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rtr5tl4 wELD



rc Stiike

CDrr.t*roN FrJ"(ror-l kltJ_D DtSia\jT iuLr l-I iCs : !^'.. J-i CeJ.,n^irr+rxle-ld'*1 >fr!il-\Pj., 1l.a'r &)mqor"' t:-titJq 4fa tfpice!\V arrxalkZ-[. *I. lf,*r l"aic,'^







/,r/'+rr.arc..srrike or arcideirtallv

is a.discontinuiry that rysulrs-lig$ Concality', sc,nrc;imr:s refii'ieti rc as itrsufiijg;ti thffiT iiller welrr air.,rr,;, ,.,,* i,, ,,friffi. n.,rr,;initiatinj d* ;ffi;'r,,eniton rnt-tm distanct irom:ire iace oIa c'.rn--ave f;lier w.eid pcr,o.ib' rhe surfrcfEf-f the base or"u,eld *.,I1.7*ry 9n fEffi the intended weld joir,t. This can be caused by elec- pendicular to a line ioiningl rhe welcl roe is insufficienr. rrodes or electrode holders cc)lltacting the workp.iece, the am_ount being speci6ed by rhe relel,anr code or st.rn-

ground clamps being roo'close to the rrield locatiori, ,nj dard' Concaviry does not constrtute a rejecrable ciiscc'rnbare sppts in the weldirrg cable, or a combination of tinuity unless il're rveld rhroiit is rrndersized. A schematic rlrese. An lrc strike consiits of localized remelted meral represenrarit:rrr oI corrc;iviri, in a filler r,r,eiC is pi-esenrcd in l3'lt. -'' Figure -oanci ailu heat-affec rrcdr-dlrrLLcu-1,Lrilc Ingtat. l\rc strlKes Call can i;ii;i" lniilate ln;(latC Oorrcirv.ity t'r:sttlt Ir<rrl trsirrg tr.n clccrr,tlc thai is fiill ulE?tI llie w ililirrFrr t i rr be n d i n u o r cTfif-Ir rr-_-ifiiir,]il ii-i-orlfi1tnii ,rttrtt' rhese conrafi-Q;a--ggom-niE-usthfffiuar.f.,tCi,r?fr. too srrall in clian"reter; cxccssivc Lravel spced, low r,r,clilTltey creirte a hFilind brittle conclirion'iffiffiCeels ing current atrd voltage, pocrr toinr fitup, or'cxcessiv: irncl are inadvisable even on mild sreel when high'tensile gap' Proper welciirrg'pro:":l.ut:f slroulcl ['rc followcd to - prevcllt tlre occurrcttcc of rlris tirscorttiriuiry. stresses rlr normal cyclic lclading,rrny fra..aariraral. To p-revent the occurrence of this discontinuiw- th. C) a G o n v e xi ty welds;@dtleggr3lgl'hau I J . roi J ri'iti"e l"

r, b a ie m e taT-@GI6iTn re nlileTid-TEFuEE?l In.ffi . Cg1r.><'ty rr h Fd?t-?il'tal. e mA-m:-nraii]i when the arc is iniriated. The m,:lten excesstve-d'iSrance extsrs bef\\'een the u'eltl lr':e cnC


iltt ;




metaImay,crackfrom+,*.ni"g,;;-;;;ll;;i;;perpenTict@t][ po.. *ry form in the solidifiea ,n.,"i."il;r;;;;;j. 1T_o,,n, of exc.ess L,erng specified by rire relev.irt cesign c.'vexirt exisrs ir: a 6ller e*aminarion of the surface *^:ll":':;^II::: :::':ive a crack t't iniriator is c.eated ar "na '.ruirinJ;;;;;; rvpically reveals a martensitic srrucrure;il";;;;il. Ytl11,l]:th'lttl 1?y catr alsc oce r,i itt ritc conrenr'rhar is,rr,r"iry r,ijr,.' tlri";-p;.;;J. il;il: :l:-:11,::: '.'^l'j-o'::"'tintritv conrinuiries *,y rqlgj;rii*.;;!li;!.+:+l; "j,":Jlj,';;il i];lo:",;,llll,j:1: \Iitlr respect to repiir procedures, cracks or bleffiher lli:lT.ii1,..,Ilii* ;;;ir" or inclusions. A schemaric illusrrarion.f con'excaused by arc strikes should be to a snroorh

contotlr and reinspected for

.ground sottndn':ss


i, pr...r,terl i' Figure 13.9. A procedrrre-relaied disec,rr:inuitr', c.,r,e;.rt' is consequence of using a lou, r:-avel spccil ,, rd high

2, BaCking Lett 0n
'['lrc disccrnrinuiry

welding curren-t.rit rnar aiso t,ccur'Decause


r-,r sirrface

procedure-relared discontinuiry rhar occurs

tts bucking left on ts n L .O// fhe'! the_ ffiCkS1 rr-r:rreriaI o.r derice posrtrol!!_]1&qrgs1_glrc b5k si!e o$?

th9tointtffienrolten1qEId*q1-e.1a-1.js-Cracksarefracrure-r1,pec.isci.rrrinutttes..ii,.'canbe e nr oiiEn tuAd*q!-elal-rs inadvertently allowed torernainln identihed tri'theii [ri'their slrarp , ,-[, slrarn ri'', ri,. ancl anc.] rlreir rlr,:ir ,r rrric to remain in pEceplace. This oriiiigt, oversighr readily identi6ed .i, mric lry tlrc wclcling operaror requires c()rrecrion. lt slrould 9f !.ng!, andj!!!.] ro rlicil.fl,r-erncnt of rFi-,1iffirg Bec-alilf o[ ri].-,.,,r.,'dencv to r)r'opiigate u..lci srress, be noted tnot [n.n the backing i; J"rig";d ;; ;;";;i;;; place, e.g.. the interior of a pipe wel.{, ihis is not consid- cracks are considered the rnost scvere [oirr oi- ,iiscorrri'


"r.d, dlsconrinuitv.

3 Burn-Through


nuirv. Cracks are generat'E@;;q' cause ui catasuophi-c failure in st.ucrures and compirnerrrs. \,Vrlie:l nr''rsr rirerer' ': siri'e



[*--Jfr ".ffiE..m:'J,xT,ii


The term. b"g-tbrgg!,is a nonstandard terrn for s6resses exceeC rhe ullt-gla!9_-srrc-ugJi1 of rl,ffi.3i.' ,@fugb, a proceduri-related discontinuiry that ffi-chng is ofren ,rr,fiiiIl-r,irh iress aur, .i6carion resulrs from improper welding procedure. An extreme ntar discontinuiries in welds and lrase nrer,rl or near case of this discontinuity ii termed excessiue melt- inechariical notches associated r.r,irh rhe rveldrrr, r,L design. througb, This discontinuiry, which is depicted in Figure Hydrogen embrirtlcrnenr nra), conrribute to c.l,-l crack 13.7'rscharacterizedbyEgtb&_roolrcinforcementina{ o int u'elded ilgm-ele siafriETollin tfi-CEi:Td5Eadllt is ve ry limired: cari-FETv6icied-b;--vitn-Ely adl'rering to the specifipd ptgcan be classified as, eir-her 1]cr oL fo/rl.rypgs. __ Cracks cedurc and adiusting the welding current and voltage. Hg+aeUaevelop at elevated renlperarulcsll} com1

Cracks occur in '*.eld and base n.recals',vherr iocalized


I i{





'tHts silDE

----\a--ll ll tl


(3) .







WElding 2001, statulard wthling Tents and ltelint'i.,os, AWS A3.0:2001. Mianli: Anlericart sourd8: Adapted lrom American welding society (Aws) committee on Delinitions,
Sociely, Figure 27.

Figure 13.7-schematic Representation ol Melt'Tlirough

sile l pendicuLlr ro rhe rvcld rxis' are Tirey Crackirrg in anf iorrtr is iltl LlnacccPrable disconrinur.il6*"ti.tes referred tq-/as delayed cracks. Sincc ct'rtcl<s, [rt' em5iitrlciiicnr. wirh associared ofren :.t-"/r".'"-' l!t!-iry, irs ir is licrrinrc,rcrl r,r 1'rcrfortltrt,tci'. -fiEogclr 'J:i stf ()r ull(ls, stfcss rt.llrri rtr lti.ltLtrc,:trc llcr'J:i cltc[s, fllL'y rltc'y llcf rlt,'ir lrl)s li,s.r ltl tllr'rr propagllE_bclu4c!-{hc+tillns ( l)()tlllrlitr]'ol' lri.ltLrrc, lrc shirrp irr cracks Jrccks pr gcrrcr'ttrctl [,crweerl effccr popagirre borli crlnccurrrrrc>rs. Thc strt'ls-c(']r'lccttrrrtlitttt^ffif while cold crac-<s , thc grains an.1 rhrouglr the grains (rransgrrnr-rlrrr). [ry crlrcl<s is greatcr rf' lll rhltr prrtclr'rcccl hy nrosc tlrhcr I Crrcks -*ay be longitLrdinal or rrilnsvel'se u'irh disconrinuiriei, rcglrtllt'ss oi rhcir size. cracl<s I herei('re. rc!{J drsconrrnurrtes, Therck're. iu rvclclruetrrs govcrtr,:d by in pern,ittccl ecl rrormallv not in the are crrtclcs respect to the weld axis. Longitudinal

monly.formd@clclrrrcrlrI.wclilrtrctirl:rnclrllclrclrt-ltiiccrcclztlttc.(,)cc[lrl)11rlIllclr() CoIdtiacksa.vffi_p"_@lthcl,rxis'<lirlr1,wel1t,-.,l1.itl1sverSC(.rilclislrrt,[tlttrrdper-


ra.6ln ,TI



,6. \ Crater Crack. Crater cracl<s are usuallv shallou, hor gracks fornred by improper r:rminaricn o[ a welding arc. \flhenever.the welding operirrion is inrerrLlprel 'irrciiirectly,

tl'rese cracks ma.v form rn the crater. Tlese cracks are often srar-shaped irnd pl.ogress. only ro rhe edge of the crater. They are sollle iimes referred td colloquially as stctr cracks. 'Ihis discontiuuiry is found rucsr frequintly in merals wirh higtr coefficients of rhermal.




expansion, such as austeniric stainless steel. Crater cracks may be the starting poinr for longirudinal w,eld cracks, particularly when rhcy in a craicr forrncd at tlre end of a single-pass welcl. A crarer cracl< is shown in Figure 13.1 t. The occur:rence of crater cracl(s can be rninimized or

Sourc'ei Amsrican Weldlng Society (A$lS) Commlttes on Mothods ol lnspectlon, 2000, Guide lor lhc Visual Exanlnation o/ Walds, AWS 81.11:2000, Mlaml: Amedcan Weldlng

Society, Figure 34.

Figure 13.8-Concavity ln a Fillet lltleld


.L.t -

pnor to breakrng the weldlng elrc. t he use ol a weldrng. current delay device when terminating a weld bead can also be effective, especially in mechanized or aLrtomated -, welding operations.

ilr*o-rrters rol-lm-itv coffif



Face Crack. The,rerm face crsck lefers ro rveld merai cracking. A face''crack is-'ilirngitudinai cr-irck on rhe exterior surface of rhe weld. l'his disconrirruiq may result from excessive concavitl,, insufficienr reinforcement, or excessive welding speed. lt may also be caused cracks carr be shrinkage oue due to rapid rapro coo[ng. cooling. Face race cracKs De by Dy snnnKaBe Drevented bv strictly adherins. tc, rlre'weldinI procedure. .:....--------:......._---be grourrJ out and hen they do occur, they shoLrid


.{",\ -

- or Underbead Crack. HeatHeat-Aftected-Zone affected-zone or underbead cracks are gcrr-'r'rrilv' cold

cracks that form in the hear-afiecred zone c,i r;ieei weldments. They are usually' short and disconliLi..,ous but

can extend to form a continn()us crack. Llrrderbead qr:Skfeg usually occurs whcri tlrree clcnrcnts are THEOHETICAL THROAT presenti (]) hydrogen in solid sc,ir-rlionl ?) a nrcros,:ruciure of low ductitiq', such as urartensite; .r i3 high residual or applied str_ess. Source, Amorican Weldlng Soclety (AWS) C0mmlttt0 on Methods ol lnsp8ction, 2000, Gutdc lot lhc Vtswl Enmlnallon ol Walds, A\NS 81.1 :2000, Ml|ml: Amrrlcan Woldlng These cracks are found at rcgular intervals r-inder rhe Society, Figun 32. welJmital in the heat-affected zone of rhe L',ase meta[. ThJy rarely extend to rhe surface and generrlli' follow Flgurc 13.9--Convoxlty ln a Flllct Weld the contour of the vveld bead. The cracks nrr' be eitlier longitudinal or transverse, depcrrding on tlic ;,,,Jrostruc^l ture and the orientation oI the residLral stress. 1191'can.not,bg detected by visual inspe.crior.r and ma1' 1,. difficult to detect by ultrasonic and radiographic exatr,ittations. regardremoved nrosr fabrication codes. Thel,must be less of their location, ahd the exca"'ation must be lilled .(,! with sound weld metal,if the excavation depth exceeds Lohgitudinal Crack. Longitr-rdinal crack.s ,r,e-almos! always found r,r'ithin the weid meral and are usuallv rhe minimum design thickness for the weldment. con6ne_d ro the center..f t]rq weld. T\5 a5is of th"" crack cracks Figure 13.10 illustrates the comrnon rypes of by the is parallel to the length of the ra'eld, islho'r,, in Figure ,nJ f, the crack rerminology "rt"biirh.d tlrc ','':lcl or at ryDes are are 13.12, They may occur in rhe rniddie of tlrc','':lcl crack rypes Ameiican Veldins Sociery Socierv (A!7S). These American Velding described below. A discuision of causes and remidies is the end of the weld (rypical in fillet welcls). ,' ,,,e larter case, the cracks may be an extensicn of att, l..r crack presented following these descriptions.


.1 D 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1O 11 12 13





Figure 1 3.1 O-Crack'fypes





wELD ouALrry

narion,or the incorrec use of pecified urelding proceclure

j;, im:*i $:i :#-iui ;i::i:..; ;::. I i "i::. , .";;;;;ll ins..t. Th.


incomplete penerrarion



ah;;;;-'ff:l_^.. ,, 7-;-


g-ra*g are fracrure.{p1 disconrinuiries rhrt arei.dacg lcrc;;;J .;''rr,. exposed surtace of tlrc wcld oppos;r. rn. 1iJ. from

Root surface crack.

l3.l i-Crater Crack


can be procedure-related or ..toilr.itri ;;;;;. They can be prevented prirnarity by ;;;?;j;;';;.i:,i},;" rhiweld_

welding was. pcrforr...,.a. 'r1.,.r. ji*.,,ri,.,..Ji,ies which

, 6,1


Throat Crack.


,"i .*,.,a jiJ,TI ,ou,ard i#*::lt,lt rhe root of the :1,:,{;t,"a;;;-;.i; wetd. ;;; ;;; ;JJ::l
titled "Longitudin"t
cracking..the reacler is encouragea ^..

cracks are cr.acks rhar run lon_

hot cracks. A tvoicat Ih;; "ii;; ih'r=Jr;;".;;i;'ir;/;rll*o in Figure 13.13. As rhroat cracks o'i longirudi,rrl

luou.. L,b -Toe Crack. Toe cracks are generally cold cracks rhar ,,r,l,Tggrlg":HjyJfl5lcgg,m"..ffiIiirnspoabn,2oool inidare approximately parallel," ;h;ir;; mareriaI sur3:ffi ?;1ffi then propagrt..r.oni,i-.. ;;;;ffi. t,,; f ,{:: y;r e* rti niili,r'ili iii,, ;iili'tii1:Lffi,:1,ffi .i'ilHI|ifif :i,t li:,._,19 weld where resrdual srresses
Figure 13.12-Longltudinat Grack in combtnar ion with- LI""";;;;;;t;"
are hjghsl. tt.,.r. ..r.kl are generally the resulr of thermal .#i;k-";';;.ri". ,lliry on a werd heat-affected zone rhat 1.,r, lr'.;,,';;'u.iri.a. Toe cracks somerimes occur whqr rhe base;;;;;;",,or acccm_ rhe shr:inkage.srrains,t.,r, .,..-i^plsed I:dir: by weid_ rng. A rypical roe crack is sho,*,n i" iig"i. l:.r+. Toe cracks also iniriate in filler *,.1i 1oi.rrc subjected I"a d inq,.s uch r, ...,' rr'i r,irli-i', rer pipI:j"^t]qit tng socket ioints. Fatigue loading "' "," nn ,t_r.r. welds may cause toe craclcs that propagate r*hroL,gh ilre pipe tlre weld toe, where ,h: ;i.;;;'...'.I",i.1,i1.",.0



to the secrion

sr* ihi;r;h'ii.

rhat initiated in rhe roor bead and continr

thickness or

iliff i::x?,rffi ::"Lt',ty:f 'I'ilr"l,T*.o,"a'*.. ii;;i.crycks-'inffi

and high restraint.

iI', r,igl, degree of restraint in the ."n" ini,i",. a crack ''b.1 .ioint, -which around a discontinu,ll .r.r, llansverse Crack. A discontirruiry of p;;U;; sias the weld in rhe weld. Anorher rypical". cause of trapped longirudinal metal, rransverse cracks ;r";;;i;;.;ndicular to rhe cracking is shrinkase ,tr.rJi" axis of the weld. They nray f,.rr]]r."rion, f,. ,*iiJ1"'rir. .nd .o*berween heaw anithi; jit;;;.;,t.o'irr,, or in joinrc plerely within rhe weld n.,.,;i, ;;";1,;r";,, propaBare may occur in high-speed weldingsuch from the weld metaf i"i,, iri.""al;.:"1'tre,rr-affe*ed ";l;;.il;on in

*ji1 One cause of "nrir" longirudi;"i-.r""r.iiie


ro pror)a-

lllll-!_"^l-efi neavy secrrons are often the resulr of rapid


i;.ftX"f, ..j|i3;



are generally the resulr of Iongiruclinal ,fri*[rg. ,rrrrirrs acring -i;;;:;..r. on weld metal of loiv ducititp cracks in steel weld merals are typicalll, ;;;;;'ro
ryp.e' .on.,r,i_on,

zone and the base meral.


t'f,oot crack.


in ioi n rs rr.,o, r,, u!'o' i'ig r,

terr.r.t tt.,cld rneial

of ....f., pi.*rcrl i;r

tryclrogen Figure


;6,10 -til'x"r,i,*:.iif::i3{i,.#;ir,.1i11 -Weld Metat Crack. The generic procedirre-related or ."r"ll;rgdiil;rilr.

due to the of the ;arc;di''"i.iaira. They can

crack,is used to refer to Lracfs ,f.,.,


i,r rlie




Source; Amerlcan Wolding Socloty (AWS) Commluee on Methods ol lnspection, 2000, Guide lor the Visual Examination o/ lVelds, AWS Bl.l l:2000, Miami: American Wslding Society, Figure 24.

lll rvelrls. irr tl il'ir ioirrr (,r Ill], ililrri(,tl ()f ir (such as rlre hear-lil'c\ zorle) ci,lnnot ildcunlll)()darc tlre shrinkage srreriscs by plnsric clciorrlarion, tlrur higlr strcsscs clevclop. Tlrc,sc l;rrcsses ciln iulLl rlt> cirusc crrrckirrtr;. An urrfused nl'eil ilt tlre I'uor of lr welcl rrruy rcsrrlt irr cracks wirhour appreciable deformarion ii rhis ares is suhiecred ro rensilc or bending srr.essus. \\'!ren rvcldirrg rwo plate; rogerhcr'. rh." rotrr of rhc rvclcl is subjccte,.l rir tensilc scrcss as succcssivc,la),ers are deposired. Inconrplete fusion in tlie roor pronl()res ,:r$cl(i;g, The chenrical conrp,rsiriorrs of rhc luse rnernl rrud rhe
()c(:urs irr

Figure 1 3.'t 3-Throat Crack

weld meral effccr cru,:k susceprihilirl,. Afrcr a u,elded joint has cooled, crrrcl:irrg is nror,: likelv ttr (rL.crrr il rhe lvt:lcl merirl rtr lrr:rrr-irifr.'crccl 7.r, is eirlrc.r lrrrtl or lrrirrlc, t\ clucrilc rrrurrrl, [ry krr;xl;r"r.1 r,rr,ldirrl;, rtrrrr.vvitlrstand srress concerrrrilri()lls rhirt urig,hr a hrrrd rlr brittle nreral ro ftril. ,.)racl<irrg.iu rlre.weld lrrerrt. rhe iscrrssetl iu .henr-rrffe:red. zone. rrr,J' ilri' ixi.,ir.r,il is"ilifri iurrher deraii below.'

t. 11


Sorrce: American Weidino Society (AWS) Commlttee on Methods ol tnsp8ctlon, 2000, GuidelortheVisual Examinalion o/Welds, AWS 81.,11:2000, Mtanl| American Weldino Society, Figure 28.

Figure 13.14-Toe Grack

Weld Nletal Crncking, rrnrl Iongiru,.[irrrrl r,rs rvell ils frarr:r crirclts rlre weltl nretrrl in rvelds producecl lry lusion rvcltlirrg. The irbilirv ,rl rlrc weld rrr,:tirl to lerllirrl inritcr trrrrlcr ll srrcss systL'nl irll'rr.lsecl cltrrirrg a rvclrlirrg ()l)crilti()rr is it irrrrcriorr ol rlrt, ccrmpclsi!ion irnd c()rlrpost!l()n and srrucrLrre of oI rhc rvcld urerrrl. rucrll, urulrir.rlemcrll, lrr urulri ln urulriplciayer we lds, cracking is mosr likely to occur iu rhe firsr layer (roor bead) of lvcld meral. Unless such crilcks irre
repaired, they rnay propagare rhrrrugh sutrsequeur layers as rhe weld is complercd. Resisrarrce to craiking in'rlrc wclcl nreral can bc inrlrrovc-d rvir[r rhc irnplc.nreurarion oI ol)c or nrr)re of rlre [ollolving ;,roccdurei:

. 1. .. Z. 3.
Source-'Ameflcan Wolding Socisty (AWS) Commlttse on Methods ol lnspeclion, 2000, Guide lor the Visual Examinatlon o/ l,yeds, AWS B l .I l:2000. Miami: Amirican Wekting Society, Figure 23. I
, I

lvlodifying ele,:rrode nranipularion or eleccrical condirions ro irnprovc rlre rvcld iace cortrour or rlre cornposiriorr oi rht' rvcl.l lnetlll. Selecring ilr) nlren)ilre tille r nreral ro dr-.velop n
more ducrile n,r:ld metirl, [ncreasing rlrr rhickness ol eirch rvelcl pass by decreasing r[r,: . $,e ld'ng spc.ed arrcl pioviding nr<>re weld rlerrr.l ro rcsist rlrc srresses, Usirrg prclrcrrr ro rcclrrcc rlrcrrrrirI srrcsscsr
L)sirrg a lorr,-lrr.clroge rr rvelclirrli procedurc, Scq.ucncing vvr:lds ro balarrce shrirrkrgc slrcsscs,

Figure 1 3.1 S-Transverse Grack

4. 5. ' 6.


Causes of Cracking and welded joints resuks from localized srresses rlai exi"eed rhe uirimate strength oI the meta[. When cracl<s occur during or as a resulr of welding, they do not n<.lrnrally exhibir evidence of deformarion. Weld metal or basL nreral rhar has considera ble dLrctiliry under irniaxiaI srress may fail withour aporeciable deformarion when suhiecred ro biaxial or trirrxial srresses. Sjrrinl<aq,e

6, lq,7L Lb\ U"*t-l,ffrcted Zorte Crockirtg. Cracks in rhe hearBernedies. Cracking in affecred zone nlay [,e longirLrdinrrl or transverse in

r\r'o i tl i rtg nt


crlr ll

i rt

u ct,

r,.l i r i o


l'rarure. They ar:e r),fically associared wirh harclenirble hase rnetals. Higlr hrrrdness nucl lorv drrcriliry in rhe lrcur-aficcred zor,rc resulr fr.rn,r rlre nretall,.rrgic,rl rsporrse to fhe rreld rhernral These ru,o co;di_

li. I'ht: r,crirllurgicql'csrn)usc (.lrilpfcl'4 ol thts voluiile,


rveld rhurnrirl cyeles is discussed in

/ /'


#/ sso wEroouAlfiy
tions are among the princiPal factors tlrat contribute crack suscepribiliry.'

and hear-affecred zones. In,

cooling depends uoo-l. including the followingr " "'ou.,

ferriti. as the carbo, conrent,and. cooling _--rn ',..(, rates rncrease' the maximum i;;..: wh,e the duct,iry i..;;;:. 'n"i""fr.' ih. ;;;;':i 'Increases -oi-i-hvri."l



;:,'f[-Ii!lo].?ixii::Li::#ii,Ti[xHl,..Ti* z0ne, temperarure of rtre [rirse nretat (preheat), " -ih"#ff:llX:':.%tr..rr,i,Ji;,* ? Inirial .nn lrc preventcd by 3' Thickness and therrnal .",rJ;;;i;; or ,r,. u"r. urini n,.io"*-n'rir.r*,., ;i[;,* process. A cornbinarion metal' of rTetding.

1. peak temperature

yi.ii .,,h is b.erow -16.r.ip, (i.;t; 0.._nl"; i;;d;;srr.scar (Mpa)J. fa*ors, ' Th; diffusion oi'[;;;;:" the heat_affectqd ,or. f.o^ ti. *.ri-*rl or-*r* inro werding contributes
occurs. when rhe



ir is caused


in trre rreat-arrected


Heat input per unitdme rrnitri-o at a given ",---^section s- --' v\ of weld,





;fi;;;";;'ti'irr7lrion microstructure that is morr


and th-ermal 1..*^,r',.nr, that promotes rhe rnay also produce a

, The hardness of the heat_affected zone is related t..r itresses. thehardenabilirvofthe.baseil;[;;'6ffi,i; causes and
turn' on the chemical compositiln-;a;-h; bd.

*]1. p3r!-.J,'rri

S::P:: sreer. ln-actclrrron,


Weld Reinforcement rj 1...:_l-T- l. q ..o n tri b, t. ri- i'ri. ra n a b i ry l: 1,:i oI " unlike steel' However' carbon, these elements. only Excessive weld reinforceme,r exists moderatelvincreaiethe.hata"ei';i;ffi;;:metar. . a groove weld ' when ,t. *.tJ-.n-.;;r 'tr'il excess in of ri-re High-alloy steels includ. the ,ust.niri., ,.quir.d io nii,i.-liir,. iii, disconri'uiry quanriry. i.rriti., martensitic stainless steels. Althodh may be ,h!';;;;;. "nd'ir..'oi, g.oore weld. rr is stainless

rormation produ*s. Nickel,.

h',,:t_'q:ng.',.r-ril ir in:Tr.rq the hardness

-.;;i: *;i,;#d;[rii,,

metal, t1r.

*;;;;;;,' .il;;-i;,..

of th. trrns_ ..1 -i,. Excessive




of cracki.g in the werd ,r,. ' heat-affecred zone are


steels behav. similarly i" low-allov steels, thev are more susceptibre

phase transformation

,lrr, r,"J.n, ili."i."t_rff.cte<l e :,",Ti#,1.1i:.,llfl;jiH j:ilX'fi.'j;$X',Htfi I[iorngdion* ..The metallurgicar characteiisti., of ,r,l i"r."ri.r").2..r,

*i.r-;, .""*fr."r., srresses ar the highry coe of "i.iiI;-.;b;;-;il i.;;;;';;i;',Jiiro..., ma), be caused and ferritic'stainless ;aJ;T;;; Gi.til: $!,ti;: undergo-a by improper welding technique or overweldi.g.


h'ff ioint,.,i.;;;;; Jffi;:;'iy r",:,."#::Ii?:, significant differences


t[::l:,l.-=.'kilF;iibild";.i;i;:ijni]l?r..,.a,on.'-.."rol,"o,",},Jii Hll I : Ht : ;ii Jy :l;Ti?j .:* ::'j,d i'",, adderl ini.t ra*--l-.
are encounteied in crack suscef several heam oi


T:Lh.;::::J:T{ll - !i,!ii,.Xi**li'f,?i,,:::::,::: common in the flux-srrierded processes, such as ih;:;;;'s;;il;r rr;- ^lrmos-r ,ar arc,werding,,ux cored arc ruerdins, and :ll,!-.g-t submerged arc welding. ;B=-i'" dilr,g"t"r,

M.etal crackile.lrhen werding many.varieries

:j:l':T;*,:lTix3t"*i::-:;,:;;*.J;i,hffi to the crackine of trte u".. *.i"r-ir';;i';;;iffi:

u n derb ea ack

.;'}f."iiftrl fm:l:clusions and suggested rem'

rncrusions. fungsren incrusions

|,y1,:r:::}'.I1.",Y]b1,.';;iil;i;;;,incIudingclesof.therungstcn.leffi d cr in g, A a rr ii i s,-;" i' ;;i;y; ;' ;;;i:


temperatures ffi below 200'F ; II1I:5,' HiiJTf, , ff ",lroo;sf l'lts delayJ'epends on

*.r.ii,,g',ii",,.I,'"* ;[:"*,],:',d:'"'kn:r,"#lf.",l,:|;
hi; *,*tllt'-inducedcrackingisdiscusserl

::i"1"SJ:"Xf:'"?r:..H.1;1,::l*l[ly_'.r].;d thi;;;.i:;i-;h::"":'.';.:r':"^;':l: ::::, T"il'


s#@-, "_, ffiiffiiT;rlil',i'.rllil::':ljr['J.ffili'1i0.'*Ji].: -::,:: ::_ i**.ii,"ry ,p* "y*':li, ilii,',no.r, runssre, tunssre,
.the .rhe
erecrrode touches electrode touchcs rhe

base base

Tungsten inclusions appear as lighr areas on radi

i..,,;; ;;;;#iJilil; ;ii#,Hiil:,* ff;


Table 13.4 Gracking-Gommon Gauses and Bemedies


Remedles Weld-Metal Cracklngl

Highly rigid ioint

Excessive dilution Detective elsctrodes

trEal.. Jelbre.

mechan,cauy; minimize slrrinkage stresses using backstep or block wsl0lng sequence priol Change welding gurrent and travel sl)eod; rrrreld with covered e'ectrotlE negative; butler tlte ioillt laces to welding


Use liller metal low in sul{ur

Blectrodes t0 remove moisture

Poor litup Small weld bead

Aeduce root opentng: build up the edges with wsld motal lncrease electrode size; raise welding currenti reduce travel sptted metal

High-sullur base --Anoular distortion

Craier cracking

Chaige to balanced weldino on both sides ol ioint torminating tlls weld Fill the crater before extinguishing the arc; use a welding currenl decay device when

Heat-Allectod-Zone and Base Metal CIsckln0

Hydrogen in welding atmosPhere Hot cracking Underbead cracking Low ductility High residual stresses High hardenability Use preheat; anneal the base metal heat trsatnlent Reciesign the weldment; change wekling sequence: apply internrediale slress-reliel Preheati increase heat.input; heat treat wlthout cooling to roonl temperature

welding [Jsq a low-hydrogpn wpldinLprocass; preheat and holtl lor 2' lrours atter



rs; chan0e 6ase metal

Priheal; reduce cooling rate and slress

lnclusions-Gommon Cituses and Remedios


Table 13.5

Clean the surJace and tho previous weld bqad

Failurep re0gye.Slao
Entrapmenl o{ retractory orides

Power wire brush tlte previ6fs weld bsad

lrnproper ioinl design
Oxide inclusions Slag llooding ahead ol the welding arc

Avoid contact betwsen the elsctrode and the work; tr:;e a larger electrode
lncrease groove angle ol ioittt Provicle proper gas shielding

Beposition work lo preveilt toss 0l slag control or cuange elaotrocle ntanipulation tecllni(lue
Chan0e electrode 0r llux to ;mprove slao c0ntrol Use undamagod electrodes

Poor eloctrode manipulative technique Entrapped pieces ol slectrode covering


rneral and absorbs iarger amounrs

of X-rays or gamma radiation. Aimost alI other weld discontinr'ticies are

rndicated by dark areas on radiographs.

whereas in subnrerged arc welcling, it nray restrlt frorn clre use of the incorrcct welding cut'l'etlt.

n.7. o-'Flux lnclusions. As the term

flux inclusions

result when flux becomes entrapped in the weld prior to solidification. ln flux cored arc welding, this discontinuiry may arise from the use of an improper electrode,

Flr.rx inclusions ntily occr.rr iI pieces of rl're electrode covering break off tnd become trapped in the weld puddle.-They may also occnr in tltrx cored arc welding tr in gas rnetal arc welding and sr'rbmerged arc. welding (cored wires only) if flux or alloying materials fail to melt and become trapped in chc rveld.



1.) Oxide lnclusions. Oxide inclusions, surface oxides trapped in the weld, may result fro* ihl disso.iadon of

me etecrrode. coaring. These can become isolated inclu_ srons ln. multipass'welds. They are easily found an j removed,.since they initially nn-,fr. surface c,f


fi !,i*i: W-ti'i:l::^:ii,,:::',i?,"#lrii#ilff access the loint fLr wddfis;-;;,

l]iq,:.r:ilproper hoth. wi$ proper




.ro welding techniques, molten"slae welo meta ries or benvE6

ano ot

the weld metal. As slae

rmPur tres may

technlque. . The influence of slag inclusions on weld behavior is that.of poroiiry. The effect of slag inclusions on static tensile properties is signiEcant prLcipally to the extent it influences the cross_iectional area aiailah,le to supporr the load. The toughness of rhe weld meral seems to be unaffected by isolated slag with volumes of 4%o or less of the weld zone. ln u.eld ierals of l.r, th* 75 ksi (517 MPa) tensile strengrh, ducritirv is eenerallv unattecred. As the rensile srrengrh increaies, "ho*.r.i,

Geometric factors such as poor bead profile, sharp lldercuts, or ,improper Broove geomerry promote the entrapment of slag by providin[ p1..., where it can accumulate benearh the weid bead. In making a roor pass, if the electrode is roo large and the arc irnping", on the groove faces insread of o-. tf,. ,oot faces. rhe slas may roll down into,the roor.opening ;,J;;' ;;r#: under rhe weld meral. gome of ,t.l. fr.i,orrihar contribe'rrraprnenr ca. be .onrroii.d Uy ,".iJi"g :5-:?^t]:g

ductility drops in proporrion r"o rhe


,*tun, of stai

thar acr as srress .Slag inclusions ofren have . raisers. Therefore, slag can influence the farigue behavbelow rhe surfacc-of thi- molten weld metal'btih.E ior of welds, parriculally when rhe weld reiriforcemenr Slag may elso flow ahiad oiffi is removed and the weld is nor posrwelcl hear_treareil. arc, ffimetal may be dJposiied ovci-it. rn. t"ir.i i, wjlh porosiry, slag ar or very near ro,tr. *.ta,".-' especially rrue when multipass welds are made without f.s tace (tace or root) influences fatigue behavior to a conproper inrerpass cleaning, siderably grearer. exrenr. rhan siriilarly constirured A nunrber of factors may preveru the release of slag buried within rhe weld mera[. Slag, rogerhe. slrg and resulr in ir entrapmerit'in the weld metal. Thesi hydroecn dissolved in.rhe weld *eral,Influe"n.e, *itfi frtigr; factors include the following: strength by reducing the crirical slag parricle siz. neJ.ssary tor the iniriation of a farigue crack.



gh -v-lscos.!!X weld Rapid solidi6cad,on.

I ns u f

meta l,


EciE;fin r weld

g hca t,

plete Fusion
fusion, iliusrrated schemaricalll, in Figure -lncomplete 13.17, is a disconcinuiry in which fusion failecl ro o-ccur berween the base metal and rhe weld meral or rhe adioining weld beads. Failure to obtain fusion may occur at any point in a.groove or 6llet weld, including the root. 1f nholgeriph- of incomplere fusion i; ;;.: sented in Figure 1 3.1 8.

4. .t.

Imp.roper manipulation of the electrode, and Undercut on previous passes.

Wgldlng 6ud, torlru ylsurl Err,nluthn otWcMq I Socloty, Flgun lorll-Drj


Soctoty (AWS) Commlftcc on Mcthods ot tnspocilon, 2000,



Bl.fl:2000, Mlrmh Amirlun Wotdh[

Flgure l3.l 6-Slag lncluslon

Intermittent incomplete fusion affects weld ioint integrity in_ much the sarne manner as porosiry and inclusions. The degree ro which iorermirrent incomplere fusion can be rolerated in a welded ioint for u"iiou, rypes.of.loading is similar to the limits'for porosiry and slag inclusions. Conrinuous incomplere fuiion has the same effect as incomplere joinr pinetratio,rrrwhich is discussed in rhe next secrion. . lncomplete fusion rypically occurs as a lesult of improper_welding techniques for a given joinr geometry and welding process, improper p.ep-ararion of ri. *nr.rials for w.eldin.g, or inapproprirr. loirrr design. It may be caused by failure to melt the b,ase meral oirhe previ_ ously deposited weld meral, or both. The weldinj con-



irnd limiiecl to alt taces ot rhe weld joinr thar slrorrld be fused during welding. Insr.rfficient pieweld cleaning may conrribure Eo rncomptete tusion, even if rhe welding coilditions and recnnrqLre are adequar.e. .preweld cleaning is crirical in celtain nretals. A.lrhough rlris discorrrinuiry is gcrrerallv relared ro wcld rechnique, rhe pr.esencc nf o*iit., o, .irhe. [,lreis,., m;tterrals, such its slag, orr rhe s.r[aces .t thc ,,,.,o'1. nrrry a[s,: prontorc rhe ,-rccurr.crrcc of incoutptate furiirn.

diriols rlrar conrritrurs to inconrplere fusion iuclude we cu r re nr! i n.,p rop.. i.,.a,-i,.,0 u,, i;; :lrlfl.^i:,.r i lf ins of. o: '"...r, prop,are lranclling rlre elecrrocle,

s.ourcc: Am.rican wordrn0 sociEty^(Aws) commiuos on Derinirions, weldin1 Terms end Detinltions,lWS lC.OiZOOt. l,gri,

In soure .cases, uusuirrrlrle ,J51,1.)5;,.,.,inni ol'ioinr clesisn and welcli*g process n*y lead r,, inc,rn,pl.;J f;;;i.,;."'"" . The causes of inconrlilete iusion r,rdiugg.srecl -- --'o" remedies are summarized irr'Tat,le 13.6.



"-"" zoor,


'shocomplete Joint Penetration

Incom Conrplere u()ilrprcrc joinr pcnetr..rrion is lolnr. pCnelr.JilOr.l lS l)(rt ,,.ii..q.,irJ;i |.L.q11ipg6l in i all rvcldcrl lorlrs as sornc;oirrrs or.c clesignecl n,irlr parrial irrirrr pcnocn-

Figure 1 3.1 7-Schematic lllustration of lncomplete Fusion in a Fillet Weld

fl ffii;m:iffiy:gH"iffi f :,(f,,y:lii^tulT11:l,H,l,1hi,i[.r_.i,..t*,,:l^t
Soci8ty, Rguro 6.

Figure I 3.1 8-tncomplete Fusion

i<rirrr cr'arion wclds. [-l,n,c.,er, suiclr r,,,clcls crn have i.c.ruplete joint penerracio* when rhe .fi."ti"e rh.oat of rrre weld is less rhan rhat specified in the *.fJi"g ,yrnUJ The occurrence oI incoriplete ioi,rr p."irioiioi iri *.f ,r, is a fu:rcrion.of groove geomerry'as welt as *.lcilnl p_roccdure. .pipe r.velds, .i,r prr,i.r'rlor, ,'ir. ro lncomplecc ,ornr pcnerrarion, as rhe insicle of rirc joinr is normally inaccessible. welding pro(''isses. hav-r-. grerr perrerrariug ILril,...S:n,-., lty, a clraracrerisric rlrat is ofren used ro adv,rirage. However, rhe proc-ess mr.rsr be n,nr.l.r.d-ro tt,. ;oiri preparation,to avoid incomplere fr.rsion. Many rvefding procedures for double-groove.welds r.qui.; tj..fgo;gl ing of rlre roor of the first weld ro ."pJ..-rouna inerit prior to de.positing ttre hrst p"r, on'r!r. second side. l nrs proceclure rs used ro ensure rhaf there are no areas oI inconr1:lcre joinr pt,rretrirtiorr.

Table 13.6 lncomptete Fusion-Gommon Causes and Bemedies


lnsutticient heat input wrong type or size of electrode, rmproper ioint desiOn, or inadequate gas shielding
lncorrect electrode position
Weld metal running ahead of the arc Trapped oxides or slag on weld groove or weld lace

Follow correct welding proci,Jr'rre


Maintain proper electrode posilion Boposition work, lower current, or increass weld travel speed
Clean welo rurlace prior to welding

"::, / trt

joinr penetrarion are sumrnarized in Table 13 7 The repair of incomplere penerration depends on rhe requiremenB of ih. ,;oinr ;.i;:'i;;., i"i;; rs required ro exrend complerely-,iLrsh the weld the ioinr, repair can be made by
causes and renreclies o_f^incomplere

Shown. in,Figure l3:!g.,incomplete joint penetracion may result from insuffici.nt weliinj h-ert, -rapid travel soeed, improf.r. j-oi";?;;g" (too much meral for the weldrng.arg qo penetrate), incorrect bevel angle, or poo, .o't.Il This rype of disconrinuiry i, u"a.ririuli-i,, "f.tli.'*.i.ji;;,Jr.. ,,,y'?ijor. *.t.1 sub_ jeced to cyclic tension loa.dinl in ;lJ;;. The disconti-

of rhe joint,

irr. lii"i.r: rrarion of stress n,ry ", f"if u.. *ihlur appreciable deformation. If the ioint ""uf. is *.ld.j iioi"Uott, sides and incomplete ioint pehetrr6o6 ,1, pr.riii ,, the neutral axis, the. bending-strerr.r rr. toi,.i, frr,,t,.y;;.,;;_ cenrrated at rhe ends of the disconri,iri*. Furthermore, buried incomplete ioint peneration is more difficult ro detect than a'discJrU.riry ,, ,t. ,r._ f.ace. As visual examination to reveat this discontinuity, .other nond.structiua' ao*in"tion methoos such as ulrrasonic examination must be used. Tle

nray be toqded in bending


ffi:1i:,,I:ltil*:[Tffi: k,,,:T ;r;i; t*;;;l!r?'i"im


frorn rhe back side



:,T;!i::;iil:* [!i',fi!1f,1l;'1.i:,11,xr,i..,.:1ffi removed. The ioint should then b.'r.*.ia.a modified wetdine n..ced..,.e ;i;;; p",;;id"r''th. ;;;g"; r.quir.d
weld size.

"nd ^pptfin;;'";;;

side weld.




Overlap exists when uufusecl weld meral prorrudes beyond the weld roe or roor. This surface Jiscontinuiry forms a severe mechanical ,"r.t, pr*ffll-to rhe *eld axis, which usuallv renders ,t. '*ltJ unacceprable. A pho^tograph illusrraring oue.l"p i, plr#.a



ll'#itfr:'ft l,yEg,[,,,:1,:i:,,ilffi lT,ft ill".J#:lf ,'*i]i['l,i.x,,il,iIfr


Sou,?r:Am6rlcan Wrldln0 Soclstv.(AWS) C-ommlllse on M0thods ol lnspecilon, 2000,


or'lv,rai nws

si ir,-ioiibl'iii.'i'r,;,ic;;wur;G

l3.l g-tncomptete Jolnt penetraflon

Figure 't 3.2O-Overlap

tncomplete Jornt


causes and Remedies


rxc.sstyornicr roouace



hgfltelutElluEl!Slag floodlng ahead of weldlng arc

Use propsr loint oeometrv FqIow,tUCl1lj1g

Ad1 u

rocod:u ro
o s rr i o

Mlsallgnment ol sscond slde weld
Failuro to backgot g0 when specllled

e Ie

ct rotr

e--iffi Fp


smgl_eteclfg0g!..lugot or lncroase r0ot oponin0

lmprove vlslbillty or backgouge

Backgouge to sound motal if required ln welding procedure specitrcation
Usa wldor root openlno or smaller electrode in

ol rool oponlno

rool pass



Overlap is usually caused by incorrect welding procecluies, ii.,"pp.op.i"te seleccion of welding rnaterials, of rhe i"t"ff*i.", riir"l tp""d, or imp,roper.preparation oxides adhering ri-ghtl, ii *.idittg' to prior U.r. -.t"t on rhe base metal interferi with fusion, overlap nray iesult along the toe, face, or root oI the weld'


'"oxide Film
Oxide frIm is a Process and procedure-relared disconrinuity rhat resuiti from. irnproper w^eld preparation or the use-of improper shielding gas or flr-rx'
ol lnspectior' 2000' Sourca: Amsrican Waldlno Soctsty (AUIS) Commlttso on Mrthods




oiWetti, Aws Bl.l 1:2000, Mianri: America0 weldine

Society, Flguto 2.


Figure 1 3.21




weld metal,rtr in a rherni thr't()()t ol a lvetr-1, (,r at il l'rtltrrrclitry l'rerwr'en we[d ffiposit. The disconrinuiry is - gerrerrrlly disweld of type This elongated. soherical. turir mry be berrds. lr is caused lr1, gitrs evolutitln fr'orn cotrtatnitrants -r{-.' ( :-..t-^.,-f^^^l the sr1l:s.,UeS=o{ on rhe sgiacg or in -L^ at iire location wheri tire disconrinuiry has forrned' the weld. The various ryles of porosiry are described s.loTfollowed bv a disculsion of the causes of porosity' \3.s .l'gtr,s"t"rl Porosity. Elongarcd porosiry- rese.rnbles iu dlnt rhis disc,rnrinuity lras a lengch tl' !""tt"red Porosity. Scartered poro,i,y, illusrrated in ,ipi"i porosiry iis !.L"rlr^th"t, widrh' However, in piping Figure 13.21, may be distribr-rted throughout single- f,orosirn this disconrirruiry lies approxirnarely p''rrallel pa"ss *elds, contained in one pass of a multipass weld, to tlre 'veld axis. t, spread throughour several Passes of mr'rlriple. pass welis. When.u.i s."n.t.d porosiry is encountered, the Causes. The typical .auses of porosiry in weld rnetirl cause is generally faulry welding, technique, contamiare relarcd ro thi welding Process aud the welding.procethe on contaminants gases, sffil-&nE nared or irrcorrect in some instnn-cis, to the type and chemisgry o[ a,rr., surface of che workpiece, or defective materials' ".a The welding Process, welding procedure, metal. ,h. b"t.

Porosity when sas-i



tl..'V I'l


Porosity. Cluster porosiry nranifests irself as a Iocalized gro I ol pgg with a random geometrrc [6ntlvre@r dlstrrDutlon. It
tion or terminat
formarion of cluster porositY.

rvoe of base rnetal (inlluding rlre manufacturing ^u.l rn.rfr,jit directly affecc rlre quantiriis of gases ,troi .t. in the molien weld pool' The welding


same con-


conrribute to the
Ttorosity derrores

welding procedure control the solidi6carion in rt,r,i irl'fects rlre irrlount of -weld nretal 'rt.ri.t.r uurtrvra.given combilof a.$lvsrr proce.dnres for welding Proce.qtlrcs welolng l'roPer Proper porotiry. POrosiry. ploslrotrld meral lrrse and pr,,ccsi n:rtion of welding

tl'?,orrrn Porosity. The term pipirtg f"irn of porosity ihathat . l.@h in the nroltctr rvelcl ptl<ll irrcltrde hyclrtlgen, t'x1'Len. nirrosen. carbon nronoxicle' carbon dioxide, warer iopor, l'.ryi.oge,', sulhrle, ilrgollt itlrd heliunr' Ol' rhese, oniy liy.lroge-n, o*1'g.',,, and nitrogen are soluble to any signifiiarrt l*t.,'tt in ,r molren -weld pool,. and rhe soltrbiiiry of rhese gases in solicli6ed rrreral is sigrrificanrly lcss chan in liquid ntct,rl. I caused by rapid solidificarion. Hydrogen is the nraior car.rse of porosiiy. in the weldlr'Z-.\ I-'- Aligned Porosity. Aligncd porosiry, s()rllcrinlcs i,rg,,f rn.:r,rls. tr rttlty c'trtcr rllc lttoltctt wcld p'rtrl fronr nliny rnut..s. For example, it may be presenr in tl're gas a localized refeired to as linear porosity, consists of 'lrray of sphericaI or eiongated pores orienred in .a line' acurospltere sttrrotrlrclitrg the irrc -zone or. irr lryc[ogenin the flr-rx or This poroiiry may be aligned along a weld inrefface, at forrring corlsriruenrs, such as cellulose

ro rhe weld tace, end annroximatelv oeroendicular di-cqlxl.lq$ryLg.Jace. p pro ximarel y perpen a nd lies a no rma llv extends I ffifi ef- witds, ;;tds- e lonEliffTor-&irY normally tn--fifet 'When one or from the root of the weld toward the face. are seen in the surface of the weld' it is likcly two pores ^ that many subsurface piping Pores are inter:spersed among the exposed pores' Mr-rch of rlre piping p-orosiry foundlin welds doeJ not extend ro the sr-rrface. ln elecrroslag welds, piping porosiry is generally characrerized by relitively long poies. This disconrinuirf is r1'pically


duce wclds rhar ai'e essenti,rlly iree oi porrlsiry' Dissolved gases are usually Presen! in nrolren weld .r,.i"t. Porosiiy is fornred as the weld niecal solidi6es if the dissolved g"t.t Present iu amounts grearer than

"t. limits. The gases rhar may their solid so-lubility





lectrode covering. Hydrogen may also be introduced the reduction in properties is in proporrion to the loss nto the molten *dd ;;;ii, the iissociation of water. in cross-sectional area. doisture may be in huxes, electrode.coverings, The mosr significanr studies of porosity_ have rmbient atmosphire, or on the base metal surfaces. addressed irs effelt on the of.fusion' I ilesidual lubricant fiom wire drawing can remain on welded butt ioints wirh and u'ithout weld reinforcefiller wire surfaces and can become a sigrrificant contrib- menr. Tl're eifect of any amount of porosity on the uroi ,o weld metal hydrogen content, particularly with fatigue srrength of reinforced welds was shown to be ,rr.r, concenrrations on the surfaces. small diamet.. .l..trnJ.i. Hyarog"n'dissolr.d in the or#rh"do*.i by 'the tlre in weld reinforcelnent was removed, remain when may oxidis However, trr. -.t"1 itself or in surface weld metal. Filler metals may also contain dissolved exposed porosiry contributed to failure by fatigue. lrydrogerr. Srrlfur or- selenirtnr in the lrasc metal trritl' I"or fillet welcls, the strcss c()rlcenrration effects of the I other locarions are great, fr.,, fria-g.r io r,"r, a'rd stop *.ld ro. -considerations' ",. Internal Nitrogen may cause porosity in steel andnickel alloy they override all . por.osiry se.rvice I to affect appar not does welds fillet in poiosiry from weld pool ,r,; welds. This eas

;;bfi;;irtt t.




mav also be oresenr

ity.i' .o"'il;iJ;; deirimlntar :i"' !"-:l* 'i lll: iffiiffi#aTi'Jii.i"r;;;s;;;ii;;id;;, but certainly no.worse than crack' dlso
lr r Lt

*", .ii.i ;;il; gas.. ;; 'ir"*;;ni"*innt.a shielding "mEtal Jr ilr;.'#;;;i"ioi



perfo.mance. However, tlre effecr.of surface porosiry in tutt and 6llet welds is slightly clifferent..surface poros-

p,';-Jn.xl'[iH',.'],'.iT:','ffi].ii:.'-1"]: il:f ::#:''j",il:Lr,*I*[illi[1"T.*rj,:iili:r dio*ide o-1ysen *,i;;;;l[; ;;h" .*,f :p".?ii: i:,'jt',::Ui3,;::?.'lifi:':j*:r:i:.-$f,ll?.t* metal, or both, in the fornr
oxides on fitie-r wire or base

Oxygen dissolved in the molten weld metal.may




dure requrrements' an clecuode coverine' and common causes of porosiry and suggested meth' .The from the atmosphere. Insufficient arirounrs "r"i'*i.iriir: its correction are summarized in Table 13'8' for ods ers in sreel base metals, filler metals, flux, ;;;ffi,rd. .t".ii"gi may result in incomplete deoxidation of the 1q'D molten weld pool. Snattgf Porosiry has been evaluated extensively' Tests.have In fusion welding' tnolten metal par-ricles expelled efrtttt'ot'-both tlit been conducted to d;;;;ilim the arc thar io not form-part 9f^lh^t weld are from ;rr,t.;;;-Jy;;;i.-u.r,"ri*t"i*trata.iointsusingvirspatter is ilfi.r"a ro as spatter.. Shown in Figure L3.2L, ;dly;iir#;;;afrir. ,i"ilf.. ti has been four.,dthat finish when is iconcern it but an defect' has by noinittttttily'a ii' norositv in painting, 'oio-t nre!, "mo"'tJ;t;;il;; be wpically ml,st yield strength. ir req,rir.-ents ,...ii. .when i;.1;iid.;;r':iffi;-;Lii. p.ttti,,.duy ;"*tG;; nondesrructive examination is required' TiH'i:;T"i. of rhis phenomenon most irJ"r.ry r"uri"."ti""'Jt"n;,iiJr.'T1.,. effei! of .porosiry , Nonetieless, rhe.occurrence improper welding techan of use the the rtiiher i"ait"tes rt't iirttiy on duccilirv is sliehtlv r;;;;;;il;tta' probiems. process -.irU ifr. grearer is rheldverse nique or other associated ;i:id;il;ir;f;# effect of porosity on ductiliry' : .fg.O The gas or other contaminant causing. Potg:i1,i:l :SUfta Ce I f f e g U la f iti eS ---' influenc"e the properties of the weld metal by diss-olving Sharp, excessive surface ripples, excessive sPatter, ;;-i;.1h. gas'in th. por.r or cavities may also influence a as acts porethen pore. The .r"r.rr,^ prorrusions (such as an overfilled crater), arc ;'h;-,,.;"j E,rrrounding the thar service. in iJloaded *.ld*.nt il-k;, ind surface pores are surface irregularities ;;;J i"i,t"roi*h.nih. q'pi' gases the of other some are steel, in These effect this on^weids' has observed b. *"y ii;;gh hydrogen affect the qualiry of ;;h; r;"ll airounts of oxygen and nitrogen may not. .;l'J;;* iiregularities that rnay use' Several o[ these for irt suitabiliry The influcnce of porosiry'in th" dynami.c toughness ,r;; ;;[;;. ""nd chapter' this in elsewhere of weld metat is less certain. The designer should"inves- items are discussed is often directlv the to operator tn rueld-s subiected The welder or welding rieate rhe effects .i;;;.y , they result frorn since acceptable disconiinuities these specifyingfor r.tpontiut. ,f tlJing 6.for. .ffiili set' "r. ior, *.ldl*ent. The effeit o-f poroiiry in in.t.r.., welding rechnique or improper m.achine intended "ll.ri* fiirl" l,e:*.q:l:: j::.,its i'--ilii"i"a ro a sreat &tent by Gr. el,r,orgh tf,e ioint,nay should ,ot be accepted as it indir.;i;;; ;..r"qualiry ;;ilJj;;atrnent. th. itoptt procedures are not being followed' In face-centered-cubic alloys such as aluminum {Al), g",.r-,itu', ihe procedu''es can lead to more se riot:s to *odiFy Failrre i; copper (Cu), and nickel (Ni), the influen;e;G;;t,y 0"n6.), qurliry ptoblt*t' In iome cases' faulry or wet electrodes &.]ir; minima[. At high ffi|i"/;;

il; flil;









Tabte 13.8 Porosity--ommon Gaueeg and Rcmecfies



Dirtv base metal Dirty fillor wiro

pJocess and tiltar metais 4A9"

htguin 4BoxidzeE




Clean loint faces and adiacent surlaces

lmproper arc length, welding current, or electrode manipulation Volatilization of zlnc lrom brass

Use spoclally cloanod and packaged fillsr wirs and store lt ln clean area Change welding conditions and techniques Use copper-silicon fillsr metal; reduce heat input Remove zinc beloro weldlng: usa E6010 electrodes and manipulate the arc hsat to volatllizo the zinc nhsad ol tho molten weld pool Use,rocommanded procedures lor baklng and storlng electrodes: prehsat the base mstal



Excessive moisturo in the electrode covoring or on lolnt surtaces

surfirce appeilrancc, irrdicaring rhrrr rhc specifiecl weIding. was nor followed or rhat a sarisfactory wgldjng rechnique nor used. These iuclude uarvi.,! -\,yirs widrhs of weld surface layers, clepressions, variarions ii weld heighr or reiniorcemenr, and nonr.rniforrn welJ ripples. Akhough surface irre[ulariries may nor affect

the inregriry of com;:lcrcd welds, they arc

:9.rlr; riutd, lor lhe


Wsual E^minailon o/ Walds, AWS 81 .1 1:2000, Miaml: Amirican Weldin3 Soclety, Figure 35.

Wetdtng Socisty (AWS) Commhee on Methods of lnspoction, 2000,

Figure 13.22-Spatter

governed by specificarion requiremenri and are iubiecr to inspection Pores occasionalll' form in rhe face of a weld bead. _, 'l he pamern can vary from a single pore evcry. few inches ro many pores per inch. It is-imjorrant rcl elimi_ nate surface. pores l:ecause they can reiult in slag enrrapment during subseque.nt passes. Sound mu[riplel pass welds are nor normally ichieved unless ,urf... pores are removed prior ro deposiring the nexc weld


and unsuitable base meral chemisrry may cause discontinuities and unsatisfactory weld appearance.

Magnetic disturbances, poor welding technique, and improper elecrical condirircns ."n for' ..rt"in "..-ou.rr surface irreg-ularities. Such condirions mighr be causecl by,a lack of wclding experience, in"...rlibiliry if,. weld ,olnr, or orher facrors peculiar ro a specific - As ioh. a.rule, surface appearance ieflecrs rhc abiiiry .nd .*p._ rrence. of the welde r, and rhe presence of eioss surface rrregulariries may be delererious. 'Welds wirh uniform surtaces are desirable for strucrural as welI as cosmeric

constiture an abrupt ch"rrg. .f ,;;;i; :.t, T theyrhar Considering such changes o? s..ri,rn"rr; il;;;.\ sources of high stress conJenrrarion, rhey should

Gross irregularities rrr in rhe rrrr weld wsru bead uca(] arc are qlsconunul_ disconrinui

. The pores are caused by improper.rvelding condirions sr.rch as excessive currenr, iiradlquare shie"lding, o. rrse of, rlre wrong- pola_rity. Uniarisfaciory gas striet"ain! rnay also adversely al'feci rhe wetd surfate] Gas shieldl ing is usually betrer at the botrom of a weld groove rhan rrear rhe r,op of the.groove. Improvement in-the .pplri_ ance of rhe weld bead may be achieved by changing (r srrch welding conditions rrs polrrriry o, arc length. " . Acceprable weld surface_s.are ofren judged by compar_ ison wirh- samples. As an illusrration, a Ettet weta *ittr poor surface appearance is shown in Figure 13.23(A). rvhile y#risfaciory weld is shou,n in Fiiu?. i:.2:tgt.
Unclercur consisrs of
rneral 6dia

carefully evaluated with respect ,o ,.rui.. ,1qui..rn.,.,rr. Various orher surface irregulariries are nor qlassi6ed as weld discontinuiries; nonelheless, rhey inuoiue pooi


ve melred int


r+|rne ry9.loge_or.r'oor and left unfiiled

I he rcrm undercut is sometimes used in ibe rhe melring away of. rhe groove face


Undercut-Common Causes and Bemedies

Gauses Excsssive welding current

Table 13,9

Reduce welding current Reduce trave!-9p!!!L

E;essive travel


Poor electrode maniPulation

Additional welder training

Dresents an overview of tlre common causes of undercut ^and remedies.

-Underfill is a groove weld condition in which



is below the adiacent surface -.i-J'f;-;t ,oot"rrr.f".e oi,fr. U.t. metal. It resulrs sinrply from the faiiure ro

t3.2qA) Slngte'Pasr Horlzo^ntal Flllet accePtance for use' Figure -Weld with Surlace lrregularltles Caused ..rR.O -Lv t-p'oper weldlns rechnlsu" "1'taSe Metal DiSCOntinUitieS (ei Slngle'Pass Horlzontat' Flllet lltJ improper Not all disconrinuiries are the resuit of Created with the pip"r Weldtng Technique qualitv weld with welding;;";t;;ttt' Manv difficulties

weld metal as Jpecified in the welding specification or on the drawing' Nor,.t..airt. '*"ffr. the condition is corrected by adding one or more ,Jiili*"t layers of weld meral in the loint prior to





Y:1" ttquitt'''tnt' thould be considered of a ioint at the edge of a layer or bead of weld metal' ;;"f?;-thtst where *;;* cause for reiection' ffrir';.,"a.r*i'-f-o?*r " ,...r, in the joint face to i"tt mti'l p'optrties that should meet specification *t"t the next layer or ut'i or^*tra t"i"l 't" , is too td"i;;;;;i;'il.iia. chemical coritrposition, cleanliness, base metal. tf thc a.plhlr iriL, "i-trtis location (e'g'' scale' paint' oil)' hv;;-;i w'ld met"fi'-ippriJ' i;Hil;;;;;;;;;;i;;; conditionsdimensions' shallow when the lnspectors tti properties' ";; voids may be left i" tlt ittr"" ;;"ihi* ""q evaluating 'oidt when mind "tr""it'L' oit:i"tt*ptt" ;h""I;i [9;p'lda factors in more correcov ia"'tii'lj:""il;;:; sources o[ indicarions that have no

*ii,, i,,li.ffi ff Tl ffi:'STiL::.1i'i:; li[|*. Testing and Materials (ASTM) specthcatton"'



i;i;lt ilt



ShowninFigure,sl3'2and13'5'undercutistypi-;';p;i;";'*co**onbasernetaldiscontinuitiesare ."f"fr'i".",ii pa?"llel to tht iunction of weld metal and described below' ;".4 ;;i;t"h';;i oi 'ooior the weld' IiJ,X['r?liI other mill Lamma:t",.lt in plate. and inte{a.1, .l-Laminatlons. .!t]-irr"trons. Laminations . "'.il":I;,;, nri* .r."*s a mechanical notch at the.weld -ii^P-'"tt: discontinuities elongated generallv have flat' *'"i*o" ;;e ;h;;;; *iir'it"tr cariful examination Lamina' "i'*tri' *'y- olit"-[t ""n i""t,l[it tt" ttni'"['ont oi *to'ght products' some undercut. Howeveg undercttt detectable b'r andbnlv internal .'ott ;ffi'r;;;.-.o*pi".ry only in metalograp(;",?Jil;i;;t^.ilf'.J*.ra tt"'' & they'mav extend to an edge or end undercut'is



;d;;it "r..*"*,nt'J;;;t';'g;i6catioi' usuauy not d.r.t.,iJ:'T'"hl'i',"iJ$;ii"]li{i'il:::iil: is cut' metal i*;e a l;iilii1l when the base *.::,1 lt expostd Tili:i#*[ iltJfti'o,itl"itiiHt*ron''"na oo"s not constitute
of (rcEP uererr' sharpordeepnotch...!.ll'rl_--^-^..''.llinarp '^'



Tcsrins and socicty u;;;;;ir-sri.*uv associated with improper weld- ilffi""n iiondo'd" vist conshohocken' Pcnnsvrvania: ;;;i?Tlril ,iifr;1ffi;;i';;;;;:i,-.'*aa1ng ing proceduree and t"Utt f : '5 lmeri""n so'i'tv ro' rcstins and Standards' current, votrage, ., " ;'illLi;"LJ" ii*J

Marcrials (ASTM), Arnrai

,i a:iii,




can be detected at the edges.of .,"o;[pl;., arriri-rir."i inspection or by means o"f ulrraro.,ic'r;J;g using longi_ waves through il.i"*in"r.a .,,","t snould nor be subiecred ro rensile loads.

occur when laminarions are subjecr to transverse from welding, or rhey. may result from exrernal to"Jirrg. -O.laminadon
stresses. The stresses may be residual

Delamination in the base meral may





' Lamellar Tears. Some rolled structural shapes and g_late;, are susceprible to a crackin;;;f.; known as a
Mmeuar tear. Iliusrrared schemarically

metal. Lamellar tearing,_a fo.* of ?."crur.-i.rrf,i"g fio; hrgh stress in the, di;;;;, may exrend over long.disrances. Ir ii rypically *;;Jl; the rhermallv i nduced shrinka ge "' o ", r,r..r.i r.rul ii"g

lamellar rea$ are t.rrac.-like

s.f"rlU"", in the

in Figure 13.24,

\Q'\'{ Laps

of rolled products. They g*.irliy iniri"r.1iii,.. in regions having a.high incidenc"e ."pf"r"., tr"ng.r_fif.., non_ merallic inclusions o, in"f ,"t;.,';;'iigr., ,.riJ""r "reai ururlly srresses, or both' stresses' borh. The fracrure usually p.opr-g"t., pr";.;;;-i;;; one lamellar, plane ptane ro anorher anorher..Uy b; ,i,.l.-},i"s 3:: are l11n:[, rnar rhat nearly normal to nearlv ro rhe roilei rolled surface.

The tears occur roughly

p" ro rhe surface

il; ;.ilji'."

Figure t 3.24-schematic ltlustration of Lameflar Taaring

b. and seams. Laps and seams are longitudinal ".y;;il;;'sioutd as dimelsronui-air.r.p"ncies.which, unless li!3rae.a a flaws that occur ar th.-r,r.f"..-oi-ri."urr. ;.',"J"i'ffi waive. is obtainef, *rou. *rr'..'"r,..
weldrnent.' oi-.rriti"ru;;;:il!".un p.oJr.rr;;;;.^;7.b. avoided ii p=qffi conrrols are exercised when bi.r;fi; ;;Jf,; #r:i PJ-_r\. thJbise metals ,h.n'.;ilt;;'"";;;'r;*-";i# l?tt:t, "i.'.i,t't-o --rir.. ' r"rJ""r'ii"'riii rt\ apPearsasacrackonthesurfaceof
ma1' be

ro rhe s_ize and shape of welds or che 6nished fio; drmelsions 11in of ;i,;;;i;;;;h;;: u*.nibiy. R.quir.menrs of rhis narure "n jr.;,;i"Lt su.f..e. ;i;;;; "r. .f"rTi1illhe ;;;;tfi;;il;: Departures from the requireme-nrs "$ in

'nirt i:ce imperfection rhar is caused 6ns, or sharp corner. ^nd irrro the surface. A seam is an unwerdJa
ally resulring from

found in hot-rolled


ffi ;11!::iieTi:'"*r*;:l*ir*fl""Jirg.'-"' *::xtil{r':lir'ff !i,tr"','j},ilil;fu:$Tff r;i j ;11.;;;

components that are to be.subjectei ro cyclic

p.oa".irr"-'|1-==t,"rtion. Dlggortion involves thg-buclcling of sheer a disconrinu,ryi"#.Ja",.rg;;** or'plates p.r"iiii-gi.-,r.irr.r.q ro the weld axis. The

:."?T!ifi:i,iJ?[,.'#:,::d*:[,iXf.?:tH#ti **li-ut..rrring 'ii'i"t"?' i, ii,,o,,ion il{?;,ixrFi'"i i:qmt *"t.J Lf processes rirac lrave rltuss.ut*] r., ai.iorrio"-i"'.'nrr"r'iJ;i:Ti,:i::l?*t"tllt:Xf:;
quently modified the surfaie'of

of rhe $1 yeld is distortion p.rp.ndii,ii"; when the flaw is.parallet io the p'i".ip"i'i*'rl'ir t;;;1,,,; 6,; ilFI; rii,ir.ii ^A:g+lur-{!qte5gion not generallv considered a critical i.f".,lli;"[J]l;".; Y:t{ ure 13.25(B), results from the ,oraiion or r[r. i.r. *.,"r seam is p.erpendicular to the ,ppti.a ab_out the lorilitudinal or ..ii;;;i;r;K; oi-ir,.-*.ii.".ir"i.o*n in



, ;il];-d#"

*re_rotarion of one m.-ber'"b,r.'i,

,rr.iorgiifii,r"t u*i,


;''$;T.'i:i:;f;i'lilllj,j]:ff:][."r,,]iH l;[,'::,*::i"lf'*:i:,1!**y..,:;:.t'[*l*il ilil,iiX['lili:ffii'#,;{f;*:i;,;;:;J:il, ..,,,,.




,T:5ff.if ,j=f

can 'cause porosiry,. incom-plere


,rd.0 ,IZ -DimenSiOnal

5:T,:,[1,il:r:trui,.:j'e'",##j];l#i I!"tij1;l'tr,f1'.".1';i::'nt*.Tr.r:i*-'iit"i: -.;;;;i;;.-;;#.,.';rffi.."xi':.;o*.,:'",




can generally

b. .onirolled by using rhe

The producdon of sarisfactory weldmenrs depends on mainraining specified dimensiJns, ;hil;; ,f,..i f.r_

,lq}j-n. lncorrect Joint preparation. Esrablished welding require prc.per dimensions ioi'...f.r ,yp. fi:r1..:r ,olnr geomerry consisrenr

[,+.fiiq:IT]nT51,#*,:,o,;d,'tr$:y,1:]if:; - - 'v"\PrvLeo ar rtrictcness of rhe m'etot.

wich rhe base meral composition "?

(A) Transverse


of Wetd

(B) Angutar


(C) Longltudtnat

ol Butt Wetd


(D) Angular

ol Weld

Distortion of Flllet Weld



CENTER I I 9f or GRAVtry or wrr-o *J AXIS \ / L_puLLrrlo EFFECTSJ \

(E) Puttlng Effect of Weld

Above Neutral Axle

(F) Pulllng Eftect of Wetd Below Neutral Axls

Soum* O'Brlcn, R, 1., cd., l9SZ,


tt6d,rg Frrryrl,

Flgurc 13.25-Tlpes of Dlstortlon

u.> Wold

and thickness and t.!.r9 r_equiremenr_s of the welding procEIs.-TepEiiiri6-fiom- ihe r.quiiJ'ioin, ;.;;:;;y increases thc' probabili ry of *.ia- a-i-r.onii,uiti.s. Th ereprepararion should meer rhe requirements-of l3l.:rl?*,, -rhe shop drawings and be u,ithin the specified limiis.

d eta

rggui-red size

gauges designed for rhis purpose. assembly..They :lo,r:!u.n, and can cause excessive

led,dra wings_., Fi ller

wetd.Size.,Wirh respecr ro filler welds, of the.weldi shoufo-1. , on

rhe rhe

*.f J rlr.

.""n bl"meas ured with

comm on discontinuiry. In .plaii,' mG;i.-[ iil;;!".; ; f;: set or misalignmrnt in a djrectio" plate surface and weld axis.ln p.ipe, otfret or mismatch in the ridial direction or a T-ioint.

rlolnt Mlrmatch. Joint rniamatch,,is

-inr.rf... *iih are nor harmful .providid they do not

are nor economical, however,

O"..rir.a fllet




Excessive mismatch is a resutr

r nrs rerm is

.r?ir.irilli"t irpilp.i fiG,'d;;;;: ing,, tack welding, or a combin",io"'oi "i ,[.re factois.
often used to denoce the amount of off_ thickness.

set or mismarch ecross a


ioint benrrrein *.*Uirc uf .lrl.< l$3ny .od.,,n J,pi"ifi ; ;il; A;;i ;h ; : Weld Profile. The profile of a finished weld can amount ot auowable offset because mismatch affecr can result performance of the joinr. The surface profile ---" in stress raisera ar the toe :i._r:T]:: thc-r-oot ,itir,. *.ia. or an rnternal pass or layer of a multiple pasi weld "nd

distortion. The size of a. groove weld is dependenr on its ioint penetradon, which is defined as rh; depth of ,h-; i;i;; root penetration. In.o'rre.t weld sizes rnctuoe. undersrzed, oversized, and underfilled welds underslzed hller welds can be correced by adding or more weld passes. Underfilled groove welds cinoiu, br repaired by performing additional [r.i.r.




can contribute to the formation of incomplete fusion or slag inclusions when the nex,t layer is deposited' Thc

fi,,b 'l inadequate Weld Jolnt Properties

Specific mechanica.l proPerdes. or chemical con'rposiUoni;6r both, arc rc{riired of a weldm-ent' Thesi require*et tt d'epend on rhe codes or specifica' ,iont-.orlting the *"ldm"nt. Amor-rt the mechanical . pinp"*i.t thit must be within specifiiations are tensite

for weld profile discontinuities are in the *ilding procedure specificaincluded usirally tions. Figure 13.26 illustrates various rypes of accePtable and-un6EEE[tible weld profiles in 6llet and groove





(B) Acceptable Fillet Weld Prof iles

Note: C dnotos convexitY.

(A) Desirable Fitlet Weld Profiles







(C) Unacceptable Fillet Weld Profiles

; I I

Note: H denotes reinforcement.

(D) Acceptable ButtWeld Prolile





(E) Unacceptable Butt Weld Profiles

Figure 13.26-Weld Profites ol Aoceptable and Unacceptable Surlace Conditlons


defecrs. The aoolicetion of fmcturc mechrnict to rcccp' tance slandarii is oftcn referred to rs flrcss for scrviZc



Ideally, acceptance standards should reirresent the minimum weld, braze, or solder quality that can be iolerated to assure the satisfactory performance of the .product. Tlrey should bc based on tcsts of welded, Lrazed, and soldered specimens containing the. particu' lar discontiuuiry under c<>nsiderati<ln. Correlation of these rcst result.s with allowable results should be thc hirsis for ilcc('ptxncc of rlrcsc ;rarticular disctlntirruitics. A satety factor should be added to determine a final
acceptance standard. Fimess'for-service acceptance Stan' dardi are a realiry in limited applications and require a thorough design,'metallurgical, and fracture mechanics


for purpose.


review before irnplementation. Current welding standards are based on the sound'

that can bc aihieved with rbadily attainable good quality work. As thcy arc.not bascd on.cngineering principles, they may be inade-quatc or ovcrly.conscrva' iir". fnadequatc quatity standards can Poor qualiry production, whereas overly conservarivc stan' i"rdst* result in iailure to meet production schedrrles and high productiorr costs. Despitc thesc drawbacks, the curieni standards have withitood thc tcst of timc. certain that rhe currcnt Thus, designers -will can be relatively provide a satisfictory structural perfor' staniards mance in the future.


srructural integriry, econontics, and sa.fety d-epends to a cerrain .*t.nt-on the *etals being welded. Metals with high fracture toughness are more resistant to failurc in rhl presence of i discontinuity lhan rhoqc wich.low

The effect a particular weld discontinuity has


Figure 13.3HAl Severe Atloying and Erosion ol the Base Metal in a Brazed Joint; (B) Brazed Joint with EssentiallY No Erosion ol the Base Metal


or insf,ection standards do not address thc rela' tionship ber,ryeen the mechanical properties of the -.i"it'""a the allowable discontinultiei. te,6eld-of

Ho*.r.s th. .,ttt"t i



Ever-increasing design demands ure giving rise to the development of i-rore iophisticated inspection methods standards. In particdlar, -t.e stringent ,...ptance is "nd dedicated to the study meciranics frac-ture the 6eld of of the fracture perfornrance of materials containing

fracture mechanics provides a quantitative relationship that can be usid to assess rhe significance of a disconti' nuiiy in terms of maximum flaw size and the materid fraciure toughness under conditions of plane strain'




RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN D ISCONTINU ITIES AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES The effects of discontinuities on the mechanical properties arc governed by the shapc, size, quandry



' ')i'J!



continuiries within the weld. Because of the number of

1,1.]1bl?r, :ny "orr.L,ioiUlr*..n ctass ot discontinuities and mechanical properiies is extremely-dif6cuh. Therefore, rrends rathei tlian clirect relationships are discussed hcri.The. significance of a:particutar discontinuiry in a

i.nterspaqing, disrribution, and orientarion

of the



a specifi c

weld.depends on its intended ,.rui...-.L air.onii""iti that is innocuous u.nder norm.t oj.irring conditions

of $e discurtinr-riries-presenr, rhough rhe yield l-un-,b.f stlengrh is nor signific:rnrly affecred. Neverrheless, ,. .in pr.oducrion weldmenri, cracks in hlgh-strength weld meral are much rnore serious rhan those in low-srrengrh, ductile weld meral. Therefore, when u'elding high-sr:rengrh, heat_rreared, on. soturlon rs ro deposir a weld nreral rhlr has iower
strengrh but bener ductiIiry ro accommodare srrains during welding. Wel,l metal srronger iion rh. bns. meral containing craclcs has no ualre]

crirical size in I^..I grgy to aenvironmenr.



hosrili, corrosive,


The heat_affected zone, fllrye--rlducing whrcn often. plays a major role in rhe deiermihation of the mechanica.l of the joint, can render the -propenies .of
weld discontinuiries

Iatigue failure ar normal working srresses is invari_ , ably associared with srress concentrations. Farigue is probably rhe-mosr corrlmon cause of failure in welded constrlrction.2a Aparr fronr gross craclcing or exrensive incornplere fusion, rh,: discoitinuiries rhai'are mosr sig_ ni6canr in promocinq farigue [rilLrres are rhose rhar a tlecr rhe weld f ace;. The conrbinarion of excessive ra,eld reinforcemenr,:rs shou,n in Figure 13.39(A), and s,rghr [rndercucring is one oI rhe most serious ciisconri_
nrriries affecring farigr,re Iife.

attecEd zones

iesolution anneating, reipectivcly. B6rh- also exhibir some grain growth near the fusioir line. In such metals,
are diminished.

of suain-hardened and precipitation_ metals experience iccryst"lliration and


signiGcant. The heat_

both-the strength and hardness of the heat-atfected zone

heat-affecred zones in rela.ti-v.ely ,ofi,niiJ ,t..1, exuemely sensitive to smalldistontinuities. When wetd. ing ultra-high-srcngth steels, it is also difficult to -"t.h

.A,s..the suength of a base metal increases, a corre_ sponclihg-reducrion in.toughness and ductiiiry ofren -occurs. This increases the sensirivity' of rhe basl meral to discontinuides. Ultra-high-strcn[th sreels and h"rJ

ily f;

the srrength and toughness base metal.

of the weld to that of


Tensile Strength

. .With.respect to sratic tensile performance, welded lornts tall tnro rwo categories. These are (1) joinrs hav_ ing weld metal strengtlis that closely *"t.h'or undermatch the strength.of thc base metal and (2) joinrs

dirion.shown in Figrrre 13.39(B), in which rhe excess nreral has been grounJ off wirhour rapering rhe conracr angle wich rhe base meral, may nreec so.n. iode require_ nrents for maximum, rhis condition does nr>t improve rh.e farigrre Iife. For service in farigue applications, the reinforc(:rnenr should blend smo6rhly'inro the base metal ar rhe edges of rhe weld, as shou.n in Fig_
ure 13.39(C).

Fabrication cocles rrsr.rally specify rhe maxinium per nrissible heighr of thrr V/hereas rhe ion-

having. weld metal strengths that overmatch the strgr]qb of the base metal.ln laboratory t.nriii ,.rtr, u,eld discontinuities decrease the strength'oi the weldecl il,,h. firsr category ro a greater exrenr *,"n t[.y l:\11! reduce the strength of those in the second caregory, as no reserve of additional weld strength exists ro counreract the decreasc in cross-sectional-area. Because of che additional strength of.overmatcting *ilJ rnrt^l, r-..r_ tarn degree of discondnuiry cnn lre roteratecl l>efore rhc transvercc tensile properties become adversely affecred. rn transverse tensile roughly propor_ ll.Jpt. uonal to the loss in cross-secrional area. Additional cross-sectional erea provided by weld mn compcntrte for rome of thil ioag, joints belonging. to rhe seconcl caregory, .ln wclded when the number nf discontinuitics prcscnt incrcusci from a few rb a signi6cant qrir"iiiy, ,nl, JJt.adarion in Il11:I^cjr!,.r..enpth is eccompenied by a chlnge in rhe locrtlon of fhe fncilrc from the bage-meral ro-rhe weld metrl. Ductiliry usually d;.;.;il;;;p"iii rii ii,.

The effecr of rhe conract angle of rhe rveld reinforce_ ment on farigue properries is il[ustrared in Figure 13.40. l-hese data demonsrrare the manner in wh"ich abrupr changes in secrion size can affecr service life. The use tf a 6iler-weld-ed lap joinr in place of a burr joinr can reduce rhe. farigLre srrengrh by rr facror o[ rrp to rhree. for example. ro ptrrosrry, tests have shown rhat rhis , Wirh respecr (lrsconrrnulry has lirrle effecr r-rn farigue life. FarigLre cmcks iniriare iir rhr.roe rif rhe wclcl feinforcernenr. If rlre reiniorccnrcnt is rcrlovecl, p<lr.osiry locarecl c.ln crr rtear rhe srrrface advcrsely affccrs rhe srrengrh
rnore drarnaricalll rlran sLrhsr.rrface porosirf does. Siiri_ lar tesrs conducred r-,n welds with very large rr-rngsten irrclusions provided l;imilar resulrs.*..p, rhat when rhe reinforcernenr was r.emoved, fatigue failure resulted

lircn irrclrrsirrrrs,

ironr snrall oxidc irrt:lrrsi,,,rs,r..,rcfrrccl wirh rhe




rn Chaprer .5 For act.tirro,,.t inf,,rmiiion' l:-,1i::,::i:9 tirrrgrre testrng,, see Chaprcr 6 ot rhis

.Thc rlcsign of welrlcrl srrrrt.rrrr:rl menrhers for farrgue upplicarions regarding

t__ 7 5tC






o o



= ui d o

(\l F


a U)

-a /' SCALE /'

plerru purE WTH MILL


k a a ul

J =




f I F


,6 o oql ,6 ooo / ,/; oo //




oo /'

= tr t!





o z u.l
F q,


- - -/r,



f, o

k tL


<r ti

I = Contact angle belween lhe base metal and the weld

profile or

*eld reinlorcemerrt anglo


Contact angle between lhe base metal and the weld profile or weld reinlorcement angle

Figure 13.4O-Eflect of the Weld Belnlorcamenf Angle on the Fatlgue Strength of it""f

Figure i 3.39_(A) Weld with Excessive ...B.1i1forcementy (B) lmproper Treatment of Weld Reinforcementl anA (i) Acceptabte Weld Beinlorcement profite for Faiigue ipftications


leads ro. decreasing f""rig". srrengrtr. 5lg:! l1r':ltlly rtowever, when rhe Ienlth of rhe drscontinuiry

R:S^Id.ilg..slag inclusions, increasing slag-inclusion

yill prop;;;;;-,"J.i -i, strain condidons. This' criticai airi"o"ri"oi.y pf"". ,iI. inversely. proporrional ro rhc ,q;;;;;i'rhe aoplied -[Iiri, stress., The pla ne-srra in fracrur.' to,rghrr..J-"f
generally dccrcascs as the yield srrength increases.

at which a disconrinuiry

The srudy of fracture mechanics has permitted a rela. to be established benrye", ;;;-;na tt. ,L

grearer relarive to irs deprh through ,t. ,tl.i.n.rr, no furrher reduccion in farigue rrr.ngifi'o..r',.r.' Disconrinuiries locared in rhe micldle of rhe urreld cau be, bianketed by compressive resitlual -rrr"r, so that orner smaller drscontinuities nearer to the surface con_ strenqrfr. These air.o"rirutties may be l.^:1.:|r:.?:lgue, Delow the srze detecrable by radiography.


the critical crack lenqth d.p-en.l.oi, ti'c'uorrr.t y ,na l^oqa.tigr.r of rhe discoitinuiry *iif,-."rp".iio th. ,tr.r, 6eld. The locati,rn and shape

::yrions,th ^T,.rne prane-srrain tracturc toughness; applied itrcss, and

r provide th e rel-ationships berwecn

*":, :1:.-1,,'.-1T11:i:y_, drcted,

particularly whcn the disconrinuities "."i,,",.ty can srow as a.resulr of tatigue or stress corrosion. rJrith this iiformarion and a valid plane_strain o, ii"rti.ptasdc frac.





and ture toughness value'.the combination of, stress operated be can Ar.o"rff"ity size at which a strtlcture safely ---f[,.can be estimated.



of iff..dveness oi a disconrinuiry as an rnitiator existence the ft".ioi" in a given weld me-tal depends on ;i;tl,,-. i;;i? tt. tip of the discontinuiry' The edge

for service' in Rr'rles for Inseruices a.r..r.,in. fitness " n, P o';tuer P tant comp o n er r-t s'2 N,,J, i'l ;;;,, i;;i; ;;: EngiS..',io., l

Two cocles tlse lineal elastic fracrure mechanics to

lnspection' reporls ..,"'1il "i has an effect on .performance' ;;iJ"l;;;.;;i.;t. --111' ;;di;;;i; frorn nondestrtlctlve exantlna's;;;;;;."i ;ilcontintirv determined dinrensions .ra.ks are the most severe discontinuities' discontinuiry to comPared are t.t"f" t",rl'^.J',fr.t.discontinufutl* ii the second most severeas i;[;h. Iirirish standards Instisevere as ta",.rh"iat for evaluati<:'n' The not is i*. nlo*plete ioint Penetration- inadeq,atelv pene' iri.t tBsff btticlance on Some Methods fctr tbe DeuiLtil;";;il;;'i;tioiiir thi edges of the in Fvsion \Yelded porosiry i;o,, of Acceptance Let'c!s for Deiects

"".rr; ture mechanics

il'srtag\ aoilu

of the American Sociery of Mechanical

is used

a''td Presstrre Yessel Code'76 frac' ttl develop acceptance criteria for


less sharp.-Slag inclusions-and in initiating brirtle.trrcture' harmless relatively are -^

1;,;;,;t:, il-{po


' "";; porosiry.

of weld metallo crack pro-pagation id;;1;;ii's is not significantlv affected bv


ry,i"ri il;;ir"'d


;i'#ffi; il;;'6 i' lo"d,'d .under,:"1-*:l^'.fl .::.1,:i:'i:*:[:


Thc principles of fracture mechanics PY'-q: :,1^^i:: d.i.trnino th e. c ritical -i:lt, is": -ttt mod.el a tn" most widelv used

ro esrablish i"g .titi..f "rr.rrrn.n, (ECA) that is.usedt>f marerials; combinarions for the acceptance crrteria and consltmables; and welcling Processes' f'otxiu"', noted' be should stress and environnleT tal facrors' lt can be li,".".r,if.r^, this engineering critical assessment fabricaexisring an for-which applicalons t; ;;;;-";i the tiorr code is nor requirt:<l by local law', Furcl'rernlore' rr'ries ilssesstnerrt criricirl o'.iiu" of rlre cngirrecrirrg inclird. "t,rf il,1;; b; ;;t..a upnni'1' all c*ontr:'ctinq parries'
ing local ntrrhoriries,


pro-v1des a procedure

of engineer-



lten aFpltcitDte'


;ii{,,'.;i;ii;*f.::l:::::,l.rf CONCLUSION Lrr! Ktg' jl.' material' ryc' the materlar' foi tne tlio' tor stress intensiry tactor ::i.t."H;''il;;;;t,v tritical
--in-rois and.the'1Tb:,1 -ll-{lll ;;;;f;R *"orn. onti"ble, ppl d tll ll r,-Jf r,- tlie cto t, itv 3c;o intens iry t, Jiriii-t""i ifr . { iriii-t""i the ciack length a are related sress,

or residual

", "rra by the following equation:

Kt =Co(tw)rt2

requtreThe basis for tl-re selecrion oI overail quaiiry saferl" economic' design, of combinatron a L *.n,t conmaintenance and lit"..rion. as well as operating


lo*est cost over rhe ;ii:;;;i;; ii.i *irl i'rtvide t"heLor'r' initial cost' minitr,.'weldment of ;;ii;;;t;; lii. amoLrnt o[ welding' the fewest


K1 = Plane-rgf stress intensiry facror' ksi{n' (loa/Jmm):i

I.",t ;;-;;t;hi,-th. taken,Lts or disconrintriries, and other factors of seiection the for hasis the be ildi;t;,;;iiy'tt ourii n,'',
oualitvrequirenrenrs.Thecostofopiimumqualiryis i.rived from the follorving:

= H;#;"'iii;ending on discontinuiry
and shaPe;


't. Z.

o = Rppti.a oiresidual strcss nrngtrtttrde actirrg' on diiiontinuitY, ksi (kPa); . 3.1416; and t ,'; = 5ii..r'a.pth of tlre clisconrirtttity' in' (nrnr)'

'fl're costs oi 1'ossit''le failrrre multiplieci by tire probabilirY of {ailrrre; and .1. licrvicc cosrs, irtcltttlinll ttt;ittllltiltncc

qualiry The cost o[ design, m:rterials, fabrication' expenclirtrresi ulrpitlrl ilsstrrrlllcc, :rrrcl

c()sr scl<tf linear clastic As prcviotrsiy stlltt il, tlrc lt'r'r'es" l"'l'r'icirtiorr ln its simplest form' -rhe applicarion 'for i"tlii: lllLlst i:ost The cost involves first l.west ,1,. service .t,r,rr'r'.pr.r.,'.rir' frr"ir* ,n.Jh"ni.t to'ficnesi weld iitllliriip,ton oi tr,. worst case, that is, that the fractu re fracture plane'strain The' crack. i-is--a The K;s, is ihen determined' The materi.l, K1g, tfic niaterial, ;;;;G Anrerican Socierl' of \'[echanical Engineers {ASME) ':'i:t i"-1 2.5. toughnese oi thc -p,l***,,r.jV,'**.t esti(ilrrlti,ittc,. Ilrrlrs /irr l't;tl'r";t. lnslttiiotl ol Nrrtlcnr. is stresscs residueJ ant ipelieil Yec;or tum of thc r Srctton [ 1 1'l ltoiler anl Itrcssure Vessal cleterC.t:ttt1't'tttt'tr'' is Itlrtnl Itttrucr 'C,r,to, ilzc for unstable fracture ;;;;d.-T-i; Socterv oI lvlecllatrtcrrl l:ngrnecrs Arlrcrlclt't N"* York: gqotiion (13.1). A nrurgin .of s-afetv is fiotn"tiiL"t See Reference 5. 26. flaw size lvietboris.for, Sranctards lnsrrrrrte (BSl), Crrrdorce on Sontc iiiirla. t,il tt'J*.ii*.im allowable cricklike i). Sri,irl., "riiiiiii""';7'A-"*p;;;;;;'-'Li';t{t"',De,[ects ttt Fusttn weidect innocumore for criteria ii,i ir';;i;"d" Finally, accePtance Brrrish Srarrdards Instrturc' .foirrts, BS PD 6493,1-ond"rr' our ditcontlnuitiir rrc defined. 6\ tL -' 'i ; )er>tgv'e/', f.r' to'.}*r{ d^Y"J''^'^ e,,?e^};eA ar<vrc^e- NJe .

ii;.;,i;i ;;ffi;;;;i ;ff;ffiil;[thi ;il

rength, yield strength, ductiliry, hardness, and toughess. Departure from these specified requirements :sults in an unacceptable weld. Although the required properries are normally deterrined using specially prepared test plates, they can be etermined by means of destructive testinB of sample reldments taken from production.,'When test plates ire sed, the inspector should verify that standard producion equipment and procedures have'been followed. )therwise, the results obtained may not represent the ,roperties of production weldnrenrs The mechanical properties that ruay not be satisfacory include tensile strength, yield strength, ductility, rardness, and toughness. The chemical composition of he weld metal may- be improper,, hecause oi incorrect jller meral composition or excessive dilurion or both. Ilis condition may result in lack of coriosion resistance rn the weld zone.
3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Penetrarion or deprh of ftrsion, Strength and ductiliry, Internal discontinuities, Sheet separation and expuision,
'Weld consistency.



Most discontinuities encounte in spot, seam, and proiection welding are eitl'rer eq ent- or process. related. Equipment-related di inuities resuIt from conditions related to the weldi machine, the welding control system, or the tilectrod used. Process-related joint con6guration, discontinuities are associated surface condition, shunti the welding current, and welding most common types ot discontinuities encountered /rn resistance welds are
described below.


t0fith respect -td spot, seam, and qualiry standards, the required level c primarily upon the application. Thf codes and standards as well as th/cr mencs should tre reviewed prior wclding, As some codes and sta
the codes or standards Bent than others, the selection on the proiect. to bc used mey heve a cost im and rds have been selected, Once che codes drawings or in the conthey shor.rld be epeci6ed

Surface Appearanc
The surface appearary6e of a spot, seam, or proiecively smooth. In the case of tion weld should be contoured work, the/weld surfaces should also be
ld be free from surface fusion, round or oval. They electrode deposit, pi/s, cracks, deep electrode indenta-

;J condition that would indicate tion, or any othe{ ance or equrpment operalectr, malr intena r etec rrode,ln I tmp roPer
:sirabl l uses ndes il ri >le es of un tion . Tlre: caus

rP ot weld surface condisg d quality and cost are tion ons s and d the their ir eflf..' cts (on weld

in ensuring weld quality

of the customer's


tlnultles are
nrent should requirements

A qualified cion welding in

cedure. This quality and

procedure methods.

nce. The work of welders and )rs is normally qurilificd using both nondestructive test methods. A weld

document. Not all discon' weld defects. The contract docuthe weld qualiry standards or cc,de ing the accept-and-reiect criteria. :r should alwrrys perform producordance with a qualified weld Proin ensuring the repeatabiliry of weld

normally qualified using desrructive test

The surface apfearance of a resistance weld is riot an infallible indicatitrn of weld strength, size, or internal soundness. Althpugh it is an irrdication of the conditions under whilh the weld was made, it should not be -used as thi sdle criterion for qualiFying production welds. For exfmple, a group of spot welds in a ioint may have idghcical surface appearance in spite of the faci that the/second and succeeding spor welds may be undersized a[ rhe faying surface because of the shunting of current tflrough the previous spot welds. To illustlate, adiacent spot welds of a similar surface size are silo*n in Figure 13-27(A)- However, Figure 13.27 J\ rlveals that iire weld size at the faying surface of the firsl weld is sreater than that of the second weld, In this cfse, th. sJcond weld is srnaller than the first because fart of the welding current passed through the 6rst weld, Both welds have identical surface aPpearance because/the welding current eoters through the outside
surface I from
18. For


ost important indicators of weld qualiry in

welds are the following:

the electrodes. The size difference


Surface eppearance' '!7eld



her information, see Chapter 7 in Bastian, 8., ed., 1998' 's Advisor on Resistarce Welding, Miami: American