklaying Have workers been consulted about the SWMS? Person Responsible for ensuring compliance with SWMS Person(s) Responsible for reviewing the SWMS Signature: Yes Powered mobile plant In or adjacent to a road, that is in use by traffic Falls of more than 2 metres Energised electrical installations Structural collapse Works Manager: Contact Phone: Fred Bloggs 0400 111 111 Principal Contractor (PC) XYZ Contracting Services 8910 Management Road Projectville ACT 2666 Ph. (02) 9876 5432 Potters Hut Brick Street Pottery ACT 2600

Work Location:

Joe Bloggs Leading Hand Fred Bloggs Works Manager

Date SWMS Provided to PC: Last SWMS Review Date: Date received:

5 January 2012 12 January 2012

What is the activity and high risk construction work? Delivery of bricks Movement of powered mobile plant. Work in or adjacent to a road, railway, shipping lane or other traffic corridor that is in use by traffic other than

What are the hazards and risks? Workers being struck by powered mobile plant. including delivery vehicle and forklift used for unloading. Workers being struck by vehicles in adjacent road or traffic corridor. Vehicles in adjacent road or traffic corridor being struck by falling objects.

How will hazards and risks be controlled? Prepare and implement workplace traffic management plan and make available to workers: Exclusion zone for mobile plant to be clearly identified (signage and barricades as per site plan) and controlled during vehicle loading/unloading operations. Dedicated, trained road traffic controller(s) to direct traffic entering and leaving site and control traffic (pedestrian and vehicle) on adjacent

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What is the activity and high risk construction work? pedestrians.

What are the hazards and risks? Moving bricks by hand over long distances.

How will hazards and risks be controlled? pedestrian footpaths and roadways. Use portable traffic signals and/or temporary safety barriers to direct/control traffic flow as required. Brick delivery vehicle to be unloaded on-site (not from public roadway).

Working at ground level Movement of powered mobile plant. Work that is carried out near a trench with an excavated depth greater than 1.5 metres. Working above ground A risk of a person falling more than 2 metres. Construction work that is carried out on or near energised electrical installations or services.

Being struck by powered mobile plant. Falls into excavations.

Place brick pallets adjacent to bricklaying work areas (inside workplace boundaries and clear of workplace traffic routes). Powered mobile plant to travel on planned and controlled workplace traffic routes. Where powered mobile plant are required to travel outside of planned and controlled routes, a dedicated, trained road traffic controller is to control plant movement. Powered mobile plant and materials are not to be operated or stored within 2 metres of an open trench.

Worker falling from height. Worker coming in contact with and/or receiving electric shock from overhead electric lines. Plant/equipment contacting overhead electric lines.

For bricklaying activity where there is a risk of a person or object falling less than 2 metres, use fully decked heavy duty frame trestle scaffolds, with bay lengths of 1.8 metres or less. For bricklaying activity where there is a risk of a person or object falling greater than 2 metres, use heavy duty modular scaffolds with brick-guards. Where scaffolds are greater than 4 metres in height, scaffold construction is to be completed and certified by the licensed scaffolder. For all scaffolds: Platforms are not to be loaded with more than 100 bricks per bay (or 400 kg of blocks). No modular scaffold alterations are to be undertaken except by licensed scaffolder. Access to scaffold platforms is to be via stairs or ladder towers. The exclusion zones and approach distances to overhead electric lines at the locations and distances specified on the site plan are to clearly identifiable and enforced by a dedicated controller.

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What is the activity and high risk construction work? Constructing brick walls Structural alterations or repairs that require temporary support to prevent collapse. Work completion A risk of a person falling more than 2 metres. Structural alterations or repairs that require temporary support to prevent collapse.

What are the hazards and risks? Worker injured by structural collapse before completion & curing.

How will hazards and risks be controlled? Brace all constructed brisk walls in accordance with Company Instruction Sheet #3.

Injuries to public from unauthorised access to workplace (e.g. falls greater than 2 metres, structural collapse).

All scaffolding and site fencing is secure and serviceable. All entry and exists must be locked at the end of each day.

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APPENDIX F HIGH RISK CONSTRUCTION WORK Hazard


Asbestos

High risk construction work


Any construction work that involves, or is likely to involve, the disturbance of asbestos.

Requirements and Risks


Note: This is not a definitive list Part 7.3 of the WHS Regulations sets out specific requirements for asbestos management and removal, including: asbestos registers for buildings demolition work removal, and licensing. The main risk is for people to be exposed to airborne asbestos particles. The WHS Regulations set out specific requirements for: Hazardous chemicals Chapter 7, and Major Hazard Facilities (MHFs) Chapter 8. The main risk is from an unexpected release of chemicals, fuel or refrigerant resulting in, for example, the exposure of persons to fire or explosion. Any work that might impact on chemical, fuel or refrigerant lines will need to planned and undertaken safely and avoid interfering with or damaging the lines. Part 4.3 of the WHS Regulations sets out specific requirements for confined spaces, including for entry permits and specific risks. Entry to confined spaces must be controlled to prevent workers being exposed to hazardous chemicals and other hazards that may be present. Signage should be used to identify a confined space.

Codes and Standards


Codes of Practice: How to Manage and Control Asbestos in the Workplace How to Safely Remove Asbestos Demolition Work Technical Standards: Workplace Exposure Standards for Airborne Contaminants. Codes of Practice: Chemicals Risk Management Technical Standards: Workplace Exposure Standards for Airborne Contaminants.

Chemical, fuel or refrigerant lines

Any construction work that is carried out on or near chemical, fuel or refrigerant lines.

Confined spaces

Any construction work that involves a confined space

Code of Practice: Confined Spaces Chemicals Risk Management Technical Standards: AS 2865: Confined spaces

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Hazard
Contaminated or flammable atmospheres

High risk construction work


Any construction work that is carried out in an area that may have a contaminated or flammable atmosphere.

Requirements and Risks


Note: This is not a definitive list The WHS Regulations set out specific requirements for: Confined spaces Part 4.3, and Hazardous chemicals Chapter 7. The main risk is from an accidental or unexpected exposure of persons to contaminated or flammable atmospheres or ignition of flammable materials. Part 4.5A of the WHS Regulations set out specific requirements for the notification of demolition work involving: the demolition of a structure that is at least 6 metres in height demolition work involving load shifting machinery on a suspended floor demolition work involving explosives. The main risk is an unexpected collapse of part or all the structure or structures being demolished. Part 7.3 of the WHS Regulations also sets out specific requirements for asbestos management and removal (see above). Part 4.8 of the WHS Regulations sets out specific requirements for diving work. A key risk is for a person to drown as a result of, for example, a lack of fitness, limited competency and/or planning, or equipment failure. A key risk when working on, in or near water or other liquid is for a person to drown. Where the liquid is a chemical then exposure to hazardous chemicals can also occur.

Codes and Standards


Codes of Practice: Chemicals Risk Management Confined Spaces Technical Standards: Workplace Exposure Standards for Airborne Contaminants. Code of Practice: Demolition Work How to Manage and Control Asbestos in the Workplace How to Safely Remove Asbestos Technical Standards: AS 2601: The demolition of structures

Demolition

The demolition of an element of a structure that is load-bearing or related to the physical integrity of the structure.

Diving

Any construction work that involves diving.

Code of Practice: Diving. Technical Standards: AS 2299.1: Occupational diving operations - Standard operational practice Codes of Practice: Diving Excavation Work Chemicals Risk Management

Drowning in water or other liquid

Any construction work that is carried out in or near water or other liquid that involves a risk of drowning.

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Hazard
Energised electrical installations or services

High risk construction work


Any construction work that is carried out on or near energised electrical installations or services.

Requirements and Risks


Note: This is not a definitive list Part 4.7 of the WHS Regulations sets out specific requirements for electrical work including: electrical installation and equipment electrical equipment on construction workplaces work on energised electrical equipment residual current devices (RCDs), and overhead electric lines. Electrical work at a construction workplace must comply with AS/NZS 3012: Electrical installations Construction and demolition sites. The main risk is contact with an energised electrical circuit resulting in electric shock, burns or other injury. Part 6.3.8 to 6.3.11 of the WHS Regulations set out specific requirements for excavation work involving: underground essential services, and trenches. The WHS regulations require the risks to be managed, including the main risk of an unexpected ground collapse (of part or all the excavation) onto persons working in or around the excavation. Other risks to be managed include falls into excavations, falling objects and airborne contaminants. All possession, storage, handling and use of explosives must be carried out in compliance with the relevant dangerous substances/goods or explosives legislation applicable in your state or territory. The transport of explosives must be in accordance with the Australian Code for the Transport of Explosives by Road and Rail. Explosives can only be used by a competent person who is licensed in the use of explosives Explosives may be used, for example, to assist the excavation of rock or for special authorised demolition methods.

Codes and Standards


Codes of Practice: Managing Risks with Electrical Work Managing risks when working in the vicinity of overhead electric lines, exposed energised parts and underground electrical services Inspecting, Testing and Tagging Electrical Equipment Technical Standards: AS/NZS 3012: Electrical installations Construction and demolition sites Code of Practice: Excavation Work Technical Standards: AS 2294: Earth moving machinery Protective structures - General AS 4744.1: Steel shoring and trench lining Design AS 5047: Hydraulic shoring and trench lining equipment Codes of Practice: Demolition Work Excavation Work

Excavations

Any construction work that involves a shaft or trench with an excavated depth greater than 1.5 metres or a tunnel.

Explosives

Any construction work that involves the use of explosives.

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Hazard

High risk construction work


Any construction work that involves a risk of a person falling more than 2 metres.

Requirements and Risks


Note: This is not a definitive list The main risk relates to a person being impacted by the explosive force and/or materials ejected from the explosion. Part 4.4 of the WHS Regulations sets out specific requirements for falls including: Falls of persons, and Fall of objects. As set out in the relevant codes of practice, the hierarchy of fall controls should be applied for high risk construction work. Any fall of a person, even at ground level, can lead to serious injury and good housekeeping and waste management can assist in preventing slips and trips. There is also the risk of falling objects and providing adequate controls for the workplace and the public. Part 5.1, Subdivision 3 of the WHS Regulations set out specific requirements for mobile plant including: powered mobile plant earthmoving machinery industrial lift trucks cranes, and plant that lifts or suspends loads (e.g. lifts and hoists). Risks for powered mobile plant include overturning, hitting or being hit by moving or falling objects, ejection of operator, or being run over. Plant not-in-use must be stored and secured to prevent accidental use or misuse. NOGO zone encroachment

Codes and Standards

Falls

Codes of Practice: How to Prevent Falls in Workplaces Falls - Housing Construction Technical Standards: AS/NZS 1891 (set)

Powered mobile plant

Any construction work that is carried out at a workplace in which there is any movement of powered mobile plant.

Codes of Practice: Traffic Management for Construction Work Managing the Risk of Plant in the Workplace Cranes Industrial Lift Trucks Excavation Work Demolition Work. Technical Standards: AS/NZS 4431: Guidelines for safe working on new lift installations in new constructions AS 1418.16: Cranes (including hoists and winches) - Mast climbing work platforms AS2550.7: Cranes Safe Use - Builders' hoists and associated equipment.

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Hazard
Pressurised gas distribution mains or piping

High risk construction work


Any construction work that is carried out on or near pressurised gas distribution mains or piping. Any construction work that involves structural alterations or repairs that require temporary support to prevent collapse. Any construction work that involves a telecommunication tower. Any construction work that is carried out in an area in which there are artificial extremes of temperature. Any construction work that involves tilt-up or precast concrete.

Requirements and Risks


Note: This is not a definitive list The main risk is from an unexpected release of gas from the pressurised lines. Any work that might impact on the pressurised lines will need to planned and undertaken safely and avoid interfering with or damaging the lines. Temporary support may include propping, scaffolding or falsework. The main risk is from an unexpected collapse of part or all the structure. Work that will impact on the load bearing capacity of a structural member may also include or be similar to demolition work. The main risk arises from working at height and possible falls of people or objects (see Falls above). There may also be exposures to electrical energy or types of radiation, such as microwaves. The main risk arises from persons being exposed to extremes of temperature, resulting in possible heat stress or hypothermia.

Codes and Standards


Codes of Practice: Excavation Work Demolition Work Codes of Practice: Scaffolds Formwork and Falsework Demolition Work Safe Design of Buildings and Structures Codes of Practice: How to Prevent Falls at Workplaces Codes of Practice: Managing the Work Environment and Facilities

Structural alterations or repairs

Telecommunication towers

Temperature artificial extremes

Tilt-up and precast concrete

The main risk arises from the lifting and stabilising of large, heavy concrete panels and the possibility that they will become unstable and fall.

Codes of Practice: Tilt-up and Precast Concrete in Building Construction Cranes Technical Standards: AS 3850.1 Precast concrete elements general requirements AS 3850.2 Precast concrete elements building construction Codes of Practice: Traffic Management for Construction Work Managing the Risk of Plant in the Workplace

Traffic corridor road, railway, shipping lane or other in use

Any construction work that is carried out on, in or adjacent to a road, railway, shipping lane or

The main risks arise from the workplace being adjacent to vehicles passing and the interaction of workers with these vehicles.

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Hazard

High risk construction work


other traffic corridor that is in use by traffic other than pedestrians.

Requirements and Risks


Note: This is not a definitive list

Codes and Standards


Excavation Work

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APPENDIX G WHS MANAGEMENT PLAN CONTENT The level of detail include in a WHS management plan required will depend on how complex the workplace is (in particular the number of contractors at the workplace at any one time) and the risks involved in the work. Examples of information recommended for inclusion in the WHS management plan are: the details of the key persons involved (for example, the client, principal contractor) the details of the construction project (for example, location or locations, anticipated project start and duration, and the works to be undertaken) the management and monitoring of contractors and subcontractors including how the principal contractor intends to implement and ensure compliance with the plan, for example, checking on the performance of contractors and subcontractors and how non-compliance will be handled the arrangements to prepare, collect and assess, monitor and review safe work method statements, including the communication of safe work method statements the provision, maintenance and management of housekeeping, facilities and a safe and healthy work environment the management of falls and fallings objects and any high risk construction work that will take place on the project the provision and maintenance of a hazardous substances register, safety data sheets, and hazardous substances storage the safe use and storage of plant the development of a construction project traffic management plan obtaining and providing essential services information workplace security and public safety ensuring that workers have appropriate licenses and training to undertake the work monitoring the implementation of and compliance with the plan across the project, and updating the plan over the course of the project. The WHS management plan may also include the following information: client details, for example: name, ABN (if the client is a person conducting a business or undertaking), and their address principal contractor details, for example: o the type of appointment automatic appointment only where the construction project involves the construction of a residential premises for a client who is an individual, not a person conducting a business or undertaking, or all other construction projects o the person accepting the duties of the principal contractors name, address and ABN, and o the management structure for the project construction project details, for example: o address of the workplace o anticipated start and end date, and o a brief description of the type of construction work that the WHS management plan will cover. People with health and safety responsibilities Persons at the workplace whose positions or roles involve specific health and safety responsibilities will need to be identified.

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For example, people who should be listed include WHS managers, first aid officers and project managers. Their responsibilities should be briefly described. Health and safety representatives do not need to be listed, unless they have a coordinating role separate to their role as a health and safety representative. The arrangements in place for consultation, cooperation and coordination An important part of the WHS management plan involves the arrangements for consultation, cooperation and coordination of all persons conducting a business or undertaking at the workplace. The WHS management plan must detail how the principal contractor will consult and cooperate with other duty holders. There should be ongoing consultation and cooperation between all duty holders so that when work overlaps, each person is aware of other construction activities and they can control the hazards and risks created by this. Examples of how the principal contractor may do this include: hold pre-commencement WHS meetings with contractors and subcontractors schedule regular contractor/subcontractor WHS meetings hold toolbox WHS meetings establish a construction project WHS committee distribute a regular WHS newsletter, and provide support, resourcing and training of health and safety representatives. In many cases, persons who have responsibilities are not always at the workplace all the time. It is recommended that consultation arrangements for communicating with people off-site also be included in the WHS management plan. The WHS management plan must detail the arrangements the principal contractor will use to coordinate the construction work to ensure compliance. It must also include the process for developing, reviewing and distributing SWMS. This would include providing training to workers and contractors. Arrangements in place for managing any work health and safety incidents When preparing this part, the principal contractor should think about the types of WHS incidents that might occur. The WHS management plan should document the actions that will be taken and who will represent the principal contractor. The following should be included (covering both the process involved and the person responsible for it): Incident Arrangements to stabilise and evacuate any injured person after management enduring safety of rescuers Arrangements for isolating the incident scene Arrangements for making the workplace safe after the incident Arrangements for preserving the incident site Arrangements for notifying the principal contractor Notification of the relevant regulator and emergency services as necessary Arrangements for the investigation of an incident Emergency The emergency plan for the construction project situations Arrangements for testing of the emergency plan Arrangements for training and instruction requirements First aid The facilities and first aid equipment that will be provided by the arrangements principal contractor Arrangements for training in first aid First aid equipment that will be provided by contractors and subcontractors
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The WHS management plan should also include arrangements for reporting and acting upon near misses that occur. Project specific health and safety rules The plan must detail any project specific WHS rules that the principal contractor requires persons to comply with and the arrangements for ensuring that all persons at the workplace are informed of these rules. The rules should be simple and clear, and where appropriate, they should show who each rule applies to. To determine the project specific rules, consideration of the nature of the work, the hazards, the size and location of the workplace, and the number and composition of the workers and other persons at the workplace will need to occur. Prior to finalising the rules, the principal contractor must consult with everyone in the workplace to ensure they understand the rules. In large or complex workplaces, or workplaces with multiple contractors working in the same location at the same time, the principal contractor will need to ensure that appropriate training is provided. This should take the form of project specific training provided to all persons at the workplace. Other ways of informing people about the safety rules are: holding toolbox meetings posting them in a prominent position at the workplace, and distributing copies to everyone at the workplace. If there are people at the workplace who do not understand English well, the WHS management plan should set out how these people will be informed of the rules. Arrangements to prepare, collect and assess, monitor and review safe work method statements The WHS management plan must provide details of the arrangements for the preparation, collection and any assessment/approval, monitoring and review of safe work method statements at the workplace. The principal contractor must ensure that there are arrangements in place for the consultation, coordination and cooperation of all persons engaged in high risk construction work so that the SWMS used do not conflict or create new hazards or risks to health and safety. Any contractor or subcontractor undertaking high risk construction work must provide a copy of the SWMS to the principal contractor prior to commencing the work, and should provide a copy to the contractor that engaged them to undertake the work. The plan should include arrangements to ensure that SWMS are followed by all affected workers, contractors and subcontractors, and that work is ceased if the SWMS is not followed.

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APPENDIX H EXAMPLES OF CONSTRUCTION WORKPLACE FACILITIES


Workplace What facilities are required? Toilets
Must provide Number and type based on number and sex of workers

Hand washing facilities


Must provide Number based on number of workers

Drinking water
Must provide Adequate supply of cool, clean drinking water (free of charge). On agreement with owner, provide access to drinking water facilities.

Eating facilities
Must provide Hygienic dining facilities for eating meals and preparing and storing food. On agreement with owner, provide access to an area in an existing building.

Showers
? If required For example, if the work involves dirty, hot or arduous work. If required, on agreement with owner, provide access to existing shower facilities.

Change rooms
? If required For example, if a need to change in and out of clothing (e.g. PPE). If required, on agreement with owner, provide access to a temporary screened off area with adequate privacy in an existing building (e.g. in a garage). If required, provide to a temporary screened off and sheltered area with adequate until able to use area of new building.

Personal storage
? If required For example, if a need to store personal belongings such as tools. If required, provide: lockable vehicle or trailer, or lockable tool/storage boxes.

Example 1: Residential extension Existing single dwelling Max 6 workers $100 000

On agreement with owner, provide access to existing toilet. Minimum requirement: 1 unisex pan.

On agreement with owner, provide access to existing hand washing facilities Minimum requirement: 1 hand basin.

Example 2: New large residence New single dwelling Max 15 workers $350 000

A temporary facility such as a portable toilet. Minimum requirement: 1 unisex pan. Alternative option: nearby public toilet facilities.

A temporary facility such as a portable toilet with a hand basin. Minimum requirement: 1 hand basin. Alternative option: nearby public hand washing facilities.

On agreement with owner, provide access to existing mains water and temporary drinking water facilities. Alternative options: nearby public drinking water facilities, or bottled water or containers.

A temporary sheltered area until able to use area of new building. Alternative options: relocatable building, or nearby sheltered public facilities.

If required, provide a temporary shower facility such as a portable shower unit until new building facility available.

If required, provide: lockable vehicle or trailer, or lockable tool/storage boxes.

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Workplace What facilities are required?

Toilets
Must provide Number and type based on number and sex of workers

Hand washing facilities


Must provide Number based on number of workers

Drinking water
Must provide Adequate supply of cool, clean drinking water (free of charge). Drinking water facilities such as: direct connection to the mains water supply, bottled water or containers.

Eating facilities
Must provide Hygienic dining facilities for eating meals and preparing and storing food. A separate dining facility such as: relocatable building, or use of part of new building when available.

Showers
? If required For example, if the work involves dirty, hot or arduous work. If required, provide 2 separate shower facilities such as: portable shower units, or use new building facilities when available.

Change rooms
? If required For example, if a need to change in and out of clothing (e.g. PPE). If required: provide temporary change room facilities, or use area of new building.

Personal storage
? If required For example, if a need to store personal belongings such as tools. If required, provide: lockable space in a existing or relocatable building, or lockable vehicle or trailer, or lockable tool/storage boxes.

Example 3: Large residential project New multiple single dwellings Max 30 workers, including 3 female workers $1.5 Million

Minimum requirements: 1 female pan, 1 male pan, and 1 (space) urinal. Options include: temporary facilities such as portable toilets relocatable buildings with toilet facilities, or use new building facilities when available.

Minimum requirements: 1 female hand basin, and 1 male hand basin Options include: temporary facilities such as portable toilets with a hand basin relocatable buildings with hand washing facilities, or use new building facilities when available. Minimum requirements: 1 female hand basin, and 3 male hand basins. Options include: relocatable buildings with hand washing facilities temporary facilities such as portable

Example 4: Commercial construction project New 12 storey office tower Max 70 workers, including 5 female workers $200 Million Hazardous chemicals in use

Minimum Requirements: 1 female pan 4 male pans, and 3 (space) urinal. Additional requirements due to multi-storey building: 1 toilet (at least) provided on every second floor. Options include:

Drinking water facilities such as: direct connection to the water supply, or bottled water or containers.

A separate dining facility such as: relocatable building, or use of part of new building when available. Additional requirements for large static workplaces: adequate supply of

If required provide 3 male and 1 separate female shower facilities, such as portable shower units. Specialised shower facilities may also be required dependent on the types of activities being undertaken,

As some workers are required to use hazardous chemicals at the workplace, which requires the use of specific PPE, change room facilities should be provided. When required: provide

When required, provide: lockable space in change room facility lockable container, vehicle or trailer, or lockable tool/storage boxes.

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Workplace What facilities are required?

Toilets
Must provide Number and type based on number and sex of workers relocatable buildings with toilet facilities temporary facilities such as portable toilets, or use new building facilities when available. Minimum requirements: 4 male pans, and 3 (space) urinal. Due to rural location and portability of the workplace, temporary facilities such as portable toilets or relocatable facilities should be provided.

Hand washing facilities


Must provide Number based on number of workers

Drinking water
Must provide Adequate supply of cool, clean drinking water (free of charge).

Eating facilities
Must provide Hygienic dining facilities for eating meals and preparing and storing food. suitable tables, chairs or benches, crockery and cutlery, clean storage and rubbish bins.

Showers
? If required For example, if the work involves dirty, hot or arduous work. and any use of hazardous chemicals at the workplace.

Change rooms
? If required For example, if a need to change in and out of clothing (e.g. PPE). temporary change room facilities, or use area of new building.

Personal storage
? If required For example, if a need to store personal belongings such as tools.

at the workplace

toilets with a hand basin, or use new building facilities when available.

Example 5: Civil construction project New major road Outdoor and rural location Max 70 workers $350 Million

Minimum requirements: 3 male hand basins. Options include: temporary facilities such as portable toilets with a hand basin, or relocatable buildings with hand washing facilities.

Drinking water facilities such as: direct connection to the local water supply, or bottled water or containers.

Access provided to a separate dining facility such as a relocatable building e.g. transportable lunchroom.

If required, provide 3 separate shower facilities such as portable shower units (dependent on the types of activities undertaken).

If required, access provided to temporary change room facilities such as a relocatable building.

If required, provide: lockable space in a relocatable building, lockable vehicle or trailer, or lockable tool/storage boxes.

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